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Gulf Seafood Radium Levels; Chernobyl in the Gulf of Mexico

Although the video above does not talk about radiation specifically, pay attention to the tests and where they find traces of oil, even though the ocean water looks ‘clean’ and safe. Notice as well that certain species seem to have stopped reproducing and others are found full of toxic black goo. Combine this information with this article about radiation being found in seafood. ……….


by Stuart H. Smith


It’s been more than a year since BP’s runaway Macondo Well began filling the northern waters of the Gulf of Mexico with more than 200 million gallons of sweet crude, fouling shorelines from Louisiana’s marshes to the Florida Panhandle. As our nation’s worst man-made environmental disaster unfolded, it quickly became the lead story of the summer – with photos of oiled birds and video of gushing oil entrancing the American public, and the world.


Yet despite the barrage of around-the-clock coverage and the army of scientists studying the impacts, one of the stories that hasn’t made headlines is that in addition to the crude and toxic dispersants, the spill also released dangerous amounts of radioactive material into the Gulf.


Once the well was capped in mid-July of last year, mainstream media resources and the public were quick to turn away from the disaster and its far-reaching impacts on the environment, marine life, wildlife and, of course, people. Much like the oil itself – strategically sunk to the Gulf floor by BP’s use of the toxic dispersant Corexit – national news coverage of the spill’s effects has largely vanished, although we did see the expected round of first-year anniversary stories.

But still no mention of radioactive material.
The true extent of the spill’s damage is just now beginning to come into view for clean-up workers, commercial fishermen, oil-well workers, charter boat captains, restaurant owners, Gulf Coast denizens and independent scientists studying the effects of the spill – and the fallout becomes more troubling by the day. Independent researchers, like Samantha Joye from the University of Georgia, report that oil coats the Gulf floor where it has decimated deep-water marine life.


Residents up and down the Gulf Coast report that tar balls and mats continue to litter their beaches, and re-oilings are common. The multi-billion-dollar Gulf seafood industry is reeling from both small catches and plummeting demand brought on by very real concerns about contamination. 

Dead dolphins and sea turtles continue to wash ashore at record-breaking rates. Oyster beds have been devastated and are in desperate need of restoration. And perhaps most disturbing of all, increasingly large numbers of clean-up workers and coastal residents are getting sick.



Reports of unexplained health problems are soaring – and the primary suspects are the toxic compounds contained in BP’s oil and the chemical dispersants used to break down the crude. From flu-like symptoms to blindness to intense chest pain to severe sinus inflammation, people across the Gulf region are reporting debilitating illnesses in the wake of the spill.


To determine how the spill may be causing this spike in sicknesses, we need to look at how the toxins are released into the environment.


The production of oil delivers several different waste streams into the environment in an uncontrolled release like the BP disaster. Besides the oil itself, highly toxic compounds are also present in the gas streams jettisoned from the well, including methane and hydrogen sulfide. A waste byproduct known as “produced water” is also simultaneously discharged with the oil and gases from the well. Every oil and gas formation, or reservoir, contains these waste streams.
The toxins associated with these streams can be broken down into three primary categories: (1) organic elements like benzene; (2) inorganic heavy metals including lead, chromium and cadmium; and (3) most important, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM).
Radioactive elements such as radium, thorium and uranium are known byproducts of the oil production process. These toxic elements are extracted from the ground along with the oil and gas, and are separated from the fossil fuels as part of the production process. 


Once the NORM is extracted, it is flushed directly back into the ocean in the waste-stream byproduct known as produced water. Their discharge into the Gulf of Mexico has been a daily reality since the 1950s – but the amount that was released into the water from the runaway Macondo Well is unprecedented.


As if NORM exposure from offshore drilling processes wasn’t enough to worry about, the New York Times published a high-profile article in late February (see link below) on the dangers of radioactive exposure onshore from the drilling process known as hydrofracking.


Fracking, as it is commonly called, involves the injection of water and a mixture of highly toxic chemicals into wells to break up rock formations that hold large amounts of natural gas. However, just like the offshore drilling process, the produced-water waste stream created by fracking contains dangerous levels of NORM that can contaminate inland waterways and has even been dumped in water sewage plants in Pennsylvania, West Virginia and New York. These types of treatment facilities don’t test for radioactivity so there is no way of telling just how much NORM is being mixed directly into drinking water.


The Times also uncovered a bombshell “secret industry study” from the American Petroleum Institute (API). The study, written in 1990, states that consuming seafood from the Gulf of Mexico poses “potentially significant risks” of cancer to humans due to the radium levels in produced water discharges. The EPA has yet to publicly release a comprehensive Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the volume of produced water being discharged in the Gulf of Mexico or its effect on human and marine life.

As someone who has spent the last 20-odd years litigating against the oil and gas industry for damages caused by radioactive oilfield waste, I had serious concerns that the BP spill released a significant amount of NORM into the Gulf. I knew the damage from the radioactive material could be acute and long-lasting to the Gulf ecosystem – and could linger for hundreds of years. Radium-226, a primary component of NORM,
has a half-life of 1,600 years (the time it takes for the element to decay to half of its original mass).
In pursuing my hunch that large amounts of NORM were discharged during the nearly three months the oil spewed from the Deepwater Horizon site, I obtained a sample of the oil from the Macondo Well and had it sent to an independent laboratory in the United Kingdom. The results are now in and the presence of a significant quantity of radioactive material has been confirmed by Dr. Chris Busby, a chemical physicist of the U.K.-based environmental watchdog organization Green Audit.
Dr. Busby’s report (see link below) on the laboratory findings suggests that as much as 50 kilograms of uranium, or about 110 pounds, were released into the Gulf of Mexico from the BP spill. According to Dr. Busby, the tests showed the uranium content in the oil to be 0.073 mg/kg, or more than 500 times the normal concentration of uranium in seawater. 


The Gulf of Mexico is a large body of water but even a small amount of radioactive material can have a devastating impact on life in a marine ecosystem – as well as on humans who are unfortunate enough to come into direct contact with it.


Alarmed by his findings, Dr. Busby warns:


This level of uranium exposure is thousands of times more dangerous than the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) risk model suggests. We should be very concerned that this material is showing up in an ecosystem with shrimp, crabs, fish, and other animals that humans consume on a daily basis.


The uranium content in the oil is not the only concern, radon gases would also have been present in the methane expelled from the well and significant concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 would have been present in the produced water discharged from the well. No estimates of these radioactive discharges have been publicly released by BP or the federal government.

To significantly compound the potential human health risks associated with the disaster, the radioactive oil burned off at the water surface resulted in radioactive isotopes becoming airborne. 
Once airborne, the radioactive particles can be easily inhaled into the human respirator system. We are unaware of any studies or dose reconstructions that have been done, or will be done, by BP or the federal government to assess the risk from this human exposure pathway.

Dr. Busby explains the health risk:
Uranium is increasingly seen to be a very serious hazard to humans due to its high affinity for genetic material and its ability to trap and amplify natural background gamma radiation at the one place in the body it can do most harm. For this reason, humans have developed responses to uranium ingestion over evolutionary time scales in the form of low absorption from the gut. 
But humans have never had to deal with uranium inhalation. Once inhaled, uranium can directly enter the brain or pass through the lungs into the lymphatic nodes and blood system, causing the wide range of neurological conditions that were identified as Gulf War syndrome at one extreme and cancer at the other.
Busby said the workers who were closest to the controlled burns of the oil would have been particularly susceptible to radiation exposure.
The physical symptoms of radioactive exposure are very similar to the symptoms produced by exposure to the other toxic compounds in the oil, flu-like symptoms which continue over long periods of time. 
Specific symptoms from radiation exposure include: neurological problems such as memory loss, headaches and balance problems, even seizures; stomach and digestive problems, such as diarrhea; sweating; dizziness; nosebleeds and bleeding from the ears, rectum and urinary tract; trouble sleeping; and rashes or skin irritations are also be cause for concern.
If any of these symptoms are observed, it is imperative that the person affected seek medical attention as soon as possible. If first contact with a medical professional results in a dismissal of the person’s symptoms, he or she should not be discouraged. 
Many people across the Gulf region are experiencing similar health problems, and most doctors are not familiar with the effects of chemical or radiation exposure. Affected persons should continue to seek medical help.
Uncontrolled NORM discharges occur on a daily basis during the oil production process in the Gulf of Mexico. While much of the material produced in deeper waters is dispersed into the water column and partitions into smaller concentrations, production in shallower waters produces radioactive material that settles on the ocean floor where it accumulates and comes into direct contact with bottom-feeding marine life. The radioactive elements are consumed by these benthic organisms then work their way back up the food chain to larger animals – and can eventually contaminate humans who consume seafood from the Gulf.
Due to lack of research, little is know about the effects of NORM exposure in the Gulf of Mexico and how it affects ocean life and humans. However, numerous land-based studies have shown that human exposure to even small traces of radioactivity can prove deadly.
Radium has a half-life of about 1,600 years while uranium lingers for billions of years. Yes, that’s billions with a “b.” Once the material is introduced into the Gulf ecosystem whatever effect it has, for the most part, it will be permanent.
A white paper authored by radioactive waste experts Marvin Resnikoff, Ph.D and Stanley J. Waligora, Jr. for the Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN) suggests that as much as 6,000 Ci (curie) of radium are released into the Gulf waters by the oil production process every year. Very little regulation and monitoring has been put in place by the EPA or state agencies to assess the amount of radioactive material being discharged into the Gulf.
Of particular concern is the cumulative effect of the radioactive fallout occurring from oil and gas platforms near fragile marine estuaries such as oyster beds. In fact, as the white paper notes, the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) doesn’t even require rig owners to test for radioactive material in their produced-water discharge. 
We really don’t know how bad the problem is, but the cursory data is cause for serious concern. Despite repeated requests, the LDEQ has refused to require the oil and gas industry to pay for an independent environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the risk inherent in these discharges.
Aside from the human impact, the BP spill is a clarion call to recognize the damage inflicted on the Gulf’s fragile ecosystem for the past half century brought on by the race to, “Drill, baby, Drill!” The coastal ecosystem of Louisiana is a litmus test for states who are considering drilling off their own shores. 
With possible plans to expand offshore oil production from California to Florida, this isn’t just a Gulf Coast problem, it’s a national and even international problem we all have to face. 
The mad scramble for offshore, black gold continues unabated around the world despite the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Major offshore installations are either in place or planned for South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Arctic Ocean region. The very health of our planet’s oceans is at stake.

Here’s the NYT article on the dangers of fracking:
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/27/us/27gas.html?_r=2&pagewanted=1&ref=usn-oscar-controversy/

See state and federal agency documents on fracking and the associated toxic waste here:
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/02/27/us/natural-gas-documents-1.html#document/p417/a9945

Dr. Busby’s report on the discharge of radioactive material into the Gulf is here: http://www.scribd.com/full/49647149?access_key=key-1xcpnhn9boiq0tewc6iu

Reprinted with permission by author. 
Email gulfofmexicooilspillblog@gmail.com for more info.





The above article focuses ONLY on the Radium in the oil and it’s effect. Now, let’s focus on the effects of the poisonous Corexit, which is toxic and dangerous all by itself. Combine the radium radiation above, with toxic heavy metals in the oil, plus the toxic effects the oil itself broken up into tiny nano particles by the Corexit and then eaten and breathed in by fish and other sea life, plus the other junk coming into the Gulf from the rivers and air… We are amazed that anything is still living in the Gulf at all. 


Bottom line, civilized people in countries like the US, Russia and others are living in unsustainable ways. Humanity is getting back the toxins that are being put into the animals they eat, as well as the air, water and soil. People will not enjoy the consequences, which are unavoidable. 


Gulf Seafood Radium Levels; Chernobyl in the Gulf of Mexico; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/gulf-seafood-radium-levels-chernobyl-in.html

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NUCLEAR BOMBS/WEAPONS
The Nuclear Fuel Chain That Leads To Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
2400 Global Nuclear Atmospheric Bomb Tests 1945-1998
Nevada National Security Site; Nuclear Bomb Testing Areas 1-30; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/nevada-national-security-site-nuclear.html
Downwinders And Nuclear Bomb Testing; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/downwinders-and-nuclear-bomb-testing.html
Atomic Bomb Testing Veterans; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Bomb Test Sites And Atomic Lake in Kazakstan, Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Israel‘s Secret Illegal Nuclear Biological And Chemical Weapons  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/israels-secret-illegal-nuclear.html
LOW DOSE RADIATION DANGERS
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Low dose radiation causing changes in children; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-causing-unusual-changes-whats.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Ernest Sternglass; Childhood Cancers/Deaths Caused By Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Dr. Gorden Edwards PhD; Nuclear Power, Hope or Hoax Speech; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
The Children Beyond Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/children-beyond-chernobyl.html
URANIUM MINING
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Gulf Seafood Radium Levels; Chernobyl in the Gulf of Mexico; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
Gulf Seafood Radium Levels; Chernobyl in the Gulf of Mexico; via A Green Road Blog
ANIMALS AND RADIATION EFFECTS
Gulf Seafood Radium Levels; Chernobyl in the Gulf of Mexico; via A Green Road Blog
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Animals Affected By Low Level Radiation; via A Green Road Blog
UK Established Animal Radiation ‘Controls’ Due To Cesium Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html 
Radioactive Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl; Animal Studies Show Radiation Is Still Harming Our Wild Companions; via A Green Road Blog
PBS; Radioactive  Wolves In Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Movie Review
Fukushima: Hawaii & Arizona Dairy Milk Test Up To 800% Higher Than Safety Limits; via A Green Road Blog
Norway, Sweden, Russia Animal Radiation Contamination Explored; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR REACTOR RECERTIFICATION
Aging Reactors, Lies, Deceptions, Profits And Earthquakes; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/aging-reactors-lies-deceptions-profits.html 
The Diablo You Don’t Know; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents; via A Green Road Blog
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
                       
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
Huge Number Of Radiation Contaminated Sites In Just ONE State; via A Green Road Blog
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry By Or-Well; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fukishima 15 Year Old Speech-Song
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS/ISOTOPES/ETC
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-radiation-dangers-polonium-radon.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/multiple-nuclear-reactors-bombed-all.html
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog
GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog
Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html
SPIRITUAL
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/1-giant-leap-happiness.html
Raj Yoga; A Connection with Soul, God And Consciousness; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Mysteries And Theories: Is The Earth Growing? via a Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mystery-is-earth-growing.html
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
The Universal Golden Rule; Moving Towards A Global Ethic; via A Green Road Blog
PEACE/WAR
War is a Racket; via A Green Road Blog
War/No More Trouble | Playing for Change | Song Around The World; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog
Tell Pres. Obama; Bring Troops Home NOW
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
JUSTICE/PRISONS
US ranks 5th in Executions; With Iraq, China, Russia; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/us-ranks-5th-in-executions-ahead-of.html
Trayvon Martin; Brutal Murder, or Justified Defense of Life? via A Green Road Blog  
Prison Mistakes, Prison Reform; via A Green Road Blog
Secret Jury Rights And Ignored Constitutional Duty
Hillary Clinton: Women Deserve The Right To Choose; via A Green Road Blog 
DRUGS – MEDICINE
Medical Insanity: Frankenfoods, BPA, Drugs, GMO’s? via A Green Road Blog
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
HOLISTIC LIVING AND NATURAL HEALTH MODALIES
7 medicinal herbs and spices that help lower blood pressure; via A Green Road
All about berries and ginger; healing foods and herbs; via A Green Road Blog
The top 5 foods to avoid if you have gluten intolerance and wheat allergies. via A Green Road Blog 
12 surprising reasons to eat more blueberries via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2010/08/12-surprising-reasons-to-eat-more.html
Natural Green Living And Health News; Kidneys, Honey, Vaccines, Permaculture, Water, Homeopathics
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/germany-world-leader-in-solar-wind-and.html 

Huge Number Of Radiation Contaminated Sites In Just ONE State

When the nuclear industry starts boasting how how clean, green and safe their industry is, just point them to this article. The following is a brief summary, without going into the coverups, denials and spin put out about each contaminated site illustrated here. 


All we are looking in the following materials gathered from a state website is the details of decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste left behind by profit making corporations. 


These corporations made huge profits when they were in operation. Then they closed down and put all of the clean up and risk costs as well as negative health consequences on the backs of taxpayers. 


Many towns were polluted and filled with radioactive wastes. The radioactive substances were spread over wide areas, by wind, water and in other ways,  far beyond the zones identified below for ‘cleanup’.


After reading about the HUGE number of radiation contaminated places in just ONE state, think about what this means for ALL states in the USA, plus all of the 100 or so currently operating nuclear power plants. Add to this, all of the 2,400 cancer causing global in air nuclear tests, the 400 nuclear plants all releasing radioactive cancer causing substances, all of the cancer causing reprocessing facilities, plus  the cancer causing uranium mines, uranium processing facilities, and weapons production facilities, and you end up with a radioactive cancer cause NIGHTMARE. 


Is it any wonder that cancer rates are increasing over time? 

Bottom line, we think that what you will conclude after reading the following materials, and associated articles, that the nuclear industry is NOT safe, NOT green, NOT clean, and does not deserve to be in operation in ANY town.  


