Nevada National Security Site; Nuclear Bomb Testing

Nevada National Security Site

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nevada Test Site
Exercise Desert Rock I (Buster-Jangle Dog) 002.jpg
November 1951 nuclear test at Nevada Test Site. Test is shot “Dog” from Operation Buster, with a yield of 21 kilotonnes of TNT (88 TJ). It was the first U.S. nuclear field exercise conducted on land; troops shown are 6 mi (9.7 km) from the blast.
Type Nuclear Weapons Research Complex
Location 37°07′N 116°03′WCoordinates37°07′N 116°03′W near Las Vegas in the United States
Area ~1,350 sq mi (3,500 km2)
Operator United States Department of Energy
Status Active
In use 1951–present
Testing
Nuclear
tests
928

Map showing location of the site

The Nevada National Security Site[1] (N2S2), previously theNevada Test Site (NTS), is a United States Department of Energyreservation located in southeastern Nye CountyNevada, about 65 mi (105 km) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. Formerly known as the Nevada Proving Grounds,[2] the site, established on 11 January 1951, for the testing of nuclear devices, is composed of approximately 1,360 sq mi (3,500 km2) of desert and mountainous terrain. Nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site began with a 1-kilotonne-of-TNT (4.2 TJ) bomb dropped on Frenchman Flat on 27 January 1951. Many of the iconic images of the nuclear era come from NTS.
The Nevada Test Site contains 28 areas, 1,100 buildings, 400 miles (640 km) of paved roads, 300 miles (480 km) of unpaved roads, ten heliports and two airstrips.

[edit]
Established as a 680-square-mile (1,800 km
2) area by president Harry Truman on December 18, 1950 within theNellis Air Force Gunnery and Bombing Range[2]History

[edit]1951–1992

Between 1951 and 1992, there were a total of 928 announced nuclear tests at Nevada Test Site. Of those, 828 were underground.[3] (Sixty-two of the underground tests included multiple, simultaneous nuclear detonations, adding 93 detonations and bringing the total number of NTS nuclear detonations to 1,021, of which 921 were underground.)[4] The site is covered with subsidence craters from the testing. The Nevada Test Site was the primary testing location of American nuclear devices; 126 tests were conducted elsewhere (many at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands).
During the 1950s, the mushroom clouds from these tests could be seen for almost 100 mi (160 km) in either direction, including the city of Las Vegas, where the tests became tourist attractions. Americans headed for Las Vegas to witness the distant mushroom clouds that could be seen from the downtown hotels.
On 17 July 1962, the test shot “Little Feller I” of Operation Sunbeam became the last atmospheric test detonation at the Nevada Test Site. Underground testing of weapons continued until 23 September 1992, and although the United States did not ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the articles of the treaty are nevertheless honored and further tests have not occurred. Subcritical testing, tests not involving the full creation of a critical mass, continue.

Plaque at the viewing platform at Sedan

One notable test shot was the “Sedan” shot of Operation Storax on 6 July 1962, a 104-kilotonne-of-TNT (440 TJ) shot for the Operation Plowshare which sought to prove that nuclear weapons could be used for peaceful means in creating bays or canals—it created a crater 1,280 feet (390 m) wide and 320 feet (100 m) deep that can still be seen today. While most of the larger tests were conducted elsewhere, NTS was home to tests in the 500-to-1,000-kilotonne-of-TNT (2,100 to 4,200 TJ) range, which caused noticeable seismic effects in Las Vegas.

[edit]1992–2007

Main entrance to the test site.

The site was scheduled to be used to conduct the testing of a 1,100-ton conventional explosive in an operation known as Divine Strake in June 2006. The bomb is a possible alternative to nuclear bunker busters.[5] However, after objection from Nevada and Utah members of Congress, the operation was postponed until 2007. On 22 February 2007, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) officially canceled the experiment.

