US WAVE POWER POTENTIAL
GLOBAL WAVE POWER POTENTIAL
2015 – FIRST WAVE POWER PLANT IS OFFICIALLY OPERATIONAL
UK energy and power experts meet to discuss the latest developments and initiatives in wave and tidal power technology across Britain.
Source; description under video
A concept model is demonstrated at a university above.
WAVE POWER EXPLAINED
Wave power formula
Wave energy and wave-energy flux
|Properties of gravity waves on the surface of deep water, shallow water and at intermediate depth, according to linear wave theory|
Deep-water characteristics and opportunities
|Device||Proponent||Country of origin||Capture method||Location||Power take off||Year build||Notes|
|Anaconda Wave Energy Converter||Checkmate SeaEnergy.||UK||Surface-following attenuator||Offshore||Hydroelectric turbine||2008||In the early stages of development, the device is a 200 metres (660 ft) long rubber tube which is tethered underwater. Passing waves will instigate a wave inside the tube, which will then propagates down its walls, driving a turbine at the far end.|
|AquaBuOY||Finavera Wind Energy, later SSE Renewables Limited||Ireland-Canada-Scotland||Buoy||Offshore||Hydroelectric turbine||2003||In 2009 Finavera Renewables surrendered its wave energy permits from FERC. In July 2010 Finavera announced that it had entered into a definitive agreement to sell all assets and intellectual property related to the AquaBuOY wave energy technology.|
|AWS-iii||AWS Ocean Energy||UK (Scotland)||Surface-following attenuator?||Offshore||Air turbine||2010||The AWS-III is a floating toroidal vessel. It has rubber membranes on the outer faces which deform as waves pass, moving air inside chambers which in turn drive air-turbines to generate electricity. AWS Ocean tested a 1/9 scale model in Loch Ness in 2010, and are now working on a full sized version which will be 60m across and should generate 2.5 MW. It is envisage these will be installed in offshore farms moored in around 100m depth of water.|
|CETO Wave Power||Carnegie||Australia||Buoy||Offshore||Pump-to-shore||1999||As of 2008, the device is being tested off Fremantle, Western Australia, the device consists of a single piston pump attached to the sea floor with a float (buoy) tethered to the piston. Waves cause the float to rise and fall, generating pressurized water, which is piped to an onshore facility to drive hydraulic generators or run reverse osmosis water desalination.|
|Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter||Atargis Energy Corporation||USA||Fully Submerged Wave Termination Device||Offshore||Direct Drive Generator||2006||In the tank testing stage of development, the device is a 20 metres (66 ft) diameter fully submerged rotor with two hydrofoils. Numerical studies have shown greater than 99% wave power termination capabilities. These were confirmed by experiments in a small 2D wave flumeas well as a large offshore wave basin.|
|FlanSea (Flanders Electricity from the Sea)||FlanSea||Belgium||Buoy||Offshore||Hydroelectric turbine||2010||A point absorber buoy developed for use in the southern North Sea conditions. It works by means of a cable that due to the bobbing effect of the buoy, generates electricity.|
|Islay LIMPET||Islay LIMPET||Scotland||oscillating water column||Onshore||Air turbine||1991||500 kW shoreline device uses an oscillating water column to drive air in and out of a pressure chamber through a Wells turbine.|
|Lysekil Project||Uppsala University||Sweden||Buoy||Offshore||Linear generator||2002||Direct driven linear generator placed on the seabed, connected to a buoy at the surface via a line. The movements of the buoy will drive the translator in the generator.|
|Oceanlinx||Oceanlinx||Australia||OWC||Nearshore & Offshore||air turbine||1997||Wave energy is captured with anOscillating Water Column and electricity is generated by air flowing through a turbine. The third medium scale demonstration unit near Port Kembla, NSW, Australia, a medium scale system that was grid connected in early 2010.
In May 2010, the wave energy generator snapped from its mooring lines in extreme seas and sank on Port Kembla’s easternbreakwater.
|OE buoy||Ocean Energy||Ireland||Buoy||Offshore||Air turbine||2006||In September 2009 completed a 2-year sea trial in one quarter scale form. The OE buoy has only one moving part.|
|OWEL||Ocean Wave Energy Ltd||UK||Wave Surge Converter||Offshore||Air turbine||2013||The surging motion of long period waves compresses air in a tapered duct which is then used to drive an air turbine mounted on top of the floating vessel. The design of a full scale demonstration project was completed in Spring 2013, ready for fabrication.|
|Oyster wave energy converter||Aquamarine Power||UK (Scots-Irish)||Oscillating wave surge converter||Nearshore||Pump-to-shore (hydro-electric turbine)||2005||A hinged mechanical flap attached to the seabed captures the energy of nearshore waves. It drives hydraulic pistons to deliver high pressure water to an onshore turbine which generates electricity. In November 2009, the first full-scale demonstrator Oyster began producing power on Orkney.|
|Pelamis Wave Energy Converter||Pelamis Wave Power||UK (Scottish)||Surface-following attenuator||Offshore||Hydraulic||1998||As waves pass along a series of semi-submerged cylindrical sections linked by hinged joints, the sections move relative to one another. This motion activateshydraulic cylinders which pump high pressure oil through hydraulic motorswhich drive electrical generators. The first working Pelamis machine in 2004 was at the European Marine Energy Center.The later P2, owned by E.ON, started grid connected tests off Orkney in 2010.|
|PowerBuoy||Ocean Power Technologies||US||Buoy||Offshore||Hydroelectric turbine||1997||The Pacific Northwest Generating Cooperative is funding construction of a commercial wave-power park atReedsport, Oregon using buoys. The rise and fall of the waves moves a rack and pinion within the buoy and spins a generator. The electricity is transmitted by a submerged transmission line. The buoys are designed to be installed one to five miles (8 km) offshore in water 100 to 200 feet (60 m) deep.