Index of Pennsylvania Decommissioning Sites
http://www.dep.state.pa.us/brp/Decom_and_Env_Sur/PA_Decommissioning_Site_Summaries.htm

Safety Light Corp. Superfund Site
Bloomsburg, PA

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W)
Apollo, PA

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W)
Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W)
Parks Township, PA

Molycorp, Inc.
York, PA

Molycorp, Inc.
Washington, PA

Whittaker Corporation
Greenville, PA

PermaGrain Products, Inc.
Quehanna Wild Area
Karthaus, PA

Pesses/METCOA Company
Pulaski, PA

Westinghouse Electric Corporation
Waltz Mill Site

Schott Glass Technologies, Inc.
Duryea, PA

Cabot Corporation
Revere, PA

Cabot Corporation
Reading, PA

Cabot Corporation
Boyertown, PA

Canonsburg/Burrell Disposal Sites
Canonsburg and Blairsville, PA

Flannery Building (Parkvale Bank)
Pittsburgh, PA

Frankford Arsenal
Philadelphia, PA

Royersford Wastewater Treatment Facility
Royersford, PA

Superbolt, Inc.
formerly Superior Steel Corp.
Carnegie, PA

Kiski Valley Water Pollution Control Authority
Sewage Treatment Plant Ash Lagoon

Safety Light Corporation Superfund Site; Bloomsburg, PA
DEP License PA-0166,
NRC licenses 37-00030-02 & 37-00030-08,
NRC Docket 030-05980

The Safety Light Corporation (SLC) Superfund Site is in South Centre Township, Columbia County approximately 5 miles east of Bloomsburg. SLC formerly conducted business as the U S Radium Corporation (USR). The site is approximately 10 acres in size. SLC occupies a portion of the site and leases the remainder to USR Metals, Inc. The site consists of several buildings, other structures and open areas. Old Berwick Road (north), Susquehanna River (south), and residential tracts (east and west) bound the site.

From the late 1940s through the 1960s, manufacturing processes at the site utilized several radioactive isotopes including radium-226, strontium-90, cesium-137, americium-241, and tritium (a radioactive isotope of hydrogen). USR products included watch, clock and instrument dials, self-luminous markers (e.g., ship deck markers), radium rope, high-level neutron sources, radiation therapy sources and smoke detector sources.

During the 1940s and 1950s, portions of the site were used for solid and liquid waste disposal. Throughout the 1950s and into the 1960s, two underground silos were used for disposal of radium-226, strontium-90, cesium-137, and americium-241. During the early 1950’s, liquid chemical wastes including strontium-90 were discharged into dry wells on site. In the early 1960s, liquid radioactive wastes were routed to open lagoons on the site for holding, additional processing and eventual discharge into the Susquehanna River. All except two of the lagoons were eventually backfilled.

Various decontamination, remediation and removal activities were initiated in the 1970s. In 1972, Hurricane Agnes caused the Susquehanna River to flood a portion of the site, including the lagoons. This is believed to have contributed to the contamination of the surrounding soils. Additionally, a liquid radioactive waste holding tank and evaporator were destroyed during the flood.

By 1980, manufacturing activities involving radium-226 and most other radioactive isotopes ceased, and tritium remained as the only radioactive isotope in use at the site. Tritium continues to be used today in the manufacture of self-luminous exit signs, aircraft signs and other devices. Waste generated at SLC includes solid and liquid waste streams contaminated with radioactive materials, including radium-226, strontium-90, cesium-137, americium-241, and tritium.

Several sampling investigations and characterization projects have been conducted at the SLC property. In 1981, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted an environmental survey of the SLC property, during which, monitoring wells on the site were found to contain elevated levels of tritium and strontium-90. Elevated levels of radium-226, cesium-137, and strontium-90 were also found in surface and subsurface soils.

The site buildings that are no longer in use are abandoned and in disrepair. The roofs of several buildings have collapsed. The upper story of a contaminated frame house burned in 1998 and in 2003 a hurricane toppled a tree into it causing significant additional damage.

Site cleanup cost estimates vary widely. An estimate prepared for SLC was submitted to the NRC in 2000. This estimate concluded that the site could be cleaned up to levels low enough to allow release of the site for unrestricted use for a cost of $29 million. NRC had an independent evaluation performed on the SLC estimate. This evaluation identified several significant gaps in SLC’s cost estimate which increased the range of the projected cost to $72 million to $152 million.

In 1999, in response to an NRC requirement, SLC began remediation of radiological waste disposed in the two underground silos. The NRC later requested assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleanup of the property because SLC had insufficient funds to complete this remediation project and proceed with any other cleanup actions. EPA evaluated the site for inclusion on the National Priorities List (i.e., Superfund) and the Site was listed in April 2005.

EPA is currently conducting a removal action at the property. The scope of the removal action is to characterize and dispose of various containers of radioactive waste currently stored on-site. The containers resulted from remediation of the disposal silos and are awaiting shipment to an approved offsite radioactive waste disposal facility.

EPA has also begun collecting drinking water samples from wells at adjacent residences. EPA will continue collecting groundwater samples on the site and at nearby residences through Spring of 2006. In 2006 EPA will perform an engineering evaluation to determine the best approach for remediation of dilapidated buildings on the site.

DEP, through a Cooperative Agreement Grant from EPA, is providing radiological protection support for EPA activities on the site.

For the latest EPA information on the SLC site visit the following website:

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W); Apollo, PA
NRC license SNM-145 (Terminated),
NRC Docket 070-135

(For more radiation harm coverup information about this company see; http://www.scrippsnews.com/node/68899)

The Babcock And Wilcox uranium fuels fabrication plant site is located in Apollo (Armstrong County), PA. Operations at the site were first conducted by Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) under license from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, predecessor to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in July 1957. From 1957 through 1962, NUMEC performed various small-scale fabrication operations as well as high-enriched uranium, low-enriched uranium, and thorium operations at the Apollo facility. By 1963, a continuous low-enriched uranium production line had been installed in the northern third of the Apollo facility.

From 1964 through 1977, the primary function of the Apollo facility was converting uranium hexafluoride (both high- and low-enrichment) to uranium dioxide. These operations included fuel manufacturing, scrap recovery, and materials evaluation, as well as research and development.

The high-enriched operations were terminated in 1978 and the low-enriched operations were terminated in 1983. By October 1984, all of the conversion process equipment was removed and decontaminated for release for unrestricted use or shipped for disposal at an approved disposal site. Extensive characterization and decontamination activities were performed from 1984 to June 1992.

In 1991, due to the decline of the commercial nuclear fuel market and the inability to identify alternate uses for the facility, B&W (successor to NUMEC) decided the facility had reached the end of its useful life. B&W submitted a decommissioning plan to the NRC in August 1991, followed in April 1992 with a formal request to terminate its license. In June 1992, the NRC approved the Apollo Decommissioning Plan. Decommissioning activities described in the plan were performed from June 1992 to 1995. NRC staff completed its review of B&W’s groundwater monitoring data, final termination survey and a confirmatory survey in 1996. On April 14, 1997, after notifying DEP, NRC issued a letter to B&W terminating the Apollo facility license. The Apollo site was removed from the NRC’s Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) in April 1997.

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA)
NRC license SNM-2001,
NRC Docket 070-3085

The B&W SLDA is located in Parks Township (Armstrong County), PA. B&W has been granted and maintains a “possession only” license for the residual radioactive material at this site. The SLDA site consists of ten waste disposal trenches comprising a total area of 1.2 acres surrounded by a 40 acre fenced buffer area. Currently, the SLDA is undeveloped but is fenced for security reasons.

Until 1970, the SLDA was used for the disposal of hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes from a nuclear fuel fabrication facility in nearby Apollo, PA. Based on available records, the radioactive material was placed in the trenches in the SLDA and consists of natural uranium, enriched and depleted uranium, and lesser quantities of thorium, americium, and plutonium. It is estimated that up to 700,000 cubic feet of radioactive material were disposed of in the trenches on the SLDA site.

Cost estimates were prepared for three alternative remediation scenarios, stabilization in place (SIP); stabilization on site (SOS); disposal off site (DOS). The estimated costs for these alternatives were: SIP – $8,323,000, SOS – $39,840,000, and DOS – $60,717,000.

Historical records for the Parks Township area indicate that both surface and deep mining methods were used to remove coal from the seam beneath the area now occupied by SLDA between 1900 and 1920. An abandoned coal mine lies between 60 and 100 feet beneath the upper trench area. Mine subsidence and the possibility of underground mine fires are a concern for this area. Progressive collapse of an abandoned mine over several years recently caused structural damage to residential foundations in nearby Leechburg.

The licensee has previously proposed stabilization of the contaminated material in place with restricted use. The public and Congressman Murtha (U.S. representative for the area) have expressed a preference for disposal off-site.

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) produced a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in 1997 that indicated the NRC staff’s preferred alternative was a modified SIP that would include institutional controls and backfilling of the coal mine, but the engineered barriers and cap proposed by the licensee would not be implemented. The rationale used for this alternative was that it would be protective of public health and the environment and would be less costly than the other alternatives. The Draft EIS was subsequently retracted by the NRC, primarily because it chose an option not presented by the licensee.

Two bills sponsored by Congressman Murtha have been signed directing the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) to include the SLDA site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and to remediate the site to levels required for “unrestricted use.” The first bill directed the USACE to include the SLDA in the FUSRAP. Using it’s standard approach for FUSRAP sites, USACE determined that there was no threat of a release from the site and that it could take no further action. The second bill, signed January 14, 2002, directed USACE to remediate the site for unrestricted use. Subsequently, Congress appropriated $5 million for the SLDA remediation.

A schedule has been developed by USACE that indicates that further studies are needed and that site remediation will begin in 2006. DEP will be closely involved in the process because of the hazardous constituents in the waste and because of concerns over the radiological cleanup standards used previously by the USACE at other FUSRAP sites. Due to the quantities of enriched uranium waste on the site, the SLDA will remain under NRC and/or USACE control until remediation is completed.

For the latest USACE information on the SLDA site visit the following website:

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Parks Township
NRC license SNM-414 (Terminated),
NRC Docket 070-364

The B&W Parks Fuel Fabrication Facility site is situated in Parks Township (Armstrong County), PA, adjacent to the B&W Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA). The site occupies approximately 85 acres.

Prior to decommissioning, the site consisted of 3 buildings and open land on an adjacent property.

The BWXT Parks Fuel Fabrication Facility was used for plutonium processing, high-enriched uranium processing and multi-purpose fabrication of uranium and plutonium fuel. The predominate radionuclides of interest in the decommissioning were americium-241, plutonium-241, uranium, cobalt-60 and cesium-137.

In October 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff placed the adjacent SLDA portion of the site on a separate license from the area that was occupied by the fuel fabrication facility.

In July 1997, the NRC completed its review of the decommissioning plan submitted for the BWXT Parks Fuel Fabrication Facility and issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). Under the existing license and approved decommissioning plan BWXT was required to remediate the site to levels suitable for unrestricted use which entailed demolishing the buildings after NRC approval of the final status surveys. It was estimated that 44,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) would result from decommissioning the Parks facilities. The total cost of decommissioning this site was estimated at $6.7 million in October of 1996.

As of January 2002 all decommissioning activities have been completed. All waste has been shipped to a licensed waste disposal facility and the Final Status Survey performed. After B&W completed two years of groundwater monitoring showing that site groundwater was within established limits, NRC terminated the license and released the site for unrestricted use on August 24, 2004.

Molycorp, Inc.; York, PA

NRC license SMB-1408 (Terminated),
NRC Docket 040-8794

The Molycorp York site is located on the outskirts of the city of York in Spring Garden Township (York County), PA. The site consists of approximately six acres enclosed by a chain link fence.

The York site formerly produced a broad line of inorganic rare earth chemicals for industrial purposes. Molycorp’s rare earth processing utilized raw materials which had above-background concentrations of thorium and uranium. Molycorp began production of rare earth chemicals in the mid-1960’s that resulted in waste products containing thorium and uranium.

In March of 1981, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (DER, now DEP) requested a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) inspection of the York facility. The inspection indicated that the facility possessed licensable quantities of radioactive source material, but did not possess a NRC license. Molycorp applied for a NRC license in June of 1981 and received its license in February of 1982.

Molycorp ceased production activities at the York site in 1992. Site characterization indicated all the contamination was located near ground surface and that decommissioning the site would be relatively simple, resulting in a waste volume of approximately 5000 cubic yards. However, as work progressed several underground storage tanks were uncovered as well as disposal pits with contamination as deep as 18 feet below ground surface. By the end of 2001 the majority of the contaminated soil had been removed from the site and waste volume estimates ranged as high as 75,000 cubic yards. Molycorp shipped this waste as well as “slightly” contaminated concrete rubble from the site to the Waste Control Specialists disposal facility in Texas.

In early January 2002, under an agreement with Molycorp, DEP personnel (in lieu of NRC) began to perform confirmatory surveys and sampling of some areas where decommissioning activities and final status surveys had been completed. In Spring, 2003 the last of the site buildings was razed.

During 2003 Molycorp addressed the issue of seams of contamination that appeared to extend beyond the site property boundary under North Sherman Street and the Norfolk Southern rail line. Soil samples were obtained from the visible seams and from surface to bedrock off the site in areas adjacent to where contamination seams existed on-site. This sampling effort did not detect contamination off-site. Molycorp has provided a radiological assessment of the potential dose from any residual radioactive material that may exist between the site boundary and the off-site sample locations. The assessment indicated that further remediation was not necessary.

In September, 2004, NRC evaluated Molycorp’s final radiological survey and determined that the site cleanup met the Site Decommissioning Management Plan criteria as well as the unrestricted release dose criteria in 10 CFR 20. The NRC terminated the license for the Molycorp York site property. The NRC staff prepared a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) to support the action.

Molycorp, Inc.; Washington, PA

NRC license SMB-1393,
NRC Docket 040-08778

The Molycorp Washington site is situated in Canton Township (Washington County), PA, on the outskirts of the city of Washington approximately 35 miles southwest of Pittsburgh. The site occupies a 55 acre property which includes a 20 acre active facility area and an adjacent 35 acre undeveloped area.

The site consisted of numerous industrial buildings, paved areas and open areas prior to the start of decommissioning. During decommissioning all site buildings were razed and the site now consists of open land.

Operations at the Molycorp Washington facility began in the 1920’s with the production of molybdenum oxide. Molycorp also produced a ferroalloy, ferro-columbium, that contained thorium in concentrations sufficient to require Molycorp to acquire a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) source material license. Molycorp obtained such a license on December 19, 1963. Molycorp’s operation resulted in the generation of a thorium-bearing slag, some of which was used as fill material over portions of the site. Much of the slag produced from this operation was deposited in piles on the southern and northern portions of the site. It was estimated that the volume of material that needed to be addressed as radioactive material totaled approximately 80,000 cubic yards.

Molycorp’s initial decommissioning plan (DP) was submitted in 1995 to the NRC. In that plan Molycorp indicated a preference for on-site disposal of the radioactive waste at the Washington site. The NRC initially rejected this plan due to insufficient information. Molycorp resubmitted the DP for on-site disposal and included an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 cubic yards of radioactive waste from its York plant in the material to be disposed of on the Washington site. The DP proposed utilizing engineered structures, deed restrictions and institutional controls to secure a restricted-release license termination from the NRC. The public mounted considerable opposition to the proposed on-site disposal and especially to disposing of waste from Molycorp’s York site at Washington.

The initial decommissioning cost estimate prepared for the Washington site assumed the York site waste would be included. The costs in that estimate ranged from $4.1 million assuming the waste was disposed of on-site to $50 million assuming the waste was disposed of at a licensed commercial facility. Molycorp first withdrew the proposal for disposal of the York waste at the Washington site and subsequently withdrew its request for a restricted release license termination.

Molycorp shipped the above-grade slag pile waste and waste that had been previously containerized to Envirocare, a licensed waste disposal facility in Utah.

In 2002, Molycorp’s decommissioning contractor began physical decommissioning work on the site buildings. By the end of 2003 all site buildings had been razed and the associated rubble disposed of. By the end of the second quarter 2004 Molycorp completed the supplemental characterization and developed conceptual level integrated site closure plan. This plan addressed remedial activities associated with both radiological and non-radiological materials.

Molycorp plans to complete site decommissioning using NRC approved guidance for averaging soil contamination known as the “AAR method.” Molycorp included this guidance in its approved decommissioning plan. Molycorp’s final remedial design for site closure includes a detailed water management plan for excavation activities planned below the water table. This plan specifies the necessary control measures to limit migration of radiological contamination.

Following completion of the final design, Molycorp expects the remedial work will take two full construction years with the majority of the time devoted to remediating the radiological concerns. After excavation activities are complete, any remaining final status surveys will be finalized and submitted to NRC.
Return to Index
Whittaker Corporation; Greenville, PA
NRC license SMA-1018,
NRC Docket 040-07455

The Whittaker Corporation site is situated 3.7 miles south of Greenville (Mercer County), PA. The Greenville Metals Plant and the Shenango River bound the site. The site occupies approximately 5.8 acres.