[edit]Destruction and survivability testing

Typical Survivability Structure

NTS also performed “piggyback” testing of effects of nuclear detonation during the above-ground tests. Vehicles, shelters, utility stations, and other structures were placed at various distances from the “Ground Zero” detonation point of each weapon.
Homes and commercial buildings were built to standards typical of American and European cities. Other structures included military fortifications (of types used by both NATO and the Warsaw Pact), civil defense, and “backyard” shelters. In a typical test several buildings might be built using the same plan with different types of paint, landscaping, cleanliness of yards, wall angles, or distances from Ground Zero. Mannequins were placed in and around vehicles and buildings.
High-speed cameras were placed in protected locations to capture effects of radiation and shock waves. Typical imagery from these cameras shows paint boiling off of the buildings, which then are pushed away from Ground Zero by the shock wave before being drawn toward the detonation by the suction caused by the climbing mushroom cloud. Footage from these cameras has become iconic, used in various media and available in the public domain and on DVD.
This testing allowed the development of guidelines, distributed to the public, to increase the likelihood of survival in case of air- or spaceborne nuclear attack.

[edit]Environmental impact

Each of the below ground explosions—some as deep as 5,000 feet—vaporized a large chamber, leaving a cavity filled with radioactive rubble. About a third of the tests were conducted directly in aquifers, and others were hundreds or thousands of feet below the water table.[6]
When testing ended in 1992, the Energy Department estimated that more than 300 million curies of radiation remained, making the site one of the most radioactively contaminated places in the United States. In the worst affected zones, radioactivity in the tainted water reaches millions of picocuries per liter. (The federal standard for drinking water is 20 picocuries per liter.) Although radiation levels in the water have declined over time, the longer-lived isotopes will continue to pose risks for tens of thousands of years.[6]
The Energy Department has 48 monitoring wells at the site and recently began drilling nine deep wells. Because the contaminated water poses no immediate health threat, the Department has ranked Nevada as a low priority for cleaning up major nuclear weapons sites, and it operates far fewer wells than at most other contaminated sites.[6]

[edit]Protests and demonstrations

From 1986 through 1994, two years after the United States put a hold on full-scale nuclear weapons testing, 536 demonstrations were held at the Nevada Test Site involving 37,488 participants and 15,740 arrests, according to government records.[7]
American Peace Test (APT) and Nevada Desert Experience (NDE) held most of these.[8] In March 1988, APT held an event where more than 8,000 people attended a ten-day action to “Reclaim the Test Site”, where nearly 3,000 people were arrested with more than 1,200 in one day. This set a record for most civil disobedience arrests in a single protest. American Peace Test was collectively run by a group of individuals residing in Las Vegas, but leadership for the group was national. It originated with a small group of people who were active in the National Nuclear Weapons Freeze. APT was a breakaway organization beginning in 1986, with first public events held in 1987.
In the years that followed 1994, Shundahai Network in cooperation with Nevada Desert Experience and Corbin Harney continued the protests of the government’s continued nuclear weapons work and also staged efforts to stop a repository for highly radioactive waste adjacent to the test site at Yucca Mountain, 100 mi (160 km) northwest of Las Vegas.

[edit]NTS today

The test site offers monthly public tours, often fully booked months in advance. Visitors are not allowed to bring in cameras, binoculars, cell phones, or pick up rocks for souvenirs.[9]
While there are no longer any explosive tests of nuclear weapons at the site, there is still subcritical testing, used to determine the viability of the United States’ aging nuclear arsenal. Additionally, the site is the location of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex, which sorts and stores low-level radioactive waste that is nottransuranic and has a half life not longer than 20 years. Bechtel Nevada Corporation (a joint venture of Lockheed MartinBechtel and Johnson Controls) ran this complex until 2006. Several other companies won the latest bid for the contract. They then combined to form a new company called National Security Technologies, LLC (a joint venture of Northrop GrummanAECOMCH2M Hill and Nuclear Fuel Services[10]). AECOM, known earlier as Holmes and Narver, held the Nevada Test Site contract for many years before Bechtel Nevada Corp. had it.[citation needed]
The Radiological/Nuclear WMD Incident Exercise Site (T-1), which replicates multiple terrorist radiological incidents with train, plane, automobile, truck, and helicopter props is located in Area 1, at the former site of tests EASY, SIMON, APPLE-2, and GALILEO.[11]

[edit]Landmarks and geography

The town of Mercury, Nevada, is located on the grounds of the NTS, and at one time housed contingents from Los Alamos National LaboratoryLawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National LaboratoriesArea 51is north of NTS and the proposed high-level nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain is at the southwest corner. The BREN Tower, a 1,527 ft (465 m)-high tower is located in the NTS at Jackass Flats.

