Dietary Patterns and Interventions to Alleviate Chronic Pain

An unhealthy diet, obesity, smoking, and stress have a negative impact in the management of CP [12]. The human body uses six categories of nutrients from food: carbohydrates, fat, protein, fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Diet therapy represents a professionally prescribed diet which provides specific nutrients, antioxidants, or prebiotic supplementation for beneficial health effects. Dietary patterns in chronic pain also seem to have a positive impact on comorbidities including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases, and depression [13,14,15,16].

Besides inflammation, low dietary intake of micronutrients, especially omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins B1, B3, B6, B12 and D, magnesium, zinc and β-carotene, is also associated with chronic neuropathic or inflammatory pain [13]. Supplementation of diet with these specific nutrients contributes to alleviation of CP [29], as observed in systematic reviews on chronic pelvic pain [22], low back pain [30], rheumatoid arthritis or joint pain secondary to inflammatory bowel disease [31,32], migraine [33], chronic noncancer pain [34,35], pain in chronic liver disease [36], or aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia in breast cancer [37]. Dietary Patterns and Interventions to Alleviate Chronic Pain