Whittaker Corporation (Whittaker) processed ferro-columbium and ferro-nickel alloys using an aluminothermic melting process at this site beginning in the 1960s. Manufacturing operations continued until 1974. The columbium ores and nickel scrap used in the manufacturing process contained trace amounts of natural thorium and uranium. The contaminated slag resulting from the process was stored on-site. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) indicated that elevated concentrations of radium-226 were found in some of the contaminated slag.

Thorium and uranium contaminated slag pieces remain in four sections of the site. Sections 1 and 4 consist of scattered pieces of contaminated slag. Section 3 also contains scattered pieces of slag and other contaminated slag in containers to be shipped. Section 2 is predominantly contaminated slag.

Whittaker submitted a decommissioning plan (DP) in 1996. The NRC did not approve this plan. Whittaker originally considered decontaminating the site for restricted release based on cost estimates. However, as Whittaker pursued the restricted release it became apparent that the approach might be more expensive than originally estimated. As a result of the increased estimates and their inability to obtain third-party indemnification, Whittaker and its contractor, Scientech Inc. (now Energy Solutions), decided to try to terminate the license under unrestricted release criteria. In a meeting with NRC and DEP’s Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) on November 27, 2001, Scientech management indicated Whittaker’s desire to decontaminate the site for unrestricted release.

Whittaker submitted a new DP in early 2003 for NRC review. However, the DP did not include the required financial assurance. As a result NRC rejected the entire DP. Whittaker resubmitted the DP in August of 2003 with the financial assurance included. The cost estimate provided for the cleanup was approximately $6.7 million. The estimated volume of radioactive waste was 4000 cubic meters.

Decommissioning activities began in July 2004, by Whittaker’s contractor with site cleanup of non-radiological wastes and disposal of some stored radioactive wastes in a licensed waste disposal facility. Selected decommissioning activities were performed under the license in place at that time. In addition, a license amendment request was sent to NRC in May 2004 for crushing and blending contaminated soil and slag for off-site disposal. The proposal was to be approved, but Whittaker was forced to change that plan due to issues with the disposal facility and an error in the estimated amount of higher activity material that was to be blended. The site will now be remediated to the approved release criteria with all waste going to a licensed waste disposal facility.

NRC renewed the current site license in August 2005. Whittaker’s license authorizes decontamination and decommissioning of facilities, packaging of stock materials and radioactive waste; storage of radioactive material and packaged radioactive waste prior to shipment. The license was also amended in 2005 to include the shipment of radioactive waste to a licensed facility. The site cleanup will continue in the spring of 2006. The contractor intends to complete the work in 2006.

Trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination has also been discovered at the site. Personnel from DEP’s Northwest Regional Office (NWRO) are investigating the origin of the contamination. Initial indications are that the contamination is leaching from the surrounding industrial properties into the Whittaker property. DEP’s NWRO has asked that all of the tenants in the industrial park work together to determine the source of the TCE contamination.
Return to Index
PermaGrain Products, Inc, Quehanna Wild Area, Karthaus, PA
NRC License 37-17860-02,
NRC Docket 030-29288

The Quehanna Site is situated in the Quehanna Wild Area of the Moshannon State Forest (Girard Township, Clearfield County), approximately 10 miles northwest of Karthaus, PA. The site is surrounded by Commonwealth-owned State Forest and Game lands which the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) and the Pennsylvania Game Commission manage. Most recently, PermaGrain Products, Inc. (PPI) rented the site from DCNR until they filed for bankruptcy (chapter 7) in late December 2002. The site has since fallen under the care of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Commonwealth) while the decommissioning continues.

The site consists of several buildings, a paved parking lot and an access road. The main building is a large interconnected structure where PPI’s operations were formerly conducted, and a separate “Service Area” structure that contained radioactive material handling cells known as “hot cells.” Other site buildings include an office trailer, a small wood-fired boiler building, a sawdust collector building (collapsed), and two one-story storage structures.
Curtiss-Wright Period (1955-1960)

In June 1955 Governor George M. Leader signed legislation that authorized the construction of a Curtiss-Wright (C-W) research facility at Quehanna. The Commonwealth sold the core area for the site to C-W and leased the balance to them. C-W planned a facility for the development of nuclear-powered jet engines and to conduct research in nucleonics, metallurgy, ultrasonics, electronics, chemicals and plastics. C-W performed some U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC- predecessor to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) licensed isotope work beginning in 1956. In 1958 the AEC issued a license to C-W to operate a pool-type research reactor at the facility. The facility also included six hot cells used for handling highly radioactive material, various laboratories and support buildings.
Pennsylvania State University/Martin Marietta Period (1960-1967)

In the early 1960s President Kennedy cut the C-W research program, and C-W donated the facility to Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) who planned to use the reactor for student training and research. Penn State, in turn, leased the hot cells to Martin-Marietta Corporation, dismantled the reactor and transferred the nuclear fuel core materials back to the AEC during this period.

Beginning in the summer of 1962 under a lease with Penn State, Martin-Marietta used the hot cells to manufacture several prototype Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) thermoelectric generators using very high specific activity strontium-90 in the form of strontium titanate. Martin-Marietta’s AEC license authorized them to possess up to 6 million curies of strontium. In 1967 Martin-Marietta completed its AEC contract, terminated its lease and vacated the facility after a partial decontamination. A radiological survey was jointly performed by Martin-Marietta, Penn State, and the AEC in April 1967. This survey indicated that, while the facility was acceptably clean for a radiation facility of that era, licensable quantities of strontium-90 stayed behind as structural contamination and residual radioactivity in piping and tanks, estimated at about 0.2 curies. Penn State did question the decontamination effort at the time, and later donated the facility to the Commonwealth.
Commonwealth/ARCO-NUMEC Period (1967-1978)

The Commonwealth then leased the facility to Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC), a subsidiary of Atlantic-Richfield Corporation (ARCO). The former reactor pool was converted for use as a large irradiator containing in excess of 1 million curies of cobalt-60. Projects included food irradiation, sterilization, wood irradiation and other processes requiring intense gamma radiation.
Commonwealth/PermaGrain Products Period (1978-2002)

In 1978 a group of ARCO employees formed PermaGrain Products, Inc. (PPI) and purchased the wood irradiation process, including the main irradiator, a smaller shielded irradiator and related equipment. PPI operated the site from 1978 to December 2002 as a manufacturer of durable irradiated flooring products. For a period of time PPI amended their NRC license to allow Neutron Products, Inc. (of Maryland) to use the site’s hot cells for cobalt-60 work.

Portions of the facility remained contaminated with strontium-90 resulting from activities of previous owners/tenants. In 1993 NRC required PPI to begin the process of cleaning up this “legacy” contamination. In response, the Commonwealth, as owner of the site, contracted for a site characterization study that same year.

In 1998 NES was awarded a contract by the Department of General Services (DGS) to perform the actual decommissioning work at Quehanna. Initial estimates indicated that this work would cost several million dollars and take six months to complete. 2006 will be the eighth year for the project. Total contract costs through the end of 2005 are approximately $30 million.
Note:
NES has undergone several changes in ownership and company name during the period of their involvement in the Quehanna decommissioning project. In 1999 they became known as Scientech, LLC. In October, 2005 Envirocare of Utah, LLC, a radioactive waste disposal company, acquired the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Division of Scientech, LLC. The group was renamed to Energy Solutions in February 2006.

Inadequate characterization of the site and the presence of ongoing industrial operations resulted in many project delays and increased costs. The characterization prepared for the Commonwealth in 1993 underestimated the source term in hot cell number 4. This contributed to a release of strontium-90 that spread into the then-operational PPI area of the facility in October 1998 when a Scientech employee cut a tube that contained more radioactivity than expected. Another major issue early in the project was the cleanup of over 3000 curies of cobalt-60 in the form of sealed sources in two of the six hot cells. Radiation levels forced most of this work to be performed remotely.

The October 1998 strontium release event resulted in a decision to restrict all access into hot cell number 4 until further preparations could be implemented (e.g., construction of a robot to dismantle hot cell number 4). Subsequent facility radiological surveys also resulted in the Commonwealth’s conclusion that PPI had to be relocated in order to achieve final termination of the NRC license for legacy contamination. DCNR also made a policy decision that they did not want any industrial use to continue within the Quehanna Wild Area. Working with the county industrial development group, several relocation sites were evaluated and land was purchased for the PPI business relocation.

PPI submitted their license application to the NRC for the design of the new building at the end of October 2001. NRC decided to require PPI to dispose of a bent cobalt-60 source in their possession and to submit to NRC an inventory with mechanical details of source construction to gain certification for the remainder of their sources. NRC would require disposal of any sources that could not be certified prior to authorizing PPI to move to the new facility. All of the relocation efforts ended when PPI filed for bankruptcy in late December 2002. The bankruptcy left approximately one hundred thousand curies of cobalt-60 abandoned at the site. DCNR and DEP quickly took action to maintain the necessary security and monitoring of the cobalt until a plan for proper disposal could be formulated.
Commonwealth Period (2002-Present)

Upon PPI’s bankruptcy, day-to-day control of the site fell to the Commonwealth. DEP assumed the responsibility as the licensee on the NRC license for the legacy contamination.

With the bankruptcy of PPI the cobalt-60 irradiator sources were left abandoned in place without a viable licensee. Through a joint effort led by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with the help of the Commonwealth and NRC, the cobalt-60 was removed from the site for disposal. EPA’s contractor finished the cobalt removal at the end of September 2003 and the cobalt was disposed of at the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Barnwell, SC.

Scientech continued performing decommissioning activities in the remainder of the contaminated areas of the facility and completed a significant portion of the cleanup. The majority of the remaining cleanup work involved hot cell number 4. A robot was brought to the site for the purpose of removing the highest activity strontium-90 contamination from hot cell number 4. After extensive training in the operation of the robot in a mock-up of hot cell number 4, the robot was deployed into the hot cell in November 2003.

The robot removed a large portion of the steel process system walls and the associated process tubing and tanks. It is estimated that between 10 and 15 curies of strontium-90 were removed from the cell by the end of 2003. The robot work was completed in 2004.

Negotiations with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prompted a funding agreement to assist with payment for the decommissioning project. It was hoped that these funds would be sufficient to complete the project.

The radiological portion of the Quehanna cleanup was believed to have been completed by the decommissioning contractor (Scientech) at the end of 2004. The contractor completed the final radiological surveys and submitted the Final Status Survey Report (FSSR) to DEP in early February 2005. Following a thorough DEP review and subsequent contractor revision, the FSSR was submitted to the NRC for their review prior to scheduling a confirmatory survey.

NRC and its confirmatory survey contractor, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), could not schedule a confirmatory survey until early May 2005. This confirmatory survey could not be performed sooner due to the time required for NRC and ORAU review of the FSSR and the severe winter weather typical of the Quehanna area. During the time between the FSSR submittal and the confirmatory survey, Scientech maintained a presence on the site, but no interim contamination surveys were performed. During performance of the confirmatory survey by NRC and ORAU, it was quickly determined that the conditions documented in the FSSR were not accurate and that contamination existed in excess of acceptable cleanup levels.

Scientech performed an investigation to determine the cause of the apparent recontamination. Their investigation indicated that a majority of the recontamination activity was due to contamination leaching from the concrete. The investigation indicates contamination existed in the concrete at greater depths than that at which the remediation took place, but was not detectable at the surface. The contamination evidently migrated (leached) back to the surface over the five months between contractor’s last surveys in December 2004 and the NRC’s survey in May 2005.

Scientech performed further remediation during the summer of 2005 to attempt to get the facility back to releasable levels (i.e., in accordance with NRC Regulatory Guide 1.86 criteria). Contamination levels have been significantly reduced, but not to levels that meet the approved NRC release criteria in Reg. Guide 1.86. DEP personnel have been monitoring the site radiological conditions since September 2005 to determine if any further leaching is occurring. The most recent survey was performed in December 2005, and all of the findings to-date do not indicate any significant increase in contamination levels. DEP will continue to monitor the radiological conditions at the site until decommissioning activities resume.

DEP understands the decommissioning approach and release criteria must be reevaluated because of the concrete issues. The existing criteria addresses only surface contamination and the leaching indicates there is volumetric contamination of the concrete. Under the current license conditions it may not be possible to obtain an unrestricted release for the existing building, but a relatively minor change to the decommissioning plan to adopt current regulatory requirements could make it possible to demolish the building without performing significant additional remediation.

The current plan is to gain approval from the NRC to adopt current release criteria stipulated in 10 CFR 20 Subpart E. It is believed that all of the concrete could be released and reused as on-site fill under current NRC regulation and guidance (i.e.,10 CFR 20 Subpart E and NUREG-1757), but it is understood that this is considered a major licensing action and may require up to six months for approval. Once the NRC gives approval for use of current release criteria, the above-grade structures will be removed and disposed of and the site restored to its natural state as a “wild area”.
Additional information and Quehanna site photos can be found at the Bureau’s “Quehanna Site Facility Cleanup Project” webpages.
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Pesses/METCOA Company; Pulaski, PA
NRC License STB-1254 (Terminated),
NRC Docket 40-08406

The Pesses/METCOA site is situated on Route 551 and Metallurgical Way approximately 1 mile north of Pulaski (Lawrence County), PA. The site is bounded by Buchanan Run (a tributary of the Shenango River) on the South and West, by Route 551 on the East and by a commercial area to the North. The site consists of 22 acres and is owned by the Lawrence County Industrial Development Authority.

The Pesses Company performed foundry operations at this site that resulted in Thorium and heavy metal contamination of site soils and in process wastes stored at the site. The combination of these contaminants resulted in the presence of mixed wastes at the site.

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a license to the Pesses Company in September 1975 authorizing them to possess “source material” containing thorium and also to metallurgically treat and/or reprocess scrap thorium alloy containing not more than 2% thorium by weight for distribution to authorized recipients. NRC authorized Pesses Company to possess up to a maximum of 2,000 kilograms of thorium. The license remained in timely renewal status based on a renewal request by the licensee in August 1980.

In late 1982 the Pesses Company merged with its subsidiary, METCOA, Inc. In mid-1983 METCOA entered bankruptcy proceedings. In November 1983 an auction was conducted at the site to liquidate equipment, tools, etc. All of these activities were conducted without the knowledge of the NRC.

During a routine inspection in 1984 an NRC inspector discovered that the licensee had abandoned the site. NRC contacted the licensee and was informed of the bankruptcy proceedings. In January 1986 NRC issued an Order to the licensee and/or its legal successor requiring it to submit a decontamination plan for the site and to complete decontamination efforts within 90 days of NRC approval of the plan. The licensee/legal successor did not respond to the Order.

In 1986 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that the site presented a hazard that merited emergency stabilization under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). EPA consolidated and stabilized the residual thorium and hazardous materials on the site using Superfund monies. EPA also assembled a group of Potentially Responsible Parties (the METCOA Settling Parties) that have assumed financial responsibility for remediation efforts at the site. Surface contamination and slag were collected, consolidated in piles and covered with plastic. This initial stabilization was completed in 1987. Additional stabilization was conducted in 1989. Drummed materials were moved indoors, a sediment control fence was installed and the slag piles were recovered with geotextile fabric and plastic.

In mid-1998 a contractor for the METCOA Settling Parties completed final cleanup of the site and removal of all wastes for proper disposal. Surveys completed by NRC and DEP personnel in May 1999 confirmed that the site had been decontaminated sufficiently to allow release for unrestricted use. NRC removed the site from the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) list and on March 15, 2001 terminated the Pesses/METCOA license.
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Westinghouse Electric Corporation; Waltz Mill Site
NRC Licenses TR-2 and SNM-770,
NRC Docket 070-00698

The Waltz Mill site is situated 3 miles west of New Stanton between the towns of Madison and Yukon (Westmoreland County), PA approximately 30 miles southeast of Pittsburgh, PA. The site comprises 850 acres of which about 85 acres were developed and utilized.

Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WELCO) purchased the land for the Waltz Mill site in 1955 for the Critical Experiment Station for the design and testing of an open tank low-power reactor. WELCO subsequently constructed the Westinghouse Test Reactor (WTR), a 60 megawatt, low pressure, low temperature reactor. WTR was placed in operation in 1959. WTR experienced a “core disruption” in April 1960 that resulted in partial melting of a fuel element and generated a large volume of radioactive water. This water was placed in numerous above-ground storage tanks and 3 storage basins. WTR was permanently shut down in 1962.

In 1967, WELCO relocated its Advanced Reactors Division (ARD) to the Waltz Mill Site. This resulted in adding several buildings to site including laboratories and offices. ARD performed various nuclear system testing operations at the site, including:
Design of fast reactor fuels.
Design radiation experiments.
Component testing.
Materials fabrication evaluation studies.
Coolant chemistry environmental studies.
Fuel Assembly design and fabrication.
Sodium-water steam generator testing.
Thermal hydraulic experimental studies.

In the early 1970’s WELCO relocated its Nuclear Services Division (NSD) to the Waltz Mill Site. In 1979, soil and groundwater investigations were initiated in the Solid and Liquid Waste Processing Area. Subsequently, remediation measures were implemented to remove contaminated soil and to contain, remove and treat contaminated groundwater.