[edit]Cancer and test site

I-131 Fallout Exposure in Rads

A 1979 study reported in the New England Journal of Medicineconcluded that:
A significant excess of leukemia deaths occurred in children up to 14 years of age living in Utah between 1959 and 1967. This excess was concentrated in the cohort of children born between 1951 and 1958, and was most pronounced in those residing in counties receiving high fallout.[12]
In 1982, a lawsuit brought by nearly 1,200 people accused the government of negligence in atomic and/or nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site in the 1950s, which they said had caused leukemia and other cancers. Dr. Karl Z. Morgan testified that radiation protection measures in the tests were substandard.[13]
In a report by the National Cancer Institute, released in 1997, it was determined that ninety atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) deposited high levels of radioactive iodine131 (5.5 exabecquerels) across a large portion of the contiguous United States, especially in the years 1952, 1953, 1955, and 1957—doses large enough, they determined, to produce 10,000 to 75,000 cases of thyroid cancer. The Radiation Exposure Compensation Actof 1990 allowed for people living downwind of NTS for at least two years in particular Nevada, Arizona or Utah counties, between 21 January 1951 and 31 October 1958, or 30 June and 31 July 1962, and suffering from certain cancers or other serious illnesses deemed to have been caused by fallout exposure to receive compensation of $50,000. By January 2006, over 10,500 claims had been approved, and around 3,000 denied, for a total amount of over $525 million in compensation dispensed to “downwinders“.[14] Additionally, the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 provides compensation and medical benefits for nuclear weapons workers who may have developed certain work-related illnesses.[15]
Uranium miners, mill workers, and ore transporters are also eligible for $100,000 compassionate payment under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Program, while $75,000 is the fixed payment amount for workers who were participants in the above-ground nuclear weapons tests.

[edit]Nuclear test series carried out at the Nevada Test Site

[edit]Areas

Nuclear explosions in various areas of NTS[16]

The Test Site is broken down into areas. Some of the areas and their uses include the following:

[edit]Area 1

Area 1 held 8 nuclear tests for a total of 9 detonations.[3] Four early atmospheric tests were conducted above Area 1 in the early 1950s, as well as three underground tests in 1971 and 1990. In 1955, a Civil Defense experiment (called Operation Cue in the press) studied nuclear blast effects on various building types; a few structures still stand.
Heavy drilling equipment and concrete construction facilities are sited in Area 1. Non-destructive X-ray, gamma ray, and subcritical detonation tests continue to be conducted in Area 1.
The radioactivity present on the ground in Area 1 provides a radiologically-contaminated environment for the training of first responders.[17]

[edit]Area 2

Area 2 is a division of the Nevada Test Site in the Mojave Desert. The area is located 18 miles south-east of Area 51.
Area 2 was the site of 144 tests comprising 169 detonations.[1] Shot “Gabbs”, intended for 1993, was abandoned in place.[2]

[edit]Area 3

Area 3 held 266 nuclear tests for a total of 288 detonations, more than in any other area of the NTS.[3]
As part of Operation Tinderbox, on 24 June 1980, a small satellite prototype (DSCS III) was subjected to radioactivity from the “Huron King” shot in a vertical line-of-sight (VLOS) test undertaken in Area 3. This was a program to improve the database on nuclear hardening design techniques for defense satellites.
The final nuclear test detonation at Nevada Test Site was Operation Julin‘s “Divider” on 23 September 1992, just prior to the moratorium temporarily ending all nuclear testing. Divider was a safety experiment test shot that was detonated at the bottom of a shaft sunk into Area 3.
In 1995 and 1997, plutonium-contaminated soil from “Double Tracks” and “Clean Slate 1” of Operation Roller Coaster (1963) was picked up from the Tonopah Test Range and brought to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site as a first step in eventually returning Tonopah Test Range to an environmentally neutral state. Corrective action regarding the contaminated material from the “Clean Slate 2” and “Clean Slate 3” tests has yet to be agreed upon.[18]

[edit]Area 4

Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF) in Area 4.

