Ancient Creation Stories Compared; List of Creation Stories Around The World
Everyone believes in a creation story of some kind. Whether you believe in the Big Bang, evolution, or some version of another creation story, everyone believes in some kind of creation story.
When you are reading stories to your children, or talking about different religions and comparing your beliefs with other people, this may be a good subject to talk about in a respectful manner. Interfaith groups can also use this to compare and contrast various ways of looking at the world and the fascinating tapestry of human belief systems.
Which Creation story is ‘right’? Which one is wrong? Could they all be right?
Which one do you favor or believe in?
Which one were you taught?
Which creation story does your chosen religion or belief system hold to?
A video playlist of over 100 creation stories can be accessed here
Wikipedia; “Creation Myths
A creation myth is a symbolic narrative
of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
While in popular usage the term myth
often refers to false or fanciful stories, formally, it does not imply falsehood. Cultures generally regard their creation myths as true
In the society in which it is told, a creation myth is usually regarded as conveying profound truths
, symbolically and sometimes in a historical
or literal sense.
They are commonly, although not always, considered cosmogonical
myths—that is, they describe the ordering of thecosmos
from a state of chaos
Creation myths often share a number of features. They often are considered sacred
accounts and can be found in nearly all known religious traditions
They are all stories with a plot
who are either deities
, human-like figures, or animals, who often speak and transform easily.
They are often set in a dim and nonspecific past that historian of religion Mircea Eliade
termed in illo tempore (“at that time”).
Creation myths address questions deeply meaningful to the society that shares them, revealing their central worldview
and the framework for the self-identity of the culture and individual in a universal context.
Creation myths develop in oral traditions
and therefore typically have multiple versions
and are the most common form of myth, found throughout human culture
In Daoist creation myth
, “The Way gave birth to unity; unity gave birth to duality; duality gave birth to trinity; trinity gave birth to the myriad creatures.” (Daodejing
, 4th century BCE)
Creation myth definitions from modern references:
A “symbolic narrative of the beginning of the world as understood in a particular tradition and community. Creation myths are of central importance for the valuation of the world, for the orientation of humans in the universe, and for the basic patterns of life and culture.”
“Creation myths tell us how things began. All cultures have creation myths; they are our primary myths, the first stage in what might be called the psychic life of the species. As cultures, we identify ourselves through the collective dreams we call creation myths, or cosmogonies. … Creation myths explain in metaphorical terms our sense of who we are in the context of the world, and in so doing they reveal our real priorities, as well as our real prejudices. Our images of creation say a great deal about who we are.”
A “philosophical and theological elaboration of the primal myth of creation within a religious community. The term myth here refers to the imaginative expression in narrative form of what is experienced or apprehended as basic reality … The term creation refers to the beginning of things, whether by the will and act of a transcendent being, by emanation from some ultimate source, or in any other way.”
Religion professor Mircea Eliade
defined the word myth in terms of creation:
Myth narrates a sacred history; it relates an event that took place in primordial Time, the fabled time of the “beginnings.” In other words, myth tells how, through the deeds of Supernatural Beings, a reality came into existence, be it the whole of reality, the Cosmos, or only a fragment of reality – an island, a species of plant, a particular kind of human behavior, an institution.
MEANING AND FUNCTION
All creation myths are in one sense etiological
because they attempt to explain how the world was formed and where humanity came from.
Ethnologists and anthropologists[which?
] who study these myths say that in the modern context theologians try to discern humanity’s meaning from revealed truths
and scientists investigate cosmology
with the tools of empiricism
, but creation myths define human reality in very different terms. In the past historians of religion and other students of myth thought of them as forms ofprimitive
or early-stage science or religion and analyzed them in a literal
or logical sense. However they are today seen as symbolic narratives which must be understood in terms of their own cultural context. Charles H. Long writes, “The beings referred to in the myth — gods, animals, plants — are forms of power grasped existentially. The myths should not be understood as attempts to work out a rational explanation of deity.”
While creation myths are not literal explications
they do serve to define an orientation of humanity in the world in terms of a birth story. They are the basis of a worldview that reaffirms and guides how people relate to the natural world, to any assumed spiritual world, and to each other. The creation myth acts as a cornerstone for distinguishing primary reality from relative reality, the origin and nature ofbeing
In this sense they serve as a philosophy of life
but one expressed and conveyed through symbol
rather than systematic reason. And in this sense they go beyond etiological myths
which mean to explain specific features in religious rites, natural phenomena or cultural life. Creation myths also help to orient human beings in the world, giving them a sense of their place in the world and the regard that they must have for humans and nature.
Historian David Christian
has summarised issues common to multiple creation myths:
Each beginning seems to presuppose an earlier beginning. … Instead of meeting a single starting point, we encounter an infinity of them, each of which poses the same problem. … There are no entirely satisfactory solutions to this dilemma. What we have to find is not a solution but some way of dealing with the mystery …. And we have to do so using words. The words we reach for, from God to gravity, are inadequate to the task. So we have to use language poetically or symbolically; and such language, whether used by a scientist, a poet, or a shaman, can easily be misunderstood. 
have applied various schemes to classify creation myths found throughout human cultures. Eliade and his colleague Charles H. Long developed a classification based on some common motifs
that reappear in stories the world over.
FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CREATION STORIES
The classification identifies five basic types:
Creation ex nihilo
in which the creation is through the thought, word, dream or bodily secretions of a divine being
creation in which a diver, usually a bird or amphibian sent by a creator, plunges to the seabed through a primordial ocean
to bring up sand or mud which develops into a terrestrial world
Emergence myths in which progenitors pass through a series of worlds and metamorphoses until reaching the present world
Creation by the dismemberment of a primordial being
Creation by the splitting or ordering of a primordial unity such as the cracking of acosmic egg
or a bringing order from chaos
Marta Weigle further developed and refined this typology to highlight nine themes, adding elements such as deus faber, a creation crafted by a deity, creation from the work of two creators working together or against each other, creation from sacrifice and creation from division/conjugation, accretion/conjunction, or secretion.
SIX DIFFERENT CREATION THEMES
An alternative system based on six recurring narrative themes was designed by Raymond Van Over:
a primeval abyss
, an infinite expanse of waters or space
an originator deity which is awakened or an eternal entity within the abyss
an originator deity poised above the abyss
an originator deity creating life through sound or word
life generating from the corpse or dismembered parts of an originator deity
Ex nihilo – Creation From Nothingness
Creation ex nihilo (Latin “out of nothing”), also known as “creation de novo”, is a common type of mythical creation. Ex nihilo creation is found in creation stories from ancient Egypt
, the Rig Veda
, the Bible
and the Quran
, and many animistic
cultures in Africa, Asia, Oceania and North America.
The Debate between sheep and grain
is an example of an even earlier form of ex nihilo creation myth from ancient Sumer
In most of these stories the world is brought into being by the speech, dream, breath, or pure thought of a creator but creation ex nihilo may also take place through a creator’s bodily secretions.
The literal translation of the phrase ex nihilo is “from nothing” but in many creation myths the line is blurred whether the creative act would be better classified as a creation ex nihilo or creation from chaos. In ex nihilo creation myths the potential and the substance of creation springs from within the creator. Such a creator may or may not be existing in physical surroundings such as darkness or water, but does not create the world from them, whereas in creation from chaos the substance used for creation is pre-existing within the unformed void.
Creation from Chaos
In creation from chaos myth, initially there is nothing but a formless, shapeless expanse. In these stories the word “chaos” means “disorder”, and this formless expanse, which is also sometimes called a void or an abyss, contains the material with which the created world will be made. Chaos may be described as having the consistency of vapor or water, dimensionless, and sometimes salty or muddy. These myths associate chaos with evil and oblivion, in contrast to “order” (cosmos) which is the good. The act of creation is the bringing of order from disorder, and in many of these cultures it is believed that at some point the forces preserving order and form will weaken and the world will once again be engulfed into the abyss.
Creation From World Parent
There are two types of world parent myths, both describing a separation or splitting of a primeval entity, the world parent or parents. One form describes the primeval state as an eternal union of two parents, and the creation takes place when the two are pulled apart. The two parents are commonly identified as Sky (usually male) and Earth (usually female) who in the primeval state were so tightly bound to each other that no offspring could emerge. These myths often depict creation as the result of a sexual union, and serve as genealogical record of the deities born from it.
In the second form of world parent myth, creation itself springs from dismembered parts of the body of the primeval being. Often in these stories the limbs, hair, blood, bones or organs of the primeval being are somehow severed or sacrificed to transform into sky, earth, animal or plant life, and other worldly features. These myths tend to emphasize creative forces as animistic in nature rather than sexual, and depict the sacred as the elemental and integral component of the natural world.
In emergence myths humanity emerges from another world into the one they currently inhabit. The previous world is often considered the womb of the earth mother
, and the process of emergence is likened to the act of giving birth. The role of midwife is usually played by a female deity, like the spider woman of Native American mythology. Male characters rarely figure into these stories, and scholars often consider them in counterpoint to male oriented creation myths, like those of the ex nihilo variety.
Emergence myths commonly describe the creation of people and/or supernatural beings as a staged ascent or metamorphosis
from nascent forms through a series of subterranean worlds to arrive at their current place and form. Often the passage from one world or stage to the next is impelled by inner forces, a process of germination or gestation from earlier, embryonic forms.
The genre is most commonly found in Native American cultures where the myths frequently link the final emergence of people from a hole opening to the underworld to stories about their subsequent migrations and eventual settlement in their current homelands.
Creation By Earth-diver
The earth-diver is a common character in various traditional creation myths. In these stories a supreme being usually sends an animal into the primal waters to find bits of sand or mud with which to build habitable land. Some scholars interpret these myths psychologically while others interpret them cosmogonically
. In both cases emphasis is placed on beginnings emanating from the depths.
Earth-diver myths are common in Native American folklore
but can be found among the Chukchi
, the Tatars
and many Finno-Ugrian
traditions. The pattern of distribution of these stories suggest they have a common origin in the eastern Asiatic
coastal region, spreading as peoples migrated west into Siberia
and east to the North American
Characteristic of many Native American myths, earth-diver creation stories begin as beings and potential forms linger asleep or suspended in the primordial realm. The earth-diver is among the first of them to awaken and lay the necessary groundwork by building suitable lands where the coming creation will be able to live. In many cases, these stories will describe a series of failed attempts to make land before the solution is found.
LIST OF CREATION MYTHS
Hindu Creation Story
Ancient Creation Stories Compared; List of Creation Stories Around The Worldhttp://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2015/05/ancient-creation-stories-compared-list.html
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