Handling of radioactive materials at the Waltz Mill Site is currently covered by two U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licenses (TR-2 and SNM-770). NRC license TR-2 is a possession-only license for WTR. All other site radiological activities are governed by NRC license SNM-770.

Site characterization and remediation plans were prepared for portions of the site. WELCO has stated that it is not pursuing license termination at the site and consequently has prepared a remediation plan rather than a decommissioning plan. The plan addresses remediation of contaminated soils and retired facilities (i.e., solid and liquid processing areas, WTR Area, and General Facilities and Soil Areas) of the site covered by license SNM-770. WELCO has prepared a preliminary decommissioning plan for that portion of the test reactor (i.e., reactor containment and related structures) covered by license TR-2.

Most of the radiological contamination can be attributed to the 1960 WTR fuel failure event. The greatest radiological contamination levels at Waltz Mill are located in the northwest (test reactor area) and southeast (solid and liquid waste processing area) portions of the site and a liquid process line that connects the two areas. Contaminated water from the reactor containment was directed to the retention basins via the liquid process line. Radioactive contamination existed in various active and inactive site buildings and in buried liners from the retention basins. Principal radionuclides are identified as cesium-137, cobalt-60, strontium-90, and transuranics.

Decommissioning activities for the TR-2 are near completion with the removal of the fuel, reactor tank, biological shield, and other irradiated materials. Approximately 6.6 million pounds of contaminated concrete have been disposed of as low-level radioactive waste.

The main concern with license SNM-770 is soil and groundwater contamination near the solid and liquid waste process area (i.e., the area encompassing the three retention basins). WELCO has been pumping groundwater from the area since 1986 in order to keep a radioactive contaminant plume on the site. Soil remediation activities, including removal of the three basins, have been completed. This resulted in 262,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil being disposed of as low-level radioactive waste.

WELCO prepared a financial assurance mechanism for decommissioning the Waltz Mill site. The total estimated cost for decommissioning is $38 million ($24 million for license SNM-770 and $14 million for TR-2).

A legal dispute developed in 2002 between Westinghouse and Viacom, Inc. concerning the adequacy remediation efforts at the site. Westinghouse has entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (Agreement) with Viacom to complete certain decommissioning activities prior to transferring the site’s radioactive materials license to Viacom. Westinghouse asserts that they have met their responsibilities under the Agreement. Viacom contends they have not.

WELCO intends to maintain the SNM-770 license for at least the next 30 years. During this time, groundwater pumping and treatment will continue until such time that the groundwater meets the quality standards necessary for unrestricted use.
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Schott Glass Technologies, Inc.; Duryea, PA
NRC License STB-988 (terminated),
NRC Docket 040-07924

The Schott Glass Technologies, Inc. (Schott Glass) site is located on 65 acres in a small industrial park on the outskirts of Duryea (Luzerne County), PA. Duryea is approximately 7 miles north of Wilkes Barre and 7 miles south of Scranton, PA. The Schott Glass property is on a hilltop and includes a steep hillside. An apartment house, a cluster of homes, and a ball field are located beyond 500 feet north and northwest of the property. An unrelated manufacturing facility is beyond 800 ft. northeast of the property. Woods and underbrush are located to the south and east.

Schott manufactured glass and thoriated glass at its Duryea site. Waste glass from the manufacturing process, including the thoriated glass, were placed in a landfill on the property from 1969 until 1980. Individual pieces of thoriated glass contain up to 50,000 pico-curies of thorium per gram of waste glass. Schott’s decommissioning plan proposed to leave the relatively small, discrete volumes of thoriated glass chips in place within the landfill and to install a multi-layered cap over the entire fill area. Both U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the DEP approved the decommissioning plan.

Decommissioning of this site has been completed. The Schott Glass license was terminated and the site was released for unrestricted use by NRC in September 1998. Due to the presence of lead contamination, the site remains under deed restrictions approved by DEP as part of the decommissioning plan.
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Cabot Corporation; Revere, PA
NRC License SMC-1562,
NRC Docket 040-09027

The Cabot Revere site is situated on Beaver Run Road approximately one-half mile southeast of Revere (Bucks County), PA. The site is bounded on the West and Northwest by Rapp Creek, on the Northeast and East by Beaver Run Road and on the South by various properties. The site occupies approximately 100 acres.

Cabot Corporation owns sites located in Boyertown, Revere and Reading, PA. The Revere and Reading sites are inactive and were covered under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license SMC-1562. The Revere site is discussed in this summary (Boyertown and Reading are discussed separately).

In the late 1960s and early 1970s Cabot’s predecessor, Kawecki Chemical Corp. (Kawecki) produced steel-grade niobium at the Revere site using ores that contained naturally occurring uranium and thorium at levels defined as “source material” under the Atomic Energy Act. The presence of source material required Kawecki to obtain a license (SMC-1562) from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC- predecessor to the NRC). Kawecki’s process resulted in a silica slag waste material that contained the residual uranium and thorium that was originally in the ore. The niobium refining process was discontinued in 1976 and no additional source material was brought to the site.

After Cabot acquired the site, it was placed on the NRC’s Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) list of potentially problematic decommissioning sites. Cabot performed a series of decommissioning efforts in 1990, 1992, and 1993 to remove portions of the slag material. A confirmatory survey performed in 1993 by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) showed that there were pieces of slag remaining in the following four areas:
Parking Area – Approximately 36,000 ft2 in size, the area consists of building rubble mixed with waste slag to a depth of about six feet.
Former Container Storage Area – Approximately 20,000 ft2 in size, the area consists of a waste slag and soil mixture to a depth of about four feet.
Building 4 & 5 Area – Approximately 16,000 ft2 in size, the area consists of waste slag and rock mixed with soil to a depth of about two feet.
Old Pit Area – Approximately 55,000 ft2 in size, the area consists of building debris mixed with waste slag and some soil to a depth of about nine feet.

In Cabot’s February 2001 decommissioning report, they indicated that no additional remediation activities were required because “potential exposure levels for the current conditions and any reasonable future conditions are well below the 25 mREM/year criteria for unrestricted release.” These dose assessments were based on site characterization information and a February 2001 radiological assessment report including RESRAD computer code analyses.

DEP’s Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) performed a verification of site conditions in April 2001. Radiological surveys located individual pieces of slag material in the locations and at the radiological levels indicated in the decommissioning plan. BRP extended the survey beyond the four known locations to look for any unrecorded dumping sites. In a September, 2001 letter the NRC terminated Cabot’s license and released the site for unrestricted use. BRP found no other areas of concern and agreed with the NRC that the license could be terminated.

However, BRP has notified the DEP Bureau of Waste Management concerning the remaining low-level radioactive material on the site. Special concern was given to the material in the Old Pit Area. This area is in the flood plain of Rapp Creek, which is designated as an Exceptional Value Stream by the Commonwealth. This issue has yet to be resolved.
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Cabot Corporation; Reading, PA
NRC License SMC-1562,
NRC Docket 040-09027

The Cabot Reading site is located in Reading (Berks County), PA on approximately 10 acres of land along the Schuykill River. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed portion of the site consists of a slag pile that forms part of an embankment on the boundary between the site and railroad tracks on the shoreline of the river.

Cabot Corporation owns sites located in Boyertown, Revere and Reading, PA. The Revere and Reading sites are inactive and were covered under NRC license SMC-1562. The Reading site is discussed in this summary (Boyertown and Revere are discussed separately).

Cabot Corporation’s (Cabot) predecessor, Kawecki Chemical Corp. utilized the site in the late 1960s to conduct a process intended to increase the percentage of tantalum in low-grade ores. The ores contained naturally occurring uranium and thorium at levels defined as “source material” under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste from the process was a glass-like silica slag containing the thorium and uranium which was placed on an embankment at the south end of the property. During cleanup of the processing buildings and cleanup of portion of the port area in Baltimore in 1977 and 1978, decontamination waste and sand mixed with tin slag were placed on the embankment.

In 1998, Cabot sought to terminate their license without remediation activities because (according to their report) “potential exposure levels for the current conditions and any reasonable future conditions are well below the 25 mrem/year criteria for unrestricted release.”

The total volume of the slag pile is estimated at 180,000 cubic feet including radiologically contaminated slag, soil, and debris. According to Cabot’s decommissioning plan, the average activity in the waste slag is 45 pico-curies per gram (pCi/g) thorium-232 and associated progeny and 30 pCi/g uranium-238 and associated progeny. Based on studies, the licensee claims that the pile is stable and that the radionuclide leaching is negligible.

An October 1998 Federal Register notice stated that NRC had received Cabot’s decommissioning plan and provided opportunity for a hearing. NRC’s Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (ASLB) granted two of the four hearing requests it received. These two parties, the City of Reading and its Redevelopment Authority, reached a monetary settlement with Cabot prior to any hearing and subsequently withdrew their requests.

Cabot submitted a revised Radiological Assessment in March, 2000 that concluded “that concentrations of radionuclides in materials on the site are sufficiently low that the site qualifies for release without restriction on use… without any additional decommissioning activities.” The NRC staff agree with Cabot’s conclusion. DEP expressed serious reservations about these conclusions and stated that Cabot’s conclusions “may be based on a source term that significantly underestimates the actual conditions at the site.”

NRC issued a draft memorandum in March, 2002 that concluded that “the site can be released for unrestricted use without additional remediation.” The following month, DEP personnel related their concerns about NRC’s conclusions to the NRC during a conference call. DEP documented these concerns to NRC in a May, 2002 letter.

NRC’s June, 2002 response to DEP’s letter concluded that “the site can be removed from the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) listing and released for unrestricted use without additional remediation.” Also in June, NRC released draft versions of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) and Environmental Assessment (EA) stating that NRC found “the Cabot Reading site acceptable for removal from the SDMP and unrestricted release with no further remediation necessary.”

NRC and DEP met in July, 2002 to discuss DEP’s concerns with NRC’s draft SER and EA. These concerns included:
The slag pile has not been adequately characterized resulting in a potentially underestimated source term, i.e., no subsurface samples were obtained from the slope and no samples were obtained of the larger pieces of slag known to contain higher levels of radioactivity.
All credible scenarios were not considered, specifically the possibility of a residence being built on the slag pile during the 1000-year assessment period.
The radiological assessment uses non-conservative assumptions, specifically, all scenarios that consider an eroded slag pile surface use significantly lower uranium and thorium concentrations than are known exist in slag buried in the pile. In certain scenarios (e.g., walker and excavation worker), the dose estimates are calculated assuming that slag pile soil cover does not erode over the entire 1000-year assessment period.

The meeting resulted in the following:
The NRC delayed finalizing the draft SER and EA.
The NRC agreed to require Cabot to have an independent land use planner assess the site.
The NRC agreed to require Cabot to do any additional characterization the land use assessment necessitated.

Subsequent to this meeting, the City provided redevelopment plans to the NRC that indicated the site will only be used for light industrial/commercial activities. Based on these plans the NRC decided that an independent land use assessment was not necessary. The Centers for Disease Control’s Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) received inquiries from nearby residents about potential health effects and occupational exposures related to the slag pile. At a January, 2003 meeting held by the Council of the City of Reading to address residents’ concerns DEP responded to concerns raised by local residents and committed to providing contacts at the Pennsylvania Department of Health for follow-up studies. In addition, DEP is investigating potential Environmental Justice issues associated with the slag pile.

In January, 2003 NRC held a public meeting to address pending licensing actions regarding the Cabot Reading slag pile. Representatives from DEP, ATSDR, and John Hopkins University were in attendance. DEP clarified its previously stated concerns related to Cabot’s plan for unrestricted release of the slag pile. As a result of the meeting, NRC issued in March, 2003 a Request for Additional Information (RAI) regarding Cabot’s decommissioning plan and radiological assessment for the slag pile. Specifically, NRC asked Cabot to:
“[P]rovide a more detailed analysis of anticipated effects of erosion on the slag pile” taking into account in the dose modeling the “highest average surface layer concentration” for the slag pile in the eroded state.
Address the “significant uncertainty in the [split spoon] sampling method’s ability to obtain representative samples from large blocks of slag buried in an unconsolidated pile…” NRC suggested three possible approaches:
Assume a “conservatively thick layer of slag” in developing the source term for the slag.
“[C]onduct noninvasive surveys to identify the depth and thickness of the slag layer.”
Perform “test pit trenching.”
Describe “how licensed material left on the surface is consistent with ALARA [As Low As is Reasonably Achievable] good practices, of by considering possible ALARA actions at the site.”

NRC issued a notice of violation (NOV) to Cabot as a result of a March, 2003 inspection of the site. The NOV stated that Cabot had failed to control access to the slag pile as evidenced by a break in the fence surrounding the slag pile and the discovery of pieces of slag outside the fence. The NOV also stated that Cabot had failed to perform complete radiation surveys around the perimeter of the slag pile. Cabot responded by expanding the fence boundary and performing the required surveys.

In January, 2004, DEP learned of a proposal to extend River Road through a right-of-way along the lower edge of the slag pile. A meeting was held at the DEP Southcentral Regional Office (SCRO) on January 22, 2004 to discuss the proposal. Representatives for the City, various programs in the SCRO, the DEP Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP), and the NRC participated in the meeting. The City and the Authority believe it is vital to extend River Road to provide access to blighted areas in Reading that have been identified for redevelopment under Pennsylvania’s Act 2 (legislation relating to “brownfields”). The major issue in developing the River Road extension is the presence of the contaminated slag pile. The River Road extension right-of-way extends into part of the slag pile that is contaminated with thorium-232 and uranium-238. Various options for expediting the River Road extension project were discussed, but it was stressed that no action can be taken until a plan that addresses the contaminated slag is approved by the NRC.

Since then Cabot has resubmitted plans to NRC that would not require the disposal of any radioactive material. The plan indicates that in their opinion the site meets the current criteria for unrestricted use. However, they plan to further stabilize the site using rip-rap. NRC has provided this as an option in NUREG-1757, and they are working closely with Cabot to make sure that all requirements will be met. DEP participates in regular conference calls with NRC and Cabot to stay informed in the process. It is expected that Cabot will make an amended submission in March 2006 that will include the specifics of the rip-rap cover as well as a radiological assessment. The issue with the right-of-way also appears to have been resolved by the City. The existing railroad tracks are to be shifted far enough to allow the construction of the access road without disturbing the radioactive slag on the right-of-way.
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Cabot Corporation; Boyertown, PA
NRC License SMB-920,
NRC Docket 040-06940

The Boyertown site is located about 1.6 miles northeast of the borough of Boyertown, PA. The site straddles the border between Berks and Montgomery Counties. Current operations occupy 44 acres of the 170-acre site. The northwest and southwest portions of the site are bordered by West Swamp Creek. Residences border the northeast, southeast and southwest sides of the site. The Boyertown site is an active site and it is covered under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license SMB-920.

Cabot Corporation owns sites located in Boyertown, Revere and Reading, PA. The Revere and Reading sites are inactive and were both covered under a separate NRC license (SMC-1562). The Boyertown site an active site and is discussed in this summary (Revere and Reading are discussed separately).

According to its NRC license, Cabot is authorized to receive, possess, and process natural uranium and thorium. In 1963, Cabot’s predecessor, Kawecki Chemical Corporation (Kawecki) was first licensed to possess “source material” (material containing uranium and/or thorium in excess of 0.05% by weight). The initial license authorized Cabot to store 11,000 tons of Malayan Tin Slag containing less than 0.1% thorium by weight at the Boyertown site. A mid-1963 license amendment authorized a second storage site in Baltimore, Maryland.

Cabot processes tin slags, tantalite, and columbite ores to extract tantalum and niobium. The ores and slags contain uranium and thorium source material. Operations also include fabrication of products, treatment of industrial liquid waste, and storage of byproduct sludge containing valuable rare earth components. The byproduct sludges are classified as source material.

The Boyertown site was on NRC’s Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) list because of NRC concerns over the amount of source material that Cabot had in on-site storage (25,000 tons of filter cake). NRC was concerned that Cabot’s financial assurances for decommissioning were insufficient to accommodate the amount of material present. During 1997 and 1998, Cabot transferred the 25,000 tons of filter cake to a NRC-licensed uranium processing facility in Utah. This action led NRC to conclude that Cabot had sufficient financial assurances to cover costs associated with decommissioning. Consequently, NRC removed the Boyertown site from the SDMP list.

In July 1998 Cabot submitted a license amendment request proposing that Cabot evaluate its decommissioning funding plan (i.e., financial assurances) on a 24-month interval. The purpose of the evaluation is to assure that sufficient funds are available for site decommissioning. NRC approved the amendment request in September 1998.

Although the Boyertown site was removed from the SDMP list it should be noted that it appears that Cabot still generates significant quantities of uranium and thorium contaminated sludges. According to a December 1996 Safety Evaluation Report (SER) for license SMB-920, the Boyertown site generated about 5,100 pounds of sludge per day. This sludge contained uranium and thorium contamination at approximately 1% by weight. Cabot’s planned process called for drying the sludge to a form suitable for off-site disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Generation rates were projected at 30,000 pounds per day.