Area 4 held 40 nuclear tests for a total of 44 detonations.[3]
It is home to the Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF).[19]

[edit]Area 5

Area 5 held 19 nuclear tests.[3] Five atmospheric tests were detonated, starting on 27 January 1951 at Area 5 as part of Operation Ranger. These were the first nuclear tests at NTS. Further tower detonations were studied at Area 5, and the “Grable” shot which was fired from an artillery piece located in Area 11 exploded in Area 5. The Priscilla test was conducted at Area 5 on 24 June 1957.
Five underground tests were set up at Area 5; four of those suffered accidental release of radioactive materials. On 16 March 1968, physicist Glenn T. Seaborg toured the upcoming “Milk Shake” shot of Operation Crosstie.[20]Milk Shake’s radioactive release was not detected outside of NTS boundaries.

[edit]Area 6

Device Assembly Facility in Area 6

Control Point in Area 6

Area 6 held 4 nuclear tests for a total of 6 detonations.[3] The only two towns to be established within the boundaries of NTS prior to 1947, BJ Wye and Mule Lick, are located in Yucca Flats, in Area 6.
The Device Assembly Facility (DAF)[19] was originally built to consolidate nuclear explosives assembly operations. It now serves as the Criticality Experiments Facility (CEF).
The Control Point[19] is the communication hub of the NTS. It was used by controllers to trigger and monitor nuclear test explosions.

[edit]Area 7

Area 7 held 92 nuclear tests.[3]
During Operation Buster, four successful tests were conducted via airdrop, with bomber aircraft releasing nuclear weapons over Area 7.
It is also the site of Matthew Reilly’s book called Area 7.
Shot “Icecap” planned for 1993 was abandoned in Area 7 following 1992’s testing moratorium. The tower, shaft and wiring remain in place, along with a crane intended to lower the nuclear test package into the shaft.[21]

[edit]Area 8

Radioactive materials were accidentally released from the 1970 Baneberry shot in Area 8.

Area 8 held 13 nuclear tests for a total of 15 detonations.[3]
Area 8 hosted the “Baneberry” shot of Operation Emery on 18 December 1970. The Baneberry 10-kilotonne-of-TNT (42 TJ) test detonated 900 feet (270 m) below the surface but its energy cracked the soil in unexpected ways, causing a fissure near ground zero and the failure of the shaft stemming and cap.[22] A plume of fire and dust was released, raining fallout on workers in different locations within NTS. The radioactive plume released 6.7 million Curies of radioactive material, including 80 kCi of 131I.[23]

[edit]Area 9

Area 9 held 115 nuclear tests for a total of 133 detonations.[3]
In Area 9, the 74-kilotonne-of-TNT (310 TJ) “Hood” test on 5 July 1957, part ofOperation Plumbbob, was the largest atmospheric test ever conducted within the continental United States; nearly five times larger in yield than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. A balloon carried Hood up to 460 meters above the ground where it was detonated. Over 2,000 troops took part in the test in order to train them in conducting operations on the nuclear battlefield. 11 million Curies of Iodine-131 (131I) were released into the air.[23]