|R38/50 kW, R115/150 kW||40South Energy||UK||Underwater attenuator||Offshore||Electrical conversion||2010||These machines work by extracting energy from the relative motion between one Upper Member and one Lower Member, following an innovative method which earned the company one UKTI Research & Development Award in 2011. A first generation full scale prototype for this solution was tested offshore in 2010, and a second generation full scale prototype was tested offshore during 2011. In 2012 the first units were sold to clients in various countries, for delivery within the year. The first reduced scale prototypes were tested offshore during 2007, but the company decided to remain in a “stealth mode” until May 2010 and is now recognized as one of the technological innovators in the sector. The company initially considered installing at Wave Hub in 2012, but that project is on hold for now. The R38/50 kW is rated at 50 kW while the R115/150 kW is rated at 150 kW.|
|SDE Sea Waves Power Plant||SDE Energy Ltd.||Israel||Buoy||Nearshore||Hydroelectric turbine||2010||A breakwater-based wave energy converter, this device is built close to the shore and utilizes the vertical motion of buoys for creating hydraulic pressure which in turn operates the system’s generators. In 2010 it began construction of a new 250 kWh model in the port of Jaffa, Tel Aviv and preparing to construct its standing orders for a 100 MWh power plants in the islands of Zanzibar and Kosrae, Micronesia.|
|SeaRaser||Alvin Smith (Dartmouth Wave Energy)\Ecotricity||UK||Buoy||Nearshore||Hydraulic ram||2008||Consisting of a piston pump(s) attached to the sea floor with a float (buoy) tethered to the piston. Waves cause the float to rise and fall, generating pressurized water, which is piped to resoviors onshore which then drive hydraulic generators.
It is currently “undergoing extensive modelling ahead of a sea trial” 
|Squid/ WaveNET||AlbaTERN||UK (Scotland)||Multi-point absorber||Nearshore||Hydraulic?||2011||A 10 kW Squid prototype was tested atEMEC in 2011. The company have since secured funding through the WATERS2 project, to further develop the device including developing arrays.|
|Unnamed Ocean Wave-Powered Generator||SRI International||US||Buoy||Offshore||Electroactive polymerartificial muscle||2004||A type of wave buoys, built using special polymers, is being developed by SRI International.|
|Wavebob||Wavebob||Ireland||Buoy||Offshore||Direct Drive Power Take off||1999||Wavebob have conducted some ocean trials, as well as extensive tank tests. It is an ocean-going heaving buoy, with a submerged tank which captures additional mass of seawater for added power and tunability, and as a safety feature (Tank “Venting”)|
|Wavepiston||Wavepiston ApS||Denmark||Oscillating wave surge converter||Nearshore||Pump-to-shore (hydro-electric turbine)||2013||The idea behind this concept is to reduce the mooring means for wave energy structures. Wavepiston systems use vertical plates to exploit the horizontal movement in ocean waves. By attaching several plates in parallel on a single structure the forces applied on the structure by the plates will tend to neutralize each other. This neutralization reduces the required mooring means. “Force cancellation” is the term used by the inventors of the technology to describe the neutralization of forces. A Wavepiston system will comprise a long (several wavelengths) floating structure, anchored by its ends, such that the predominant wave direction is along the structure.
The simplest and strongest floating structure imaginable is a steel cable fitted with floaters and anchored by slack moorings in both ends. An inherent feature of slack mooring is that the mooring system compensates for variations in water level due to tidal.
|Wave Dragon||Erik Friis-Madsen||Denmark||Overtopping device||Offshore||Hydroelectric turbine||2003||With the Wave Dragon wave energy converter large wing reflectors focus waves up a ramp into an offshore reservoir. The water returns to the ocean by the force of gravity via hydroelectric generators.
|WaveRoller||AW-Energy Oy||Finland||Oscillating wave surge converter||Nearshore||Hydraulic||1994||The WaveRoller is a plate anchored on the sea bottom by its lower part. The back and forth movement of surge moves the plate. The kinetic energy transferred to this plate is collected by a piston pump. Full-scale demonstration project built off Portugal in 2009.
|Wave Star||Wave Star A/S||Denmark||Multi-point absorber||Offshore||Hydroelectric turbine||2000||The Wavestar machine draws energy from wave power with floats that rise and fall with the up and down motion of waves. The floats are attached by arms to a platform that stands on legs secured to the sea floor. The motion of the floats is transferred via hydraulics into the rotation of a generator, producing electricity. Wave Star has been testing a 1:10 machine since 2005 in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, it was taken out of duty in November 2011. A 1:2 Wave Star machine is in place inHanstholm which has produced electricity to the grid since September 2009.|
Wave Powered Kinetic Energy Production Technology Global Report; S. America, EU, Australia, UK, China, USA