The same SER indicated that filtrate sludge containing near-background levels of uranium and thorium are generated at a rate of 125,000 pounds per day. From 1988-1992 the uranium and thorium content of the filtrate sludges averaged 5.8 and 3.0 parts per million (PPM) respectively. The material was disposed of at the Pottstown landfill.
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Canonsburg/Burrell Disposal Sites;
Canonsburg and Blairsville, PA
NRC License- General License per 10 CFR 40.27

The Canonsburg site is situated in the Borough of Canonsburg (Washington County), PA, approximately 20 miles southwest of Pittsburgh. The site lies between Chartiers Creek and the Norfolk Southern Rail Corporation tracks. The site occupies 18.6 acres and includes a 6-acre disposal cell and adjacent open land.

The Burrell site is situated in Burrell Township (Indiana County), PA, approximately 1 mile east of Blairsville, PA, 40 miles east of Pittsburgh, PA. The site lies between the Conemaugh River and the Norfolk Southern Rail Corporation tracks. The site occupies approximately 69 acres and includes a 4-acre disposal cell and adjacent open land.

The Canonsburg site was operated as a radium extraction plant by Standard Chemical from 1911 to 1922. Later, Vitro Corporation of America acquired the property and processed ore to extract radium and uranium salts. From 1942 until 1957, Vitro was under contract to the federal government to recover uranium from ore and scrap. The Canonsburg site contained 376,100 cubic yards of residual radioactive materials (RRM). Approximately 54,000 cubic yards of RRM from the site were moved to the Burrell site between October 1956 and January 1957. For the next nine years, the site was used only for storage under a U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC- predecessor to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) contract. In 1967, the property was purchased by the Canon Development Company and was leased to tenant companies for light industrial use.

Remedial action at the Canonsburg site consisted of placing the RRM in a disposal cell designed to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) longevity standards for 200 to 1,000 years of safe storage. In addition, RRM removed from 163 vicinity properties was brought to the Canonsburg site for disposal. The cell occupies 6 acres and has a clay liner to protect ground water from contamination by RRM. The tailings were placed atop the liner and covered with three feet of clay, soil and a bentonite mixture, which serves to prevent the escape of radon gas from the tailings and the penetration of water into the cell. The radon barrier was then covered with layers of rock and soil and seeded with grass.

Remedial action was completed in 1985 at the Canonsburg processing site. The RRM at the Burrell Township site was stabilized using an approach similar to that used at the Canonsburg site. Remedial action was completed in July 1987. The NRC placed the Burrell and Canonsburg sites under the general license for care and custody of disposal sites in May 1994 and Canonsburg site in January 1996, respectively.

The disposal cells are being managed under the U.S. Department Of Energy’s (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance and Monitoring Program (LTSM) in accordance with site-specific plans. DOE’s Grand Junction Office (GJO), in Grand Junction, CO, has responsibility for the Burrell and Canonsburg sites since September 1994 and April 1996, respectively. The federal government currently owns both disposal cell properties.

In a March 2001 news release DOE announce resumption of work to stabilize the bank of Chartiers Creek at the Canonsburg Site. The actions were necessitated by erosion of the southern bank of the creek.

In an April 2001 report to NRC on the Burrell site, DOE stated that they had scaled back ground water monitoring commitments based on results through year 2000 and proposed discontinuing vegetation control measures on the surface on the disposal cell (based on a June 1999 DOE report, #GJO-99-96-TAR).
DOE information on the Canonsburg site can be found at the following websites:

DOE information on the Burrell site can be found at the following websites:


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Flannery Building (Parkvale Bank); Pittsburgh, PA
PA License: PA-0821 (terminated)

The Flannery Building is situated at 3530 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh (Allegheny County), PA. The site consists of a steel frame masonry building with approximately 50,000 square feet of floor space on five floors, a mezzanine and a basement.

The Flannery Building was built circa 1910 by Mr. Joseph Flannery, President of the Vanadium Corp. of America (VCA) and the Standard Chemical Corp. (later Radium Chemical Co.). The building was a major processing and refining facility for radium from the VCA- Canonsburg, PA facility through the 1920’s and 30’s. The first major commercial production of radium from U.S. ores was pioneered at the Flannery Building. Production of self-luminous paint and concentrated radium compounds for medical, industrial and commercial uses was carried out in the fifth floor facilities of the building. At one time the building was said to contain the major portion of the world’s inventory of processed radium. News articles from 1927 showed photographs of a visit by Madam Marie Curie. An estimated 180 grams (or curies) of radium-226 was refined in this facility.

As a result of radium production, residual radium contamination existed on all levels, including the roof. After its use as a radium production facility ceased, the building passed through numerous owners who rented out the building as office space. Interior renovations were made several times. Limited attempts at decontamination were undertaken at various times. In the 1960’s, while under ownership of the Greek Catholic Union, some remediation of the radium contamination was performed by Combustion-Engineering (CE), including pouring a high density concrete slab over the fifth floor to shield out some of the highest levels of radiation. Limited remediation was performed by Applied Health Physics, Inc. (AHP) in selected areas through the 1960’s and 70’s, but no comprehensive characterization or decontamination was carried out during that time.

Parkvale Bank purchased the building in the 1980’s and operated a branch of their bank on the ground floor for many years. In early 1984 Parkvale requested a survey of the building by DER (predecessor to DEP). A limited survey was performed by a Senior Health Physicist from the DER’s Southwest Regional Office (SWRO). On January 27, 1984, DER issued a letter stating that the building met guidelines for unrestricted access. Parkvale Bank sold the building to a local businessman shortly after receipt of the DER letter. The bill of sale state that the building was “free of radiation.” Within a few years the new owner had concerns about the possibility of contamination in the building despite the DER letter and the Parkvale Bank statement in the bill of sale.

The owner’s concern led to an investigation in 1989. AHP completed a survey of portions of the building and reported that radium contamination in excess of unrestricted access limits existed and also that radon levels exceeded EPA limits in some areas. However, AHP also concluded that no contamination existed in areas that would create significant radiological risks to the tenants or public.

Integra Bank, the mortgage holder for the new owner, proceeded to have Quadrex Corp. perform about 10,000 radiation measurements in the building. Although no intrusive measurements were made, this survey was the most comprehensive yet conducted. The Quadrex survey report, issued in 1994, clearly indicated widespread radium contamination. Quadrex also provided a cost estimate ranging from $955,000 to $1.2 million for decontamination. At the time of the Quadrex work, the building was occupied by numerous physicians’ offices, as well as a children’s audiology testing center on the fifth floor. Parkvale continued to operate their bank branch on the ground floor.

Legal action was initiated by the building owner against Parkvale Bank, based on alleged misrepresentation in the sale of the building. Finally, in mid-1998, an out-of-court settlement was reached and Parkvale bought back the building. The building was vacated in April 1999, and Parkvale’s contractor, Enercon Corp, initiated a major characterization and decontamination program in June 2000. In recognition of the building conditions and at the request of Parkvale, DEP’s Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) had established unrestricted release criteria in a PA Radioactive Materials License (PA-0821) issued in September 1999 to Parkvale Bank. At the start this phase of remediation work, fixed contamination levels were found as much as 300 times higher than the release criteria.

BRP gave this remediation project priority attention in early 2003, providing guidance to the licensee to ensure this building would finally be cleaned up, after more than 80 years of being contaminated. The licensee worked closely with BRP staff to come to an agreed-upon conclusion that the building was finally cleaned to acceptable levels for release for unrestricted use. The license was terminated in September 2003.

Work accomplished prior to license termination:
Contaminated building material has been removed leaving only the basic structure remaining on most floors.
Large portions of the basement floor and contaminated soil beneath the floor were removed.
Approximately 470 tons of contaminated materials were shipped to two licensed disposal facilities: Envirocare in Utah and Waste Control Specialists in Texas.

This project required a special approach when it was discovered that it was not feasible to achieve the strict release criteria, requested by the licensee, everywhere in the building. BRP worked with the licensee to develop individual dose assessments for locations that exceeded the strict release criteria. These areas, for reasons of structural integrity, inaccessibility, and/or safety concerns, could not be decontaminated further. Staff from the DEP SWRO performed checks at each of these locations, and each location was given final approval based on a review of all the documentation provided by the licensee and the SWRO staff.

BRP staff reviewed all the information provided by the licensee and performed independent radiological surveys of the building. As a result, Radioactive Materials License Number PA-0821 was terminated in September 2003 allowing the building to be released for unrestricted use.
More hyperlinks to decommissioning issues at and a history of the Flannery Building can be found on the Bureau’s “Decommissioning the Flannery Building for Unrestricted Use” webpage.
Return to Index
Frankford Arsenal; Philadelphia, PA
NRC Licenses SUB-459 and SUB-1339 (both terminated),
NRC Docket 040-08702

The Frankford Arsenal site is situated in the city of Philadelphia (Philadelphia County), PA. The site is bounded on the North by Tacony Street, on the South by Frankford Creek and the Delaware River and on the West by Bridge Street and on the East by commercial property. The site occupies approximately 110 acres.

The site consists of a business park operated by Hankin Management Co. Site occupants include the PA Fish and Boat Commission, the Dietz and Watson, Inc. meatpacking plant and a City of Philadelphia High School. About 1200 people are employed on the site.

The Frankford Arsenal site derives its name from the former major military installation that was established on the property circa 1816. The arsenal closed in 1977 and most of the site was sold and is now operated as a business park.

The first recorded use of radioactive material at the site was radium dials in the 1940’s. In the late 1950’s and early 1960’s depleted uranium (DU), used in fabrication and testing of munitions, became the predominant radionuclide. Small amounts of tritium were also used in luminous instruments. Other radionuclides used include strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137. Although there are historical indications that an undetermined amount of radium may have existed at the site, there has never been a PA radium license for this site.

The site is currently being used as a business park. Although previous U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licenses for DU and tritium were terminated after remediation in 1980-81, it has since been determined by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) that the site may not meet the criteria for unrestricted release. In response, NRC placed this site on a list of sites that required further evaluation.

In addition to possible radiological contamination, this site may contain unexploded ordinance (UXO), and/or toxic wastes. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineering (USACE) performed a review of the site to determine if it qualified for cleanup funds from the Formally Utilized Defense Sites (FUDS) program.

A Historical Site Assessment (HSA) was issued in December 2001. It was followed by a scoping survey to “determine if the present residual concentrations of the RCOPCs [Radioactive Contaminants of Potential Concern] in buildings and land areas at the FFA [former Frankford Arsenal] facility support the prior license termination action to release the Site for unrestricted use.” The scoping survey report, issued in July, 2003, stated that “the results do not indicate widespread or considerable concentrations of residual radioactive material at the FFA.”

The HSA identified a large list of Radioactive Contaminants of Potential Concern. Since the use of radionuclides ceased more than twenty-five years prior to the scoping surveys, only radionuclides with sufficiently long half-lives (i.e., greater than 3 years) could remain in existence at the site. They are:
Americium-241
Carbon-14
Cesium-137
Cobalt-60
Tritium
Neptunium-237
Nickel-63
Radium-226 and associated progeny
Strontium-90/Yttrium-90
Thallium-204
Thorium (natural) and associated progeny
Uranium-238 and associated progeny

None of these radionuclides were found during the scoping survey in concentrations sufficient to require remediation. Upon completion of the Radiological Scoping Survey Report of the Frankford Arsenal, USACE concluded that the site had been closed successfully and no hazardous radiological contaminants remained.

Regarding the potential hazards from UXO on the site, USACE hosted a public meeting on February 9, 2005, in Philadelphia to discuss USACE plans to address potential unexploded/unstable munitions at the former Frankford Arsenal. Simultaneously, USACE issued a draft Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) that contained recommendations and alternatives for response actions to address UXO at the former Frankford Arsenal.
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Royersford Wastewater Treatment Facility; Royersford, PA
NRC License-None
NRC Docket-None

The Royersford Wastewater Treatment Facility site is situated in Royersford (Montgomery County), PA.

The Royersford Wastewater Treatment Facility (RWTF) is a small wastewater treatment facility that processes the wastewater from the town of Royersford prior to discharging it into the Schuylkill River. RWTF is located in close proximity to a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed nuclear laundry owned by UniTech Services Group (UniTech), formerly Interstate Nuclear Services (NRC license 37-23341-01, docket 030-20934).

UniTech accepts radioactively contaminated protective clothing from various facilities, launders the clothing and reissues the “clean” clothing back to the facilities. UniTech’s license allows them to discharge the wastewater containing radioactivity resulting from their process at or below the concentration limits specified in NRC regulations. Until January, 2004 this wastewater went directly to the RWTF along with the town’s wastewater.

The wastewater treatment process at RWTF caused the low levels of fission and activation product radioactivity, released by UniTech, to become concentrated in the sludge, filtrate and filter cake material at their facility. The result is a number of contaminated areas at the RWTF including reed beds (used for sludge dewatering), process cells and holding tanks.

Starting in February, 2004 UniTech began discharging its liquid effluent, after on-site processing and sampling, directly to the Schuylkill River. This has stopped discharges from UniTech’s facility to RWTF and has terminated further concentration of radioactivity at RWTF. It has not resolved the issue of cleanup and disposal of the radioactivity already on-site.

RWTF lacks the financial resources to fund the shipment of the radioactive materials on-site to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility. Furthermore, UniTech has acted within the regulations and is currently not considered to be responsible for the cleanup and disposal costs.

During 2004, the digester tanks at RWTF became full and needed to be cleaned out. Based on the results of a dose evaluation, DEP authorized RWTF to send the sludge from these tanks to Pottstown Sewage Treatment Plant where it was processed and the resulting filter cake was disposed of in a municipal waste landfill.

Sludge contained in the RWTF reed beds was outside of the scope of the dose evaluation and remains on-site. Potential scenarios for disposal of this sludge include sending it to a LLRW disposal facility if funding can be secured, granting an exemption for disposal at a landfill or construction of an on-site disposal cell.

It is likely that more site characterization and dose calculations will be necessary prior to making decisions. In the meantime, radiation dosimeters positioned at various locations around the site are analyzed quarterly to assure the safety of the workers on-site. This facility is not licensed by the NRC.
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Superbolt, Inc. (Formerly Superior Steel Corp.); Carnegie, PA
NRC License-None
NRC Docket-None

The Superbolt site is situated in the town of Carnegie (Allegheny County), PA approximately 5 miles southwest of downtown Pittsburgh. The site is bounded on the north, west and south by Chartiers Creek and on the east by Superior Street. The site occupies approximately 25 acres.

The site consists of several manufacturing buildings, office buildings and surrounding open areas. The portion of the site where U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, predecessor to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) work was performed consists of one building and adjacent area occupying approximately 1 acre. This building is currently owned by Superbolt, Inc (a manufacturer of mechanical stud and bolt tensioning equipment ) and is currently used for storage.

The Superbolt site was formerly owned by Superior Steel Corporation (SSC). SSC fabricated uranium fuel elements under contract to the AEC, at the site during the 1950’s.

SSC fabricated flat plate-type reactor fuel elements under contract to the AEC from 1952 to 1957 at this facility. The process consisted of operations such as rolling, brushing, shaping, cutting and stamping. These operation generated large quantities of radioactive dust. Cleanup during operation was limited to water wash-down of the processing equipment and facilities. No records have been found indicating that any final cleanup and surveys were performed at the time the contract was terminated in 1957.

In 1980 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a preliminary survey of the site. The survey was performed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and indicated that the site was contaminated with residual uranium. Contamination was found on floors, other building surfaces, in soil in sub-floor pits, and in an adjacent storage shed. A full characterization could not be completed due to conditions at the site (i.e., heavy equipment stored in the facility and heavy coke dust on building surfaces).

In 1985 the DOE identified the former SSC site as a site that was used by DOE’s predecessor agencies. DOE’s study of the historical records related to the former SSC site resulted in its determination that DOE did not have the authority to perform remedial actions under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Plan (FUSRAP) at the site.

In 1997 Applied Health Physics, Inc. (AHP) was contracted to perform a preliminary radiological characterization of the site and subsequently to perform soil and concrete remediation in the storage shed area.

During the summer of 2000, ORAU performed Phase 1 of a radiological scoping survey at the Superbolt site at the NRC’s request. This limited scope survey indicated that “significant residual contamination remains at the site within soils at the north and southwest ends (Salt Bath and Storage Shed areas, respectively) of the exterior of the facility and on the horizontal structural surfaces (floor and overheads) within Area C” (former uranium milling area). The survey report suggests that a more comprehensive characterization be performed at the site.

In January, 2002, DEP and NRC personnel visited the site to examine conditions and take radiation measurements. During this visit they discovered contamination in an adjacent, connected structure not previously thought to be part of the original fuel fabrication operations.

During August, 2003 ORAU performed Phase 2 of the radiological scoping survey project at the Superbolt site. The objectives of these surveys were “to determine if significant contamination remained on other portions of the site and to provide additional survey documentation for previously surveyed areas to further support future remediation of contaminated areas and/or to identify areas that are suitable for unrestricted use.” Information was also gathered to support development of a cost estimate for Phase 3 of the project, i.e., evaluation of the under-floor pits/trenches.

The results of the Phase 2 surveys indicate that “significant contamination, exceeding guidelines, remains … in Area 23B [currently used for storage] and … Area 23C. There were several areas of elevated activity throughout each of the other areas (Areas 23A [Mill Area], 23D [Rolling Area], and 23E [Motor Room]).”” Contamination was found on floors, lower walls, in dusts/residues, and in soil. Both fixed and removable contamination was found.