[edit]Area 10

Area 10 held 57 nuclear tests for a total of 71 detonations.[3]
The first underground test at NTS was the “Uncle” shot of Operation Jangle. Uncle detonated on 29 November 1951 within a shaft sunk into Area 10.
The “John” shot of Plumbbob, on 19 July 1957, was the first test firing of the nuclear-tipped AIR-2 Genie air-to-air rocket designed to destroy incoming enemy bombers with a nuclear explosion. The 2-kilotonne-of-TNT (8.4 TJ) warhead exploded approximately three miles above five volunteers and a photographer who stood unprotected at “ground zero” in Area 10 to show the apparent safety of battlefield nuclear weapons to personnel on the ground.[24] The test also demonstrated the ability of a fighter aircraft to deliver a nuclear-tipped rocket and avoid being destroyed in the process. A Northrop F-89J fired the rocket.
The “Sedan” test of Operation Storax on 6 July 1962, a 104-kilotonne-of-TNT (440 TJ) shot for the Operation Plowshare which sought to discover whether nuclear weapons could be used for peaceful means in creating lakes, bays or canals. The explosion displaced twelve million tons of earth, creating the Sedan crater which is 1,280 feet (390 m) wide and 320 feet (100 m) deep.

[edit]Area 11

Area 11 held 9 nuclear tests.[3] Four of the tests were weapons safety experiments conducted as Project 56; they spread so much harmful radioactive material around the test sites that Area 11 has been called “Plutonium Valley”. As is the case with Area 1, background radiation levels make Area 11 suitable for realistic training in methods of radiation detection.[18]

[edit]Area 12

Area 12 held 61 nuclear tests between 1957 and 1992, one of which involved two detonations. All tests were conducted below Rainier and Aqueduct mesas.
Area 12 was the primary location for tunnel tests and used almost exclusively for that purpose. The tunnel complexes mined into Rainier and Aqueduct Mesa include the E-, G-, N-, P-, and T-Tunnel complexes.

[edit]Area 13

There is no Area 13 within NNSS, though such a name is attached to a section of Nellis Air Force Range which abuts the northeastern corner of Area 15.[25] Project 57‘s weapons safety test was conducted here on 24 April 1957, spreading particles emitting alpha radiation over a large area.[26]

[edit]Area 14

Area 14 occupies approximately 26 square miles in the central portion of the NNSS. Various outdoor experiments are conducted in this area.[27] No atmospheric or underground nuclear tests were conducted in Area 14.[3]

[edit]Area 15

EPA Farm in Area 15

Three underground detonations took place in area 15 in the 1960s.[3]
Pile Driver was a notable Department of Defense test. A massive underground installation was built to study the survivability of hardened underground bunkers undergoing a nuclear attack. Information from the test was used in designing hardened missile silos and the North American Aerospace Defense Command facility in Colorado Springs.[19]
The abandoned Crystal and Climax mines are found in Area 15. Storage tanks hold contaminated materials.[19]
From 1964 to 1981, the Environmental Protection Agency operated a 36-acre (150,000 m2) experimental farm in Area 15. Extensive plant and soil studies evaluated the uptake of pollutants in farm-grown vegetables and from the forage eaten by a dairy herd of some 30 Holstein cows. Scientists also studied horses, pigs, goats, and chickens.[19]

[edit]Area 16

Area 16 held 6 nuclear tests.[3]

[edit]Area 17

No nuclear tests took place in Area 17.[3]

[edit]Area 18

Area 18 held 5 nuclear tests.[3] and includes the Pahute Mesa Airstrip.[16]

[edit]Area 19

Pahute Mesa is one of four major nuclear test regions within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It occupies 243 square miles (630 km2) in the northwest corner of the NNSS. The eastern section is known as Area 19 and the western section as Area 20.
A total of 85 nuclear tests were conducted in Pahute Mesa between 1965 and 1992. Three of them—Boxcar, Benham and Handley—had a yield of over one megaton. Three tests were conducted as part of operation Plowshare and one as part of Vela Uniform.

[edit]Area 20

[edit]Area 22

No nuclear tests took place in Area 22.[3] Area 22 once held Camp Desert Rock, a staging base for troops undergoing atmospheric nuclear blast training; as many as 9,000 troops were camped there in 1955. Desert Rock Airport was enlarged to 7,500 ft (2,300 m). length in 1969 by the Atomic Energy Commission. It is a transport hub for personnel and supplies going to N2S2 and also serves as an emergency landing strip.

