History, Locations, Country Totals, Types, Amounts Of Radioactive Nuclear Waste And Reactors Dumped In Oceans And Seas

History, Locations, Country Totals, Types, Amounts Of Radioactive Nuclear Waste And Reactors Dumped In Oceans And Seas




According to the Bellona Foundation, citing the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authorities (NRPA)

Read more at; http://www.businessinsider.com/potential-chernobyl-like-disaster-in-arctic-2015-2#ixzz3Rg6cxaUR

Plutonium containing RTG’s at South Pole, some were ‘lost’.

The first signs that there could be trouble on the horizon came in early 1993 when seals in the White Sea and Barents Sea were found to be dying from blood cancer. 


Dana reports on radioactive garbage dumped into the ocean historically; Atomic Waste, Reported Leaking in Ocean Sanctuary Off California, 8 million liters of contaminated waste into the sea on a daily basis, England, Sellafield most radioactive sea in the world, 40 ships loaded with toxic and radioactive waste have disappeared in Mediterranean waters since 1994, Russia announces enormous finds of radioactive waste and nuclear reactors in Arctic seas, Somalia 600 barrels of toxic and nuclear waste, as well as radioactive hospital waste, plus more at video; 
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“From 1946 through 1993, thirteen countries (fourteen, if the USSR and Russia are considered separately) used ocean disposal or ocean dumping as a method to dispose of nuclear/radioactive waste. The waste materials included both liquids and solids housed in various containers, as well as reactor vessels, with and without spent or damaged nuclear fuel.[1] Since 1993, ocean disposal has been banned by international treaties. (London Convention (1972), Basel Convention, MARPOL 73/78)
However, according to the United Nations, some companies have been dumping radioactive waste and other hazardous materials into the coastal waters of Somalia, taking advantage of the fact that the country had no functioning government from the early 1990s onwards. According to one official at the United Nations, this caused health problems for locals in the coastal region and posed a significant danger to Somalia’s fishing industry and local marine life.[2]
Ocean floor disposal” (or sub-seabed disposal)—a more deliberate method of delivering radioactive waste to the ocean floor and depositing it into the seabed—was studied by the UK and Sweden, but never implemented.[3]


Data are from IAEA-TECDOC-1105.[1] page 3-4
1946 First dumping operation at Northeast Pacific Ocean (about 80 km off the coast of California
1957 First IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Radioactive Waste Disposal into the Sea
1958 First United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I)
1972 Adoption of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972)
1975 The London Convention 1972 entered into force (Prohibition of dumping of high level radioactive waste.)
1983 Moratorium on low-level waste dumping
1988 Assessing the Impact of Deep Sea Disposal of Low-level Radioactive Waste on Living Marine Resources. IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 288
1990 Estimation of Radiation Risks at Low Dose. IAEA-TECDOC-557
1993 Russia reported the dumping of high level nuclear waste including spent fuel by former USSR.
1994 Feb-20 Total prohibition of disposal at sea came into force
1946-93Data are from IAEA-TECDOC-1105.[1] Summary of pages 27-120


Disposal projects attempted to locate ideal dumping site for depth, stability and current and to treat, solidify and contain the waste. However some dumping only diluted the waste with surface water, or containers that imploded at depth. Even containers that survived the pressure physically decay over time.


Country total at the major site.
SU: Soviet Union (39,243TBq) and Russia (2.8TBq),
GB: UK (35,088TBq),
CH: Switzerland (4,419TBq),
BE: Belgium (2,120TBq).
US: United States of America (3,496TBq),
JP: Japan (15TBq),
KR: South Korea (?TBq),
NZ: New Zealand (1+TBq).
France (354TBq),
Germany (0.2TBq),
Italy (0.2TBq),
the Netherland (336TBq),
Sweden (3.2TBq) are within GB marker.

USSR, UK, Switzerland, US, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Japan, Sweden, Russia, New Zealand, Germany, Italy and Korea dumped waste at over 100 dumping sites.


A total of 85.1×1015 Becquerel (Bq) (initial radioactivity at the time of dump) of radioactive waste were disposed at sea.


Global fallout of nuclear weapon tests,             2,566,087x1015Bq.[5]

1986 Chernobyl disaster total release              12,060x1015Bq.[6]

One container (net 400kg) of vitrified high level radioactive waste has an average 4x1015Bq (Max 45x1015Bq).