During each successive phase of survey efforts at this site, additional areas of contamination have been discovered.

The owners of this site have limited funds available to pay for cleanup work.

NRC and DEP plan to continue investigations at this site and discuss potential cleanup options. DEP is pursuing DOE to reconsider the site for inclusion in FUSRAP.


Huge Number Of Radiation Contaminated Sites In Just ONE State; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/example-of-radioactive-contamination.html

END
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NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
Huge Number Of Radiation Contaminated Sites In Just ONE State; via A Green Road Blog
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/75-us-nuclear-plants-leaking-toxic.html


NUCLEAR BOMBS/WEAPONS
The Nuclear Fuel Chain That Leads To Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
2400 Global Nuclear Atmospheric Bomb Tests 1945-1998
Nevada National Security Site; Nuclear Bomb Testing Areas 1-30; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/nevada-national-security-site-nuclear.html
Downwinders And Nuclear Bomb Testing; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/downwinders-and-nuclear-bomb-testing.html
Atomic Bomb Testing Veterans; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Bomb Test Sites And Atomic Lake in Kazakstan, Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Israel‘s Secret Illegal Nuclear Biological And Chemical Weapons  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/israels-secret-illegal-nuclear.html
LOW DOSE RADIATION DANGERS
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Low dose radiation causing changes in children; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-causing-unusual-changes-whats.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Ernest Sternglass; Childhood Cancers/Deaths Caused By Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Dr. Gorden Edwards PhD; Nuclear Power, Hope or Hoax Speech; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
The Children Beyond Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/children-beyond-chernobyl.html
URANIUM MINING
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
ANIMALS AND RADIATION EFFECTS
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Animals Affected By Low Level Radiation; via A Green Road Blog
UK Established Animal Radiation ‘Controls’ Due To Cesium Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html 
Radioactive Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl; Animal Studies Show Radiation Is Still Harming Our Wild Companions; via A Green Road Blog
PBS; Radioactive  Wolves In Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Movie Review
Fukushima: Hawaii & Arizona Dairy Milk Test Up To 800% Higher Than Safety Limits; via A Green Road Blog
Norway, Sweden, Russia Animal Radiation Contamination Explored; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR REACTOR RECERTIFICATION
Aging Reactors, Lies, Deceptions, Profits And Earthquakes; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/aging-reactors-lies-deceptions-profits.html 
The Diablo You Don’t Know; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents; via A Green Road Blog
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
                       
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
Huge Number Of Radiation Contaminated Sites In Just ONE State; via A Green Road Blog
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry By Or-Well; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fukishima 15 Year Old Speech-Song
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS/ISOTOPES/ETC
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-radiation-dangers-polonium-radon.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/multiple-nuclear-reactors-bombed-all.html
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog
GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog
Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html
SPIRITUAL
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/1-giant-leap-happiness.html
Raj Yoga; A Connection with Soul, God And Consciousness; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Mysteries And Theories: Is The Earth Growing? via a Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mystery-is-earth-growing.html
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
The Universal Golden Rule; Moving Towards A Global Ethic; via A Green Road Blog
PEACE/WAR
War is a Racket; via A Green Road Blog
War/No More Trouble | Playing for Change | Song Around The World; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog
Tell Pres. Obama; Bring Troops Home NOW
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
JUSTICE/PRISONS
US ranks 5th in Executions; With Iraq, China, Russia; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/us-ranks-5th-in-executions-ahead-of.html
Trayvon Martin; Brutal Murder, or Justified Defense of Life? via A Green Road Blog  
Prison Mistakes, Prison Reform; via A Green Road Blog
Secret Jury Rights And Ignored Constitutional Duty
Hillary Clinton: Women Deserve The Right To Choose; via A Green Road Blog 
DRUGS – MEDICINE
Medical Insanity: Frankenfoods, BPA, Drugs, GMO’s? via A Green Road Blog
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
HOLISTIC LIVING AND NATURAL HEALTH MODALIES
7 medicinal herbs and spices that help lower blood pressure; via A Green Road
All about berries and ginger; healing foods and herbs; via A Green Road Blog
The top 5 foods to avoid if you have gluten intolerance and wheat allergies. via A Green Road Blog 
12 surprising reasons to eat more blueberries via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2010/08/12-surprising-reasons-to-eat-more.html
Natural Green Living And Health News; Kidneys, Honey, Vaccines, Permaculture, Water, Homeopathics
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/germany-world-leader-in-solar-wind-and.html 

Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents

Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan, the worst nuclear accident in 25 years, displaced 50,000 households after radioactive contamination of a wide area.[1]

These are lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents.

Contents

  [hide

[edit]Lists by country

[edit]Notable

[edit]See also

[edit]External Links

[edit]References

  1. ^ Tomoko Yamazaki and Shunichi Ozasa (June 27, 2011). “Fukushima Retiree Leads Anti-Nuclear Shareholders at Tepco Annual Meeting”Bloomberg.


Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents; via A Green Road Blog

END
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NUCLEAR BOMBS/WEAPONS
The Nuclear Fuel Chain That Leads To Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
2400 Global Nuclear Atmospheric Bomb Tests 1945-1998
Nevada National Security Site; Nuclear Bomb Testing Areas 1-30; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/nevada-national-security-site-nuclear.html
Downwinders And Nuclear Bomb Testing; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/downwinders-and-nuclear-bomb-testing.html
Atomic Bomb Testing Veterans; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Bomb Test Sites And Atomic Lake in Kazakstan, Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Israel‘s Secret Illegal Nuclear Biological And Chemical Weapons  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/israels-secret-illegal-nuclear.html
LOW DOSE RADIATION DANGERS
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Low dose radiation causing changes in children; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-causing-unusual-changes-whats.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Ernest Sternglass; Childhood Cancers/Deaths Caused By Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Dr. Gorden Edwards PhD; Nuclear Power, Hope or Hoax Speech; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
The Children Beyond Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/children-beyond-chernobyl.html
URANIUM MINING
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
ANIMALS AND RADIATION EFFECTS
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Animals Affected By Low Level Radiation; via A Green Road Blog
UK Established Animal Radiation ‘Controls’ Due To Cesium Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html 
Radioactive Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl; Animal Studies Show Radiation Is Still Harming Our Wild Companions; via A Green Road Blog
PBS; Radioactive  Wolves In Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Movie Review
Fukushima: Hawaii & Arizona Dairy Milk Test Up To 800% Higher Than Safety Limits; via A Green Road Blog
Norway, Sweden, Russia Animal Radiation Contamination Explored; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR REACTOR RECERTIFICATION
Aging Reactors, Lies, Deceptions, Profits And Earthquakes; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/aging-reactors-lies-deceptions-profits.html 
The Diablo You Don’t Know; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents; via A Green Road Blog
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
                       
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry By Or-Well; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fukishima 15 Year Old Speech-Song
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS/ISOTOPES/ETC
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-radiation-dangers-polonium-radon.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/multiple-nuclear-reactors-bombed-all.html
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog
GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog
Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html
SPIRITUAL
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/1-giant-leap-happiness.html
Raj Yoga; A Connection with Soul, God And Consciousness; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Mysteries And Theories: Is The Earth Growing? via a Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mystery-is-earth-growing.html
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
The Universal Golden Rule; Moving Towards A Global Ethic; via A Green Road Blog
PEACE/WAR
War is a Racket; via A Green Road Blog
War/No More Trouble | Playing for Change | Song Around The World; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog
Tell Pres. Obama; Bring Troops Home NOW
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
JUSTICE/PRISONS
US ranks 5th in Executions; With Iraq, China, Russia; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/us-ranks-5th-in-executions-ahead-of.html
Trayvon Martin; Brutal Murder, or Justified Defense of Life? via A Green Road Blog  
Prison Mistakes, Prison Reform; via A Green Road Blog
Secret Jury Rights And Ignored Constitutional Duty
Hillary Clinton: Women Deserve The Right To Choose; via A Green Road Blog 
DRUGS – MEDICINE
Medical Insanity: Frankenfoods, BPA, Drugs, GMO’s? via A Green Road Blog
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
HOLISTIC LIVING AND NATURAL HEALTH MODALIES
7 medicinal herbs and spices that help lower blood pressure; via A Green Road
All about berries and ginger; healing foods and herbs; via A Green Road Blog
The top 5 foods to avoid if you have gluten intolerance and wheat allergies. via A Green Road Blog 
12 surprising reasons to eat more blueberries via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2010/08/12-surprising-reasons-to-eat-more.html
Natural Green Living And Health News; Kidneys, Honey, Vaccines, Permaculture, Water, Homeopathics
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/germany-world-leader-in-solar-wind-and.html 

Nevada National Security Site; Nuclear Bomb Testing

Nevada National Security Site

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nevada Test Site
Exercise Desert Rock I (Buster-Jangle Dog) 002.jpg
November 1951 nuclear test at Nevada Test Site. Test is shot “Dog” from Operation Buster, with a yield of 21 kilotonnes of TNT (88 TJ). It was the first U.S. nuclear field exercise conducted on land; troops shown are 6 mi (9.7 km) from the blast.
Type Nuclear Weapons Research Complex
Location 37°07′N 116°03′WCoordinates37°07′N 116°03′W near Las Vegas in the United States
Area ~1,350 sq mi (3,500 km2)
Operator United States Department of Energy
Status Active
In use 1951–present
Testing
Nuclear
tests
928

Map showing location of the site

The Nevada National Security Site[1] (N2S2), previously theNevada Test Site (NTS), is a United States Department of Energyreservation located in southeastern Nye CountyNevada, about 65 mi (105 km) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. Formerly known as the Nevada Proving Grounds,[2] the site, established on 11 January 1951, for the testing of nuclear devices, is composed of approximately 1,360 sq mi (3,500 km2) of desert and mountainous terrain. Nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site began with a 1-kilotonne-of-TNT (4.2 TJ) bomb dropped on Frenchman Flat on 27 January 1951. Many of the iconic images of the nuclear era come from NTS.
The Nevada Test Site contains 28 areas, 1,100 buildings, 400 miles (640 km) of paved roads, 300 miles (480 km) of unpaved roads, ten heliports and two airstrips.

[edit]
Established as a 680-square-mile (1,800 km
2) area by president Harry Truman on December 18, 1950 within theNellis Air Force Gunnery and Bombing Range[2]History

[edit]1951–1992

Between 1951 and 1992, there were a total of 928 announced nuclear tests at Nevada Test Site. Of those, 828 were underground.[3] (Sixty-two of the underground tests included multiple, simultaneous nuclear detonations, adding 93 detonations and bringing the total number of NTS nuclear detonations to 1,021, of which 921 were underground.)[4] The site is covered with subsidence craters from the testing. The Nevada Test Site was the primary testing location of American nuclear devices; 126 tests were conducted elsewhere (many at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands).
During the 1950s, the mushroom clouds from these tests could be seen for almost 100 mi (160 km) in either direction, including the city of Las Vegas, where the tests became tourist attractions. Americans headed for Las Vegas to witness the distant mushroom clouds that could be seen from the downtown hotels.
On 17 July 1962, the test shot “Little Feller I” of Operation Sunbeam became the last atmospheric test detonation at the Nevada Test Site. Underground testing of weapons continued until 23 September 1992, and although the United States did not ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the articles of the treaty are nevertheless honored and further tests have not occurred. Subcritical testing, tests not involving the full creation of a critical mass, continue.

Plaque at the viewing platform at Sedan

One notable test shot was the “Sedan” shot of Operation Storax on 6 July 1962, a 104-kilotonne-of-TNT (440 TJ) shot for the Operation Plowshare which sought to prove that nuclear weapons could be used for peaceful means in creating bays or canals—it created a crater 1,280 feet (390 m) wide and 320 feet (100 m) deep that can still be seen today. While most of the larger tests were conducted elsewhere, NTS was home to tests in the 500-to-1,000-kilotonne-of-TNT (2,100 to 4,200 TJ) range, which caused noticeable seismic effects in Las Vegas.

[edit]1992–2007

Main entrance to the test site.

The site was scheduled to be used to conduct the testing of a 1,100-ton conventional explosive in an operation known as Divine Strake in June 2006. The bomb is a possible alternative to nuclear bunker busters.[5] However, after objection from Nevada and Utah members of Congress, the operation was postponed until 2007. On 22 February 2007, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) officially canceled the experiment.

[edit]Destruction and survivability testing

Typical Survivability Structure

NTS also performed “piggyback” testing of effects of nuclear detonation during the above-ground tests. Vehicles, shelters, utility stations, and other structures were placed at various distances from the “Ground Zero” detonation point of each weapon.
Homes and commercial buildings were built to standards typical of American and European cities. Other structures included military fortifications (of types used by both NATO and the Warsaw Pact), civil defense, and “backyard” shelters. In a typical test several buildings might be built using the same plan with different types of paint, landscaping, cleanliness of yards, wall angles, or distances from Ground Zero. Mannequins were placed in and around vehicles and buildings.
High-speed cameras were placed in protected locations to capture effects of radiation and shock waves. Typical imagery from these cameras shows paint boiling off of the buildings, which then are pushed away from Ground Zero by the shock wave before being drawn toward the detonation by the suction caused by the climbing mushroom cloud. Footage from these cameras has become iconic, used in various media and available in the public domain and on DVD.
This testing allowed the development of guidelines, distributed to the public, to increase the likelihood of survival in case of air- or spaceborne nuclear attack.

[edit]Environmental impact

Each of the below ground explosions—some as deep as 5,000 feet—vaporized a large chamber, leaving a cavity filled with radioactive rubble. About a third of the tests were conducted directly in aquifers, and others were hundreds or thousands of feet below the water table.[6]
When testing ended in 1992, the Energy Department estimated that more than 300 million curies of radiation remained, making the site one of the most radioactively contaminated places in the United States. In the worst affected zones, radioactivity in the tainted water reaches millions of picocuries per liter. (The federal standard for drinking water is 20 picocuries per liter.) Although radiation levels in the water have declined over time, the longer-lived isotopes will continue to pose risks for tens of thousands of years.[6]
The Energy Department has 48 monitoring wells at the site and recently began drilling nine deep wells. Because the contaminated water poses no immediate health threat, the Department has ranked Nevada as a low priority for cleaning up major nuclear weapons sites, and it operates far fewer wells than at most other contaminated sites.[6]

[edit]Protests and demonstrations

From 1986 through 1994, two years after the United States put a hold on full-scale nuclear weapons testing, 536 demonstrations were held at the Nevada Test Site involving 37,488 participants and 15,740 arrests, according to government records.[7]
American Peace Test (APT) and Nevada Desert Experience (NDE) held most of these.[8] In March 1988, APT held an event where more than 8,000 people attended a ten-day action to “Reclaim the Test Site”, where nearly 3,000 people were arrested with more than 1,200 in one day. This set a record for most civil disobedience arrests in a single protest. American Peace Test was collectively run by a group of individuals residing in Las Vegas, but leadership for the group was national. It originated with a small group of people who were active in the National Nuclear Weapons Freeze. APT was a breakaway organization beginning in 1986, with first public events held in 1987.
In the years that followed 1994, Shundahai Network in cooperation with Nevada Desert Experience and Corbin Harney continued the protests of the government’s continued nuclear weapons work and also staged efforts to stop a repository for highly radioactive waste adjacent to the test site at Yucca Mountain, 100 mi (160 km) northwest of Las Vegas.

[edit]NTS today

The test site offers monthly public tours, often fully booked months in advance. Visitors are not allowed to bring in cameras, binoculars, cell phones, or pick up rocks for souvenirs.[9]
While there are no longer any explosive tests of nuclear weapons at the site, there is still subcritical testing, used to determine the viability of the United States’ aging nuclear arsenal. Additionally, the site is the location of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex, which sorts and stores low-level radioactive waste that is nottransuranic and has a half life not longer than 20 years. Bechtel Nevada Corporation (a joint venture of Lockheed MartinBechtel and Johnson Controls) ran this complex until 2006. Several other companies won the latest bid for the contract. They then combined to form a new company called National Security Technologies, LLC (a joint venture of Northrop GrummanAECOMCH2M Hill and Nuclear Fuel Services[10]). AECOM, known earlier as Holmes and Narver, held the Nevada Test Site contract for many years before Bechtel Nevada Corp. had it.[citation needed]
The Radiological/Nuclear WMD Incident Exercise Site (T-1), which replicates multiple terrorist radiological incidents with train, plane, automobile, truck, and helicopter props is located in Area 1, at the former site of tests EASY, SIMON, APPLE-2, and GALILEO.[11]

[edit]Landmarks and geography

The town of Mercury, Nevada, is located on the grounds of the NTS, and at one time housed contingents from Los Alamos National LaboratoryLawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National LaboratoriesArea 51is north of NTS and the proposed high-level nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain is at the southwest corner. The BREN Tower, a 1,527 ft (465 m)-high tower is located in the NTS at Jackass Flats.