[edit]Area 23

No nuclear tests took place in Area 23.[3] The town of Mercury, Nevada lies within Area 23. The area is the main pathway to and from NNSS test locations by way of U.S. Route 95. An open sanitary landfill is located to the west of Mercury, and a closed hazardous waste site abuts the landfill. Mercury is also the main management area for the site which includes a bar and large cafeteria, printing plant, medical center, warehousing, fleet management, liquidation and recycling center, engineering offices, dormitories and other administrative areas for both the O&M contractors, LLNL, LANL and SNL personnel. At its height in the 1950s and ’60s it also held several restaurants, a bowling alley, a movie theater and a motel.

[edit]Area 25

[edit]Area 26

No nuclear tests took place in Area 26.[3] Area 26 is the most arid section of NNSS. An old abandoned mine, the Horn Silver Mine, was used for waste disposal between 1959 and the 1970s; some of the waste is radioactive. Water flow past the shaft could pose a human health risk, so corrective action has been planned.[28]
An eight square miles complex was constructed in Area 26 in support of Project Pluto.[27] It consisted of six miles of roads, the critical assembly building, the control building, the assembly and shop buildings, and utilities.[29]Those buildings have been used recently as mock reactor facilities in the training of first responders.

[edit]Area 27

[edit]Area 28

Area 28 no longer exists; it was absorbed into Areas 25 and 27.[19]

[edit]Area 29

No nuclear tests took place in Area 29.[3] The rugged terrain of Area 29 serves as a buffer between other areas of NNSS. A helipad is present at Shoshone Peak.

[edit]Area 30

The Crosstie Buggy test.

Area 30 occupies approximately 59 square miles at the center of the western edge of the NNSS. Area 30 has rugged terrain and includes the northern reaches of Fortymile Canyon. It is used primarily for military training and exercises.[27]
Area 30 was the site of a single nuclear test, the Crosstie Buggy row charge experiment, part of Operation Plowshare, which involved 5 simultaneous detonations.[3]

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ “Nevada nuclear bomb site given new name”United Press International. August 23. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  2. a b National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (January 2011). “Miss Atom Bomb”Fact Sheets. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  3. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u U.S. Department of Energy / Nevada Operations Office, United States Nuclear Tests – July 1945 through September 1992, December 2000, DOE/NV-209 Rev 15
  4. ^ One multiple test took place in Colorado; the other 62 were at NTS
  5. ^ “Pentagon to Test a Huge Conventional Bomb”The Washington Post. 31 March 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  6. a b c Ralph Vartabedian. Nuclear scars: Tainted water runs beneath Nevada desert Los Angeles Times, 13 November 2009.
  7. ^ Western Shoshone spiritual leader dies
  8. ^ Political protest and cultural revolution By Barbara Epstein p. 165.
  9. ^ U.S. DOE/NNSA – Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Tours
  10. ^ National Security Technologies “About” Page
  11. ^ Counter Terrorism Operations Support – WMD Incident Site
  12. ^ Gerald H. Clarfield and William M. Wiecek (1984). Nuclear America: Military and Civilian Nuclear Power in the United States 1940-1980, Harper & Row, New York, p. 215.
  13. ^ Karl Z. Morgan, 91, Founder of the Field Of Health Physics, Dies in Tennessee
  14. ^ Radiation Exposure Compensation System: Claims to Date Summary of Claims Received by 06/11/2009
  15. ^ Office of Compensation Analysis and Support. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
  16. a b United States Geologic Survey. Nevada Test Site. Geologic Surface Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing. Accessed on 18 April 2009.
  17. ^ First Responder TrainingUS Department of Energy. Nevada Operations Office. National Security. Homeland Security
  18. a b National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (April 2010). “Plutonium Dispersal Tests at the Nevada Test Site”Fact Sheets. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  19. a b c d e f g Nevada Test Site Guide, National Nuclear Security Administration, DOE/NV-715
  20. ^ Radiochemistry.org. History. Nuke testsNevada Test Site Images (cdrom 3; PDF file)
  21. ^ National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (January 2011). “Icecap”Fact Sheets. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  22. ^ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. News Archive. Tarabay H. Antoun. Three Dimensional Simulation of the Baneberry Nuclear Event
  23. a b National Cancer Institute. National Institute of Health. History of the Nevada Test Site and Nuclear Testing Background
  24. ^ California Literary Review. Peter Kuran. Images from How To Photograph an Atomic Bomb. (22 October 2007)
  25. ^ Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. Bureau of Federal Facilities. Federal Facility Agreement & Consent Order. FFACO Description of Facilities
  26. ^ “Operation PLUMBBOB. Summary Report, Test Group 57, Nevada Test Site”. DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY. 1958-10-10. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
  27. a b c National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office, Draft Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement Nevada, ch.2, July 2011, DOE/EIS-246-D
  28. ^ DOE Scientific and Technical Information. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 527: Horn Silver Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1 (Including Records of Technical Change No.1, 2, 3, and 4) (6 December 2002) doi:10.2172/818649
  29. ^ National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (April 2010). “Project Pluto”Fact Sheets. Retrieved 2011-12-02source; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevada_National_Security_Site