Some countries report the mass and volume of disposed waste and some just tonnage. The US did not report tonnage or volume of 90,543 containers.
Subtotal of all volume reported is 982,394m3


Data are from IAEA-TECDOC-1105.[1]:6–7, 14
Liquid waste
unpackaged and diluted in surface waters
contained in package but not solidified
Solid waste
low level waste like resins, filters, material used for decontamination processes, etc., solidified with cement or bitumen and packaged in metal containers
unpackaged solid waste, mainly large parts of nuclear installations (steam generators, pumps, lids of reactor pressure vessels, etc.
Reactor vessels
without nuclear fuel,
containing damaged spent nuclear fuel solidified with polymer agent
special container with damaged spent nuclear fuel (icebreaker Lenin by the former Soviet Union)

Ocean disposal (unit TBq = 1012Bq)


Mainly at the east coast of Novaya Zemlya at Kara Sea and relatively small proportion at Barentz Sea by USSR. Dumped at 20 sites from 1959–92,[4]total of 222x103m3 including reactors and spent fuel.

Arctic ocean dump sites of radioactive waste. SU: Soviet Union (38,369TBq), RU: Russia (0.7TBq), SE: Sweden.


The Atomic Sailors (video)

Harvey Ray Lucas served in the late 1950s on the USS Calhoun County, a low-ranking Navy ship whose primary mission was to dump atomic and other military waste into the Atlantic Ocean. Lucas spent four years heaving radioactive materials over the side of the ship. After leaving the military, he suffered from chronic health problems and sired five children with birth defects. Lucas’s testimony made my jaw drop. He described one baby whose skin oozed “bloodwater.” He described the birth and death of another whom physicians termed an “anencephalic female monster.” A couple years after his testimony, Lucas died of a rare cancer associated with radiation exposure. I interviewed Deane Horne, whose teeth and hair had fallen out after he left the ship and whose eldest son was born without a femur. I interviewed Richard Tkaczyk, who had also lost his teeth and whose first born son had seizures and brain damage. I interviewed George Albernaz, who was half paralyzed after suffering from an odd brain disease that his physician called radiation necrosis. All had filed claims with the VA. None had made any headway.

Dumping occurred from 1948 to 1982. 78% of dumping in the Atlantic was done by UK (35,088TBq), followed by Switzerland (4,419TBq), USA (2,924TBq) and Belgium (2,120TBq). Sunken USSR nuclear submarines are not included. see List of sunken nuclear submarines

137x103tonnes were dumped by 8 European countries. USA reported neither tonnage nor volume for 34,282 containers.

B: Belgium (2,120TBq), F: France (354TBq), D: Germany (0.2TBq), I: Italy (0.2TBq), N: the Netherlands (336TBq), S: Sweden (3.2TBq), C: Switzerland (4,419TBq), G:United Kingdom (35,088TBq), US: United States of America (2,942TBq), SU: Soviet Union.


USSR 874 TBq
USA 554 TBq
Japan 15.1TBq
New Zealand 1+TBq
South Korea. unknown amount
751x103m3 were dumped by Japan and USSR
USA reported neither tonnage nor volume of 56,261 containers.

JP: Japan (15.1TBq), KR: South Korea (?TBq), NZ: New Zealand (1+TBq), RU: Russia (2.1TBq), SU: Soviet Union (874TBq), US: United States of America (554TBq).


USSR dumped 749TBq in the Sea of Japan, Japan dumped 15.1TBq south of main island. South Korea dumped 45 tonnes (unknown radioactivity value) in the Sea of Japan.

Dump sites in the Sea of Japan. Sites off coast of Nakhodka are of USSR and RU=Russia.


Most of what is dumped, spilled or accidentally released into the world’s oceans is NOT COUNTED.
The Wikipedia entry should be considered to be a very light guess, maybe 1% at best, of the total amount of radiation dumped either illegally or under cover of secrecy in the worlds rivers and/or oceans.
Massive And Uncontrolled Radioactive Waste Dumping In Oceans Continues On Even Today via @AGreenRoad
Today, ocean dumping of radioactive waste continues via Fukushima dumping 400 tons of highly radioactive water into the Pacific ocean. Japan is trucking high level nuclear waste all over Japan, burning it, and them dumping the ashed into Tokyo Bay. The burning of radioactive waste all over Japan continues to this day, as well as the USA.
If anything, the dumping of nuclear waste is accelerating exponentially today, not reducing in amount, despite ‘treaties’ banning ocean dumping.


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History, Locations, Country Totals, Types, Amounts Of Radioactive Nuclear Waste And Reactors Dumped In Oceans And Seas

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