[edit]Cancer and test site

I-131 Fallout Exposure in Rads

A 1979 study reported in the New England Journal of Medicineconcluded that:
A significant excess of leukemia deaths occurred in children up to 14 years of age living in Utah between 1959 and 1967. This excess was concentrated in the cohort of children born between 1951 and 1958, and was most pronounced in those residing in counties receiving high fallout.[12]
In 1982, a lawsuit brought by nearly 1,200 people accused the government of negligence in atomic and/or nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site in the 1950s, which they said had caused leukemia and other cancers. Dr. Karl Z. Morgan testified that radiation protection measures in the tests were substandard.[13]
In a report by the National Cancer Institute, released in 1997, it was determined that ninety atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) deposited high levels of radioactive iodine131 (5.5 exabecquerels) across a large portion of the contiguous United States, especially in the years 1952, 1953, 1955, and 1957—doses large enough, they determined, to produce 10,000 to 75,000 cases of thyroid cancer. The Radiation Exposure Compensation Actof 1990 allowed for people living downwind of NTS for at least two years in particular Nevada, Arizona or Utah counties, between 21 January 1951 and 31 October 1958, or 30 June and 31 July 1962, and suffering from certain cancers or other serious illnesses deemed to have been caused by fallout exposure to receive compensation of $50,000. By January 2006, over 10,500 claims had been approved, and around 3,000 denied, for a total amount of over $525 million in compensation dispensed to “downwinders“.[14] Additionally, the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 provides compensation and medical benefits for nuclear weapons workers who may have developed certain work-related illnesses.[15]
Uranium miners, mill workers, and ore transporters are also eligible for $100,000 compassionate payment under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Program, while $75,000 is the fixed payment amount for workers who were participants in the above-ground nuclear weapons tests.

[edit]Nuclear test series carried out at the Nevada Test Site

[edit]Areas

Nuclear explosions in various areas of NTS[16]

The Test Site is broken down into areas. Some of the areas and their uses include the following:

[edit]Area 1

Area 1 held 8 nuclear tests for a total of 9 detonations.[3] Four early atmospheric tests were conducted above Area 1 in the early 1950s, as well as three underground tests in 1971 and 1990. In 1955, a Civil Defense experiment (called Operation Cue in the press) studied nuclear blast effects on various building types; a few structures still stand.
Heavy drilling equipment and concrete construction facilities are sited in Area 1. Non-destructive X-ray, gamma ray, and subcritical detonation tests continue to be conducted in Area 1.
The radioactivity present on the ground in Area 1 provides a radiologically-contaminated environment for the training of first responders.[17]

[edit]Area 2

Area 2 is a division of the Nevada Test Site in the Mojave Desert. The area is located 18 miles south-east of Area 51.
Area 2 was the site of 144 tests comprising 169 detonations.[1] Shot “Gabbs”, intended for 1993, was abandoned in place.[2]

[edit]Area 3

Area 3 held 266 nuclear tests for a total of 288 detonations, more than in any other area of the NTS.[3]
As part of Operation Tinderbox, on 24 June 1980, a small satellite prototype (DSCS III) was subjected to radioactivity from the “Huron King” shot in a vertical line-of-sight (VLOS) test undertaken in Area 3. This was a program to improve the database on nuclear hardening design techniques for defense satellites.
The final nuclear test detonation at Nevada Test Site was Operation Julin‘s “Divider” on 23 September 1992, just prior to the moratorium temporarily ending all nuclear testing. Divider was a safety experiment test shot that was detonated at the bottom of a shaft sunk into Area 3.
In 1995 and 1997, plutonium-contaminated soil from “Double Tracks” and “Clean Slate 1” of Operation Roller Coaster (1963) was picked up from the Tonopah Test Range and brought to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site as a first step in eventually returning Tonopah Test Range to an environmentally neutral state. Corrective action regarding the contaminated material from the “Clean Slate 2” and “Clean Slate 3” tests has yet to be agreed upon.[18]

[edit]Area 4

Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF) in Area 4.

Area 4 held 40 nuclear tests for a total of 44 detonations.[3]
It is home to the Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF).[19]

[edit]Area 5

Area 5 held 19 nuclear tests.[3] Five atmospheric tests were detonated, starting on 27 January 1951 at Area 5 as part of Operation Ranger. These were the first nuclear tests at NTS. Further tower detonations were studied at Area 5, and the “Grable” shot which was fired from an artillery piece located in Area 11 exploded in Area 5. The Priscilla test was conducted at Area 5 on 24 June 1957.
Five underground tests were set up at Area 5; four of those suffered accidental release of radioactive materials. On 16 March 1968, physicist Glenn T. Seaborg toured the upcoming “Milk Shake” shot of Operation Crosstie.[20]Milk Shake’s radioactive release was not detected outside of NTS boundaries.

[edit]Area 6

Device Assembly Facility in Area 6

Control Point in Area 6

Area 6 held 4 nuclear tests for a total of 6 detonations.[3] The only two towns to be established within the boundaries of NTS prior to 1947, BJ Wye and Mule Lick, are located in Yucca Flats, in Area 6.
The Device Assembly Facility (DAF)[19] was originally built to consolidate nuclear explosives assembly operations. It now serves as the Criticality Experiments Facility (CEF).
The Control Point[19] is the communication hub of the NTS. It was used by controllers to trigger and monitor nuclear test explosions.

[edit]Area 7

Area 7 held 92 nuclear tests.[3]
During Operation Buster, four successful tests were conducted via airdrop, with bomber aircraft releasing nuclear weapons over Area 7.
It is also the site of Matthew Reilly’s book called Area 7.
Shot “Icecap” planned for 1993 was abandoned in Area 7 following 1992’s testing moratorium. The tower, shaft and wiring remain in place, along with a crane intended to lower the nuclear test package into the shaft.[21]

[edit]Area 8

Radioactive materials were accidentally released from the 1970 Baneberry shot in Area 8.

Area 8 held 13 nuclear tests for a total of 15 detonations.[3]
Area 8 hosted the “Baneberry” shot of Operation Emery on 18 December 1970. The Baneberry 10-kilotonne-of-TNT (42 TJ) test detonated 900 feet (270 m) below the surface but its energy cracked the soil in unexpected ways, causing a fissure near ground zero and the failure of the shaft stemming and cap.[22] A plume of fire and dust was released, raining fallout on workers in different locations within NTS. The radioactive plume released 6.7 million Curies of radioactive material, including 80 kCi of 131I.[23]

[edit]Area 9

Area 9 held 115 nuclear tests for a total of 133 detonations.[3]
In Area 9, the 74-kilotonne-of-TNT (310 TJ) “Hood” test on 5 July 1957, part ofOperation Plumbbob, was the largest atmospheric test ever conducted within the continental United States; nearly five times larger in yield than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. A balloon carried Hood up to 460 meters above the ground where it was detonated. Over 2,000 troops took part in the test in order to train them in conducting operations on the nuclear battlefield. 11 million Curies of Iodine-131 (131I) were released into the air.[23]

[edit]Area 10

Area 10 held 57 nuclear tests for a total of 71 detonations.[3]
The first underground test at NTS was the “Uncle” shot of Operation Jangle. Uncle detonated on 29 November 1951 within a shaft sunk into Area 10.
The “John” shot of Plumbbob, on 19 July 1957, was the first test firing of the nuclear-tipped AIR-2 Genie air-to-air rocket designed to destroy incoming enemy bombers with a nuclear explosion. The 2-kilotonne-of-TNT (8.4 TJ) warhead exploded approximately three miles above five volunteers and a photographer who stood unprotected at “ground zero” in Area 10 to show the apparent safety of battlefield nuclear weapons to personnel on the ground.[24] The test also demonstrated the ability of a fighter aircraft to deliver a nuclear-tipped rocket and avoid being destroyed in the process. A Northrop F-89J fired the rocket.
The “Sedan” test of Operation Storax on 6 July 1962, a 104-kilotonne-of-TNT (440 TJ) shot for the Operation Plowshare which sought to discover whether nuclear weapons could be used for peaceful means in creating lakes, bays or canals. The explosion displaced twelve million tons of earth, creating the Sedan crater which is 1,280 feet (390 m) wide and 320 feet (100 m) deep.

[edit]Area 11

Area 11 held 9 nuclear tests.[3] Four of the tests were weapons safety experiments conducted as Project 56; they spread so much harmful radioactive material around the test sites that Area 11 has been called “Plutonium Valley”. As is the case with Area 1, background radiation levels make Area 11 suitable for realistic training in methods of radiation detection.[18]

[edit]Area 12

Area 12 held 61 nuclear tests between 1957 and 1992, one of which involved two detonations. All tests were conducted below Rainier and Aqueduct mesas.
Area 12 was the primary location for tunnel tests and used almost exclusively for that purpose. The tunnel complexes mined into Rainier and Aqueduct Mesa include the E-, G-, N-, P-, and T-Tunnel complexes.

[edit]Area 13

There is no Area 13 within NNSS, though such a name is attached to a section of Nellis Air Force Range which abuts the northeastern corner of Area 15.[25] Project 57‘s weapons safety test was conducted here on 24 April 1957, spreading particles emitting alpha radiation over a large area.[26]

[edit]Area 14

Area 14 occupies approximately 26 square miles in the central portion of the NNSS. Various outdoor experiments are conducted in this area.[27] No atmospheric or underground nuclear tests were conducted in Area 14.[3]

[edit]Area 15

EPA Farm in Area 15

Three underground detonations took place in area 15 in the 1960s.[3]
Pile Driver was a notable Department of Defense test. A massive underground installation was built to study the survivability of hardened underground bunkers undergoing a nuclear attack. Information from the test was used in designing hardened missile silos and the North American Aerospace Defense Command facility in Colorado Springs.[19]
The abandoned Crystal and Climax mines are found in Area 15. Storage tanks hold contaminated materials.[19]
From 1964 to 1981, the Environmental Protection Agency operated a 36-acre (150,000 m2) experimental farm in Area 15. Extensive plant and soil studies evaluated the uptake of pollutants in farm-grown vegetables and from the forage eaten by a dairy herd of some 30 Holstein cows. Scientists also studied horses, pigs, goats, and chickens.[19]

[edit]Area 16

Area 16 held 6 nuclear tests.[3]

[edit]Area 17

No nuclear tests took place in Area 17.[3]

[edit]Area 18

Area 18 held 5 nuclear tests.[3] and includes the Pahute Mesa Airstrip.[16]

[edit]Area 19

Pahute Mesa is one of four major nuclear test regions within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It occupies 243 square miles (630 km2) in the northwest corner of the NNSS. The eastern section is known as Area 19 and the western section as Area 20.
A total of 85 nuclear tests were conducted in Pahute Mesa between 1965 and 1992. Three of them—Boxcar, Benham and Handley—had a yield of over one megaton. Three tests were conducted as part of operation Plowshare and one as part of Vela Uniform.

[edit]Area 20

[edit]Area 22

No nuclear tests took place in Area 22.[3] Area 22 once held Camp Desert Rock, a staging base for troops undergoing atmospheric nuclear blast training; as many as 9,000 troops were camped there in 1955. Desert Rock Airport was enlarged to 7,500 ft (2,300 m). length in 1969 by the Atomic Energy Commission. It is a transport hub for personnel and supplies going to N2S2 and also serves as an emergency landing strip.

[edit]Area 23

No nuclear tests took place in Area 23.[3] The town of Mercury, Nevada lies within Area 23. The area is the main pathway to and from NNSS test locations by way of U.S. Route 95. An open sanitary landfill is located to the west of Mercury, and a closed hazardous waste site abuts the landfill. Mercury is also the main management area for the site which includes a bar and large cafeteria, printing plant, medical center, warehousing, fleet management, liquidation and recycling center, engineering offices, dormitories and other administrative areas for both the O&M contractors, LLNL, LANL and SNL personnel. At its height in the 1950s and ’60s it also held several restaurants, a bowling alley, a movie theater and a motel.

[edit]Area 25

[edit]Area 26

No nuclear tests took place in Area 26.[3] Area 26 is the most arid section of NNSS. An old abandoned mine, the Horn Silver Mine, was used for waste disposal between 1959 and the 1970s; some of the waste is radioactive. Water flow past the shaft could pose a human health risk, so corrective action has been planned.[28]
An eight square miles complex was constructed in Area 26 in support of Project Pluto.[27] It consisted of six miles of roads, the critical assembly building, the control building, the assembly and shop buildings, and utilities.[29]Those buildings have been used recently as mock reactor facilities in the training of first responders.

[edit]Area 27

[edit]Area 28

Area 28 no longer exists; it was absorbed into Areas 25 and 27.[19]

[edit]Area 29

No nuclear tests took place in Area 29.[3] The rugged terrain of Area 29 serves as a buffer between other areas of NNSS. A helipad is present at Shoshone Peak.

[edit]Area 30

The Crosstie Buggy test.

Area 30 occupies approximately 59 square miles at the center of the western edge of the NNSS. Area 30 has rugged terrain and includes the northern reaches of Fortymile Canyon. It is used primarily for military training and exercises.[27]
Area 30 was the site of a single nuclear test, the Crosstie Buggy row charge experiment, part of Operation Plowshare, which involved 5 simultaneous detonations.[3]

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ “Nevada nuclear bomb site given new name”United Press International. August 23. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  2. a b National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (January 2011). “Miss Atom Bomb”Fact Sheets. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  3. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u U.S. Department of Energy / Nevada Operations Office, United States Nuclear Tests – July 1945 through September 1992, December 2000, DOE/NV-209 Rev 15
  4. ^ One multiple test took place in Colorado; the other 62 were at NTS
  5. ^ “Pentagon to Test a Huge Conventional Bomb”The Washington Post. 31 March 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  6. a b c Ralph Vartabedian. Nuclear scars: Tainted water runs beneath Nevada desert Los Angeles Times, 13 November 2009.
  7. ^ Western Shoshone spiritual leader dies
  8. ^ Political protest and cultural revolution By Barbara Epstein p. 165.
  9. ^ U.S. DOE/NNSA – Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Tours
  10. ^ National Security Technologies “About” Page
  11. ^ Counter Terrorism Operations Support – WMD Incident Site
  12. ^ Gerald H. Clarfield and William M. Wiecek (1984). Nuclear America: Military and Civilian Nuclear Power in the United States 1940-1980, Harper & Row, New York, p. 215.
  13. ^ Karl Z. Morgan, 91, Founder of the Field Of Health Physics, Dies in Tennessee
  14. ^ Radiation Exposure Compensation System: Claims to Date Summary of Claims Received by 06/11/2009
  15. ^ Office of Compensation Analysis and Support. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
  16. a b United States Geologic Survey. Nevada Test Site. Geologic Surface Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing. Accessed on 18 April 2009.
  17. ^ First Responder TrainingUS Department of Energy. Nevada Operations Office. National Security. Homeland Security
  18. a b National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (April 2010). “Plutonium Dispersal Tests at the Nevada Test Site”Fact Sheets. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  19. a b c d e f g Nevada Test Site Guide, National Nuclear Security Administration, DOE/NV-715
  20. ^ Radiochemistry.org. History. Nuke testsNevada Test Site Images (cdrom 3; PDF file)
  21. ^ National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (January 2011). “Icecap”Fact Sheets. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  22. ^ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. News Archive. Tarabay H. Antoun. Three Dimensional Simulation of the Baneberry Nuclear Event
  23. a b National Cancer Institute. National Institute of Health. History of the Nevada Test Site and Nuclear Testing Background
  24. ^ California Literary Review. Peter Kuran. Images from How To Photograph an Atomic Bomb. (22 October 2007)
  25. ^ Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. Bureau of Federal Facilities. Federal Facility Agreement & Consent Order. FFACO Description of Facilities
  26. ^ “Operation PLUMBBOB. Summary Report, Test Group 57, Nevada Test Site”. DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY. 1958-10-10. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
  27. a b c National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office, Draft Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement Nevada, ch.2, July 2011, DOE/EIS-246-D
  28. ^ DOE Scientific and Technical Information. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 527: Horn Silver Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1 (Including Records of Technical Change No.1, 2, 3, and 4) (6 December 2002) doi:10.2172/818649
  29. ^ National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (April 2010). “Project Pluto”Fact Sheets. Retrieved 2011-12-02source; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevada_National_Security_Site

Nevada National Security Site; Nuclear Bomb Testing Areas 1-30; via A Green Road Blog

END
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NUCLEAR BOMBS/WEAPONS
The Nuclear Fuel Chain That Leads To Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
2400 Global Nuclear Atmospheric Bomb Tests 1945-1998
Downwinders And Nuclear Bomb Testing; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/downwinders-and-nuclear-bomb-testing.html
Atomic Bomb Testing Veterans; via A Green Road Blog
Israel‘s Secret Illegal Nuclear Biological And Chemical Weapons  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/israels-secret-illegal-nuclear.html
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
Nuclear Bomb Test Sites And Atomic Lake in Kazakstan, Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
LOW DOSE RADIATION DANGERS
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Low dose radiation causing changes in children; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-causing-unusual-changes-whats.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Ernest Sternglass; Childhood Cancers/Deaths Caused By Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Dr. Gorden Edwards PhD; Nuclear Power, Hope or Hoax Speech; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
The Children Beyond Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/children-beyond-chernobyl.html
URANIUM MINING
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
ANIMALS AND RADIATION EFFECTS
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Animals Affected By Low Level Radiation; via A Green Road Blog
UK Established Animal Radiation ‘Controls’ Due To Cesium Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html 
Radioactive Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl; Animal Studies Show Radiation Is Still Harming Our Wild Companions; via A Green Road Blog
PBS; Radioactive  Wolves In Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Movie Review
Fukushima: Hawaii & Arizona Dairy Milk Test Up To 800% Higher Than Safety Limits; via A Green Road Blog
Norway, Sweden, Russia Animal Radiation Contamination Explored; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR REACTOR RECERTIFICATION
Aging Reactors, Lies, Deceptions, Profits And Earthquakes; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/aging-reactors-lies-deceptions-profits.html 
The Diablo You Don’t Know; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
                       