Nevada National Security Site; Nuclear Bomb Testing Areas 1-30; via A Green Road Blog

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Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
ANIMALS AND RADIATION EFFECTS
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Animals Affected By Low Level Radiation; via A Green Road Blog
UK Established Animal Radiation ‘Controls’ Due To Cesium Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html 
Radioactive Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl; Animal Studies Show Radiation Is Still Harming Our Wild Companions; via A Green Road Blog
PBS; Radioactive  Wolves In Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Movie Review
Fukushima: Hawaii & Arizona Dairy Milk Test Up To 800% Higher Than Safety Limits; via A Green Road Blog
Norway, Sweden, Russia Animal Radiation Contamination Explored; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR REACTOR RECERTIFICATION
Aging Reactors, Lies, Deceptions, Profits And Earthquakes; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/aging-reactors-lies-deceptions-profits.html 
The Diablo You Don’t Know; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
                       
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry By Or-Well; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fukishima 15 Year Old Speech-Song
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS/ISOTOPES/ETC
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-radiation-dangers-polonium-radon.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/multiple-nuclear-reactors-bombed-all.html
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog
GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog
Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html
SPIRITUAL
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/1-giant-leap-happiness.html
Raj Yoga; A Connection with Soul, God And Consciousness; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Mysteries And Theories: Is The Earth Growing? via a Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mystery-is-earth-growing.html
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
The Universal Golden Rule; Moving Towards A Global Ethic; via A Green Road Blog
PEACE/WAR
War is a Racket; via A Green Road Blog
War/No More Trouble | Playing for Change | Song Around The World; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog
Tell Pres. Obama; Bring Troops Home NOW
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
JUSTICE/PRISONS
US ranks 5th in Executions; With Iraq, China, Russia; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/us-ranks-5th-in-executions-ahead-of.html
Trayvon Martin; Brutal Murder, or Justified Defense of Life? via A Green Road Blog  
Prison Mistakes, Prison Reform; via A Green Road Blog
Secret Jury Rights And Ignored Constitutional Duty
Hillary Clinton: Women Deserve The Right To Choose; via A Green Road Blog 
DRUGS – MEDICINE
Medical Insanity: Frankenfoods, BPA, Drugs, GMO’s? via A Green Road Blog
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
HOLISTIC LIVING AND NATURAL HEALTH MODALIES
7 medicinal herbs and spices that help lower blood pressure; via A Green Road
All about berries and ginger; healing foods and herbs; via A Green Road Blog
The top 5 foods to avoid if you have gluten intolerance and wheat allergies. via A Green Road Blog 
12 surprising reasons to eat more blueberries via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2010/08/12-surprising-reasons-to-eat-more.html
Natural Green Living And Health News; Kidneys, Honey, Vaccines, Permaculture, Water, Homeopathics
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/germany-world-leader-in-solar-wind-and.html