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry By Or-Well; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fukishima 15 Year Old Speech-Song
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS/ISOTOPES/ETC
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-radiation-dangers-polonium-radon.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/multiple-nuclear-reactors-bombed-all.html
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog
GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog
Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html
SPIRITUAL
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/1-giant-leap-happiness.html
Raj Yoga; A Connection with Soul, God And Consciousness; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Mysteries And Theories: Is The Earth Growing? via a Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mystery-is-earth-growing.html
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
The Universal Golden Rule; Moving Towards A Global Ethic; via A Green Road Blog
PEACE/WAR
War is a Racket; via A Green Road Blog
War/No More Trouble | Playing for Change | Song Around The World; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog
Tell Pres. Obama; Bring Troops Home NOW
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
JUSTICE/PRISONS
US ranks 5th in Executions; With Iraq, China, Russia; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/us-ranks-5th-in-executions-ahead-of.html
Trayvon Martin; Brutal Murder, or Justified Defense of Life? via A Green Road Blog  
Prison Mistakes, Prison Reform; via A Green Road Blog
Secret Jury Rights And Ignored Constitutional Duty
Hillary Clinton: Women Deserve The Right To Choose; via A Green Road Blog 
DRUGS – MEDICINE
Medical Insanity: Frankenfoods, BPA, Drugs, GMO’s? via A Green Road Blog
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
HOLISTIC LIVING AND NATURAL HEALTH MODALIES
7 medicinal herbs and spices that help lower blood pressure; via A Green Road
All about berries and ginger; healing foods and herbs; via A Green Road Blog
The top 5 foods to avoid if you have gluten intolerance and wheat allergies. via A Green Road Blog 
12 surprising reasons to eat more blueberries via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2010/08/12-surprising-reasons-to-eat-more.html
Natural Green Living And Health News; Kidneys, Honey, Vaccines, Permaculture, Water, Homeopathics
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/germany-world-leader-in-solar-wind-and.html 

Fake News; One Of Many Ways ‘Programming’ Is Done

There are many ways that the mass media deceives the public or sways public opinion one way or the other. This is why they call TV ‘programming’. The mind is a computer, and it can easily be ‘programmed’ to think a certain way, and not in other ways. 

Here are some interesting ways that the mass media ‘spins’ and massages public opinion, political results, news and more. This fake news is really a minor non issue, but it shows how easy it is to ‘massage’ what is really going on, in ordinary ‘news’. Who would think that this is all made up and fake? 

Charles Jaco was the CNN reporter famous for covering the 1990 Persian Gulf War. The first part of this video shows the stage set he was on, and he was clowning around with fellow CNN staff. The Saudi Arabian “hotel” in the background were fake palm trees and a blue wall in a studio. This clip was leaked by CNN staff.


The second part of this video was a live CNN satellite feed recorded onto VHS showing the final cut. Charles Jaco was wearing a different jacket, but he had the same act. The acting was terrible as Charles Jaco wore a gas mask, and his fellow correspondent Carl Rochelle wore a helmet. The sirens and missile sound effects are part of the stage set. The camera never pans out or shows the sky.

Yes, Charles Jaco was a reporter for CNN. Google his name and read the results. This is the reason why I don’t trust mainstream news. It is all theater and it’s completely staged. I only use the news as a guide to get an idea of what is going on, and then I do further research myself.
You can start your own research by visiting website http://www.patriotportal.yolasite.com . Charles Jaco currently works as a reporter for FOX 2 NOW in Saint Louis, Missouri. I highly encourage you to send this video to their newstips inbox here:


Using Fake Video Of Riots 

Now we can go a little deeper and explore more complex issues about why news is not really news. Here is just one example of many. 


Now let us look at another aspect of why some news is more ’tilted’ than others. Would you believe that a fair and balanced TV station could hire presidential candidates (but only from one political party) and then give them LOTS of free air time? Guess what, it happens.

Many Republican presidential candidates have contracts and get PAID by Fox News Network. They get hired as ‘consultants’, plus they get TONS of free media news coverage. Opposing political party candidates do not get that, from ANY other political party or any other media outlet. Yet, for some strange reason, the mass media is seen by some as dominated by ‘liberals’. Do you think that this is fair and ‘balanced’?

It used to be that when someone got into a political contest, they quit or resigned from the media channel that they might have been working for, prior to running for office.  

It seems the rules have changed. These days, Fox News not only keeps their presidential candidates on staff, they ALSO get their own TV shows. They also get free income from PACS, campaign contributions, and are seen as ‘stars’ or king makers, etc. 


While these few and ‘special’ (Republican only) candidates are getting massive and free exposure on air, they also fund raise from the millions of ‘fair and balanced’ viewers. No other news outlet does this, via TV, newspapers, magazines or any other media outlet.  This is win win win for Fox and their corporate backers, but lose lose lose for democracy, rights and freedom. 



Could you imagine an ordinary citizen with no corporate money backing them, being ‘hired’ and getting his own show on CNN, CBS, ABC, who help him or her do fund raising on his TV show, for his or her campaign and collecting PAC money, plus asking for political campaign contributions on the air, all at the same time? What would Fox News have to say about what they are doing if any other news network did that? Of course, they would be lambasted and attacked viciously, as being Fascists or worse. 


Hmmm, maybe what is good for Fox News presidential candidates might be good for other political parties too. Maybe other political parties should start doing the same thing? 


Another issue with all of this ’tilting’ of the news and spinning stories is that the equal time rule was gotten rid of, again by the Republicans. 


This means that no mass media outlet has to give equal time to anyone and they can air whatever they want, for as long as they want. 

The problem with corporate money being allowed into the media, into elections, into politics and into law making via ALEC, is that it corrupts absolutely whatever it touches. The following clip explores the role of ALEC, and how it makes corporate friendly  laws that the average person then is forced to live under. 




The art and science of deception via mass media goes much deeper in many areas. Here is another area of mass media deception combined with corporate control that can be explored…. 

ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog


7 medicinal herbs and spices that help lower blood pressure

NaturalNews) High blood pressure is an epidemic that is currently sweeping across America. The fast lifestyle of fast food, soda and stress is starting to catch up on the average American, so much so that an estimated one in every three Americans has high blood pressure. This puts them at risk of heart disease, stroke and even kidney disease. Moreover, this condition is costing the country 93.5 billion dollars in health care services.

Putting too much faith in the medical establishment to find a cure for your high blood pressure may no longer be advisable in the least. The number of prescription drugs on the market and the cascade of variations suggest that a cure for blood pressure is not in the offing anytime soon.

Despite all the consequences associated with high blood pressure, it is still a condition that is preventable and easily managed. Observing a healthy balanced diet and enjoying an active, healthy lifestyle can help avoid the risk of high blood pressure as well as reduce one that is already elevated.

High blood pressure – A package of woe

There is no one identifiable cause for high blood pressure. A combination of factors like stress, alcohol, smoking, weight and lack of physical activity seem to have to come together to produce this problem, which is further compounded by family history and age.

Although it is a condition that if left unattended could gravitate to something worse, high blood pressure is not a disease. Taking proactive measures in preventing heart diseases, stroke and even kidney disease by managing your blood pressure may be the best decision you can make today.

While the idea of drug-free high blood pressure management through the use of herbs and spices has slowly been gaining ground, it is still treated with skepticism by the medical establishment. The reliance on prescription drugs, however, has not in any way shown that high blood pressure could be cured through this manner. There are still reports by patients who are currently using drugs to manage their high blood pressure that their condition has not shown any improvement, nor their quality of life. Instead, they have to deal with side effects and drugs that are expensive to maintain.

Spice up your life

In a published study featured in theJournal of Medicine, it was revealed that common spices can protect from heart disease and the deterioration brought about by aging. In the said study, researchers discovered a connection between the phenol content of certain herbs and spices and their capacity to prevent glycation and formation of AGE compounds that are responsible for premature aging and heart disease.

As a way to manage your blood pressure, herbs and spices are a fantastic way to increase the medicinal value of your food. Below are some herbs and spices you may have been enjoying with no idea as to their value:


1.Garlic- Garlic contains allicin, a substance which has antibacterial, antioxidant, lipid lowering and anti-hypertension properties. In a pilot study made atClinical Research Center of New Orleanson whether garlic could lower blood pressure, nine patients with severe hypertension were given a garlic preparation containing 1.3 % allicin. Sitting blood pressure fell with a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure only five to 14 hours after the dose. Moreover, it was proven in a 2009 study that fresh garlic has more potent cardio-protective properties than processed garlic.

2.Cinnamon- Cinnamon not only prevents heart disease, it can also prevent diabetes.The Center for Applied Health Sciencesin Ohio conducted a study of 22 subjects, half of which were given a 250mg of water soluble cinnamon daily while the other half were given placebo. It was discovered that those who drank cinnamon had a 13 to 23 percent increase in antioxidants connected with lowering blood sugar levels.

3.Onions- Onions contain quercetin, an antioxidant flavonol found to prevent heart disease and stroke. In a research study published in theJournal of Nutrition, subjects with hypertension experienced a decrease in their blood pressure by 7mmHg systolic and 5 mmHg diastolic as opposed to those who were taking placebo.

4.Olives- This herb is a significant part of the Mediterranean diet, recognized to be one of the healthiest in the world. Oil made from olives has been found to reduce blood pressure. In a study conducted on the importance of olive oil, Dr. L. Aldo Ferrara, Associate Professor at theFrederico II University of Naplesin Italy discovered that the daily use of 40 grams of olive oil reduced the dosage of blood pressure medication in hypertensive patients by about 50 percent. Polyphenols in extra-virgin olive oil was credited for the significant reduction of blood pressure.

5.Oregano- This herb contains the compound carvacrol which has been proven to be effective against blood pressure. In a study conducted on animal subjects, by researchers fromEskisehir Osmangazi Universityin Turkey, carvacrol was found to reduce heart rate, mean arterial pressure as well as the systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

6.Hawthorn- This herb has been traditionally used to treat high blood pressure. In one study conducted in Reading, UK, 79 type-2 diabetic patients were randomized to receive 1200 mg of hawthorn extract while another group received medication for high blood pressure. Results revealed that patients taking hawthorn by the end of the 16th week showed a reduction in their mean diastolic pressure.

7.Cardamom- In one study published in theIndian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 20 subjects newly diagnosed with primary hypertension were administered 3 g of cardamom powder. After the end of the 3 months, all the subjects experienced feelings of well-being without any side effects. Moreover, the study was able to demonstrate that blood pressure was effectively reduced. It also improved antioxidant status while breaking down blood clots without significantly altering blood lipids and fibrinogen levels.

Taking advantage of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of spices and herbs is an excellent way to boost your body’s health. Herbs have low calorie content, increase the medicinal value of your food and allow you to use natural forms of lowering blood pressure. Mix them up with your soups, salads, fish and meat and vegetable dishes. It’s a healthier and cheaper alternative to keeping bottles of prescription drugs and synthetic supplements.
Learn more:http://www.naturalnews.com/035689_medicinal_herbs_spices_blood_pressure.html#ixzz1tCp4ZqMG

Sources for this article:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hbp/
http://www.naturalnews.com/033656_blood_pressure_treatments.html
http://orlandobchealth.com/the-blood-pressure-hoax/
http://www.allicinfacts.com/allicin01.htm
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8361870
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19722587
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20361714

Learn more:
http://www.naturalnews.com/035689_medicinal_herbs_spices_blood_pressure.html#ixzz1tCldFRi2

7 medicinal herbs and spices that help lower blood pressure; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/7-medicinal-herbs-and-spices-that-help.html

Related Articles:

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All about berries and ginger; healing foods and herbs; via A Green Road Blog
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12 surprising reasons to eat more blueberries via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2010/08/12-surprising-reasons-to-eat-more.html
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The Universal Golden Rule; Moving Towards A Global Ethic

The “Declaration Toward a Global Ethic”[28] from the Parliament of the World’s Religions[29][30] (1993) proclaims that the Golden Rule (“We must treat others as we wish others to treat us”) is a common common principle for not only religions, but also all other belief systems.  Main article: Towards a Global Ethic: An Initial Declaration


All faiths, belief systems and traditions have some form of the Golden Rule within them. The Initial Declaration above was signed by 143 respected leaders from all of the world’s major faiths, including Baha’i Faith, Brahmanism, Brahma Kumaris, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Indigenous, Interfaith, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Native American, Neo-Pagan, Sikhism, Taoism, Theosophist, Unitarian Universalist and Zoroastrian.[31][32] In the folklore of several cultures{31} the Golden Rule is depicted by the allegory of the long spoons.



Some of the Golden Rule sayings from the above religions and other belief systems are shared below:


Buddhism; what you do not desire yourself, do not put before others.


Bahai; Ascribe not to any soul that which thou wouldst not have ascribed to thee


Confucianism; 己所不欲,勿施於人 What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others.


Christianity; Do unto others as you would have them to do onto you… 

Hindu; treat others as you would like to be treated. 


Humanism; do not treat people in a way you would not wish to be treated yourselfIslam; do unto all as you would wish to have done unto you.


Jainism; Just as pain is not agreeable to you, it is so with others. Knowing this principle of equality treat other with respect and compassion

Judaism; what is hurtful to yourself do not do to another.
Mohism; If people regarded other people’s families in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own family to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself.

Native American; “All things are our relatives, what we do to everything, we do to ourselves. All is really One”. Black Elk


Platonism; one should never do wrong in return, nor mistreat any man, no matter how one has been mistreated by him.

Quakerism; do as you would be done by. And do unto all men as you would have them do unto you, for this is but the law and the prophet.
Scientology; 1. Be able to experience anything; and 2. Cause only those things which others are able to experience easily.
Sikhism; I am a stranger to no one, and no one is a stranger to me. Indeed, I am a friend to all.


Sufism; If you haven’t the will to gladden someone’s heart, then at least beware that lest you hurt someone’s heart, for on our path no sin exists except for this.


Taoism; Regard your neighbor’s gain as your own gain, and your neighbor’s loss as your own loss.


Unitarian; We affirm and promote respect for the interdependence of all existence of which we are a part. 


Wicca; These eight words the Rede fulfill, ‘an ye harm none do as ye will.


Yoruba; One taking a pointed stick to pinch a baby bird should first try it on himself to see how it hurts.

Zorastranism; Whatever is disagreeable to yourself, do not to others.

Historical 


Ancient Greece; Do not to your neighbor what you would take ill from him. 
Ancient Egypt; That which you hate to be done to you, do not do to another


Ancient Rome; The law imprinted on the hearts of all men is to love the members of society as themselves.


Ancient Tamizhagam; Let not a man consent to do those things to another which, he knows, will cause sorrow.


Universal Human Rights; the Golden Rule is arguably the most essential basis for the modern concept of human rights, in which each individual has a right to just treatment, and a reciprocal responsibility to ensure justice for others.[67]
Psychology; The Golden Rule is of no use to you whatsoever unless you realize that it’s your move!”[69]

Science; “Ethics is nothing else except reverence for life” Albert Schweitzer

Spiritual, not religious; We are all One. When one is harmed, all are harmed. When one is healed, all are healed. 

Metaphysical; When I pursue the illusion of a divided mind, I suffer myself and hurt others. It is best to be and stay in the Oneness, where there is only abundance, love, peace, and harmony for all, in the middle of the present moment. 


If you have more Golden Rule beliefs, religions or other tradition sayings to add that are not included above, leave them in the comments section below the blog post, and they will be added. 

To join an interfaith discussion group, click on the following link; http://www.care2.com/c2c/group/Interfaith
The Universal Golden Rule; Moving Towards A Global Ethic; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/golden-rule-moving-towards-global-ethic.html

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SPIRITUAL
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
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Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
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Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
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The Children Beyond Chernobyl Movie

There are over 300 orphanages in Belarus, full of abandoned babies and children, affected by low level radiation. 
“RTE’s 2008 powerful and beautifully filmed documentary “Children Beyond Chernobyl” picks up where the Academy Award winning “Chernobyl Heart” left off. 
The film examines the work of Chernobyl Children’s Project International (CCPI) and uses moving, intimate stories to describe how the charity and its volunteers are making a difference in Chernobyl affected regions of Belarus. 

In the first of 7 parts, meet the children of the Vesnova orphanage of Belarus, and learn about children who travel to Ireland for medical care. 
CCPI director Ali Hewson says that “you can’t argue with the economic impact” of Chernobyl, and describes why so many volunteers refuse to walk away.

The Children Beyond Chernobyl, Part 1/7
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part V
Part VI
Part VII