Fukushima Animals Affected By Low Level Radiation

Oct 30, 2011  “We were fishing and we got the surprise of getting this rare specimen. As it was dark at that time we did not notice, but then you looked at him 
enenews.com/msn-three-eyed-fish-caught-reservoir-fed-nuke-plant-locals- worried-photos
Jan 29, 2012  The last 5 years have seen a huge drop off in certain animal populations and certain insects. At least anecdotally, I have to say though.
enenews.com/cbc-on-tmi-enormous-increase-in-cancer-deaths-reports-say- infant-mortality-rates-doubled-birds-disappeared-many-mutations-o…
Nov 21, 2011  Scientific groups say the animals represent the best chance for research on the effects of radiation. But in May, the Japanese government 
enenews.com/wapo-many-spots-15-km-higher-radiation-fukushima-front- gate-risk-minimal-day-zone-like-12-hr-plane-ride
Feb 26, 2012  This animal brutality was brought to light publicly in the Oscar winning documentary The Cove which was released in 2010. The documentary 
enenews.com/forum-topic-discussion-thread…/comment-page-20
Dec 18, 2011  No animal should be harmed or killed because of man’s stupidity. It breaks my heart to see the videos of animals on surveillance cams, like this 
enenews.com/snl-mocks-fukushima…shows…/comment-page-1
Mar 17, 2012  So, people may go and watch animals and plants – they will give the  You can’t blame changes in plants and animals on stress, at least not 
enenews.com/professor-clear-low-level-contamination-dangerous-single-dose -grasshoppers-deformed-wings-gray-eyes-red-birds-abnormal-sper…
eating animals is inhumane and uncourageous. simple as pie.  I’m very upset by the millions of critters/animals/marine life that are getting mowed down by this 
enenews.com/hawaii-milk-producers-fight…/comment-page-1
May 28, 2011  [R]adioactive iodine-131 has been found in a sample of fish taken from a wholesale market in Hong Kong, the Government said today. […] 
enenews.com/hong-kong-finds-radioactive-iodine-131-fish-almost-2000- miles-fukushima
Feb 22, 2012  Researchers: Cesium-137 from Fukushima “not likely” to concentrate in fishas much as mercury — “Moderate buildup” might occur higher up 
enenews.com/researchers-cesium-137-fukushima-not-likely-concentrate-fish– mercury-moderate-buildup-occur-higher-food-chain
Apr 7, 2012  Fish along the Orange County coast may have been affected by radioactivity that  Scientists: California fish harmed by Fukushima radiation?
enenews.com/paper-orange-county-coastal-fish-possibly-affected-by- radioactivity-i-would-assume-its-there-in-the-plants-and-animals-off…
”In the swamp are many good Tatebayashi, Gunma Prefecture, 26 had been found that a lot of dead fish and such Mabuna Herabuna revealed in an interview 
enenews.com/forum-possible-fukushima…/comment-page-6

Apr 5, 2011  The small fish had 4080 becquerels of iodine 131 per kilogram (2.2 pounds). The new standard allows up to 2000 becquerels of iodine 131 per 
enenews.com/fda-epa-and-cdc-say-no-health-risk-from-eating-contaminated- fish-caught-near-fukushima-even-though-4080-bqkg-of-i-131-foun…
Aug 9, 2011  Fish caught at a port about 55 kilometers from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant contained radioactive cesium at levels 
enenews.com/radioactive-fish-caught-over-50-km-from-fukushima-plant-all- 21-samples-exceeded-maximum-cesium-level
Nov 30, 2011  It was first thought currents would swiftly dilute the radiation; Results from fish samples are proving otherwise; “Some are registering cesium 
enenews.com/lab-finds-fish-with-cesium-at-30-times-govt-limit-it-was-first- thought-currents-would-swiftly-dilute-the-radiation-video
Mar 1, 2012  The fish consignment imported to the country last week has been retained by the Customs until a special laboratory test. The chairman said that 
enenews.com/newspaper-fish-contaminated-fukushima-radiation-detected-sri- lanka-undergoing-special-lab-test-chairman-nuclear-agency
Jun 5, 2011  And I am concerned that the FDA is not monitoring fish entering the United States because sooner or later a tuna is going to set off a radiation 
enenews.com/expert-thinks-west-coast-contamination-water-fish-2013
Aug 30, 2011  Gunma prefecture, north of Tokyo, reported Monday that a fish containing more than the legally allowed amount of cesium was caught in a river 
enenews.com/fish-caught-river-north-tokyo-exceeded-legal-limit-radioactive- cesium-first-time-fukushima
Mar 31, 2012  “In the marine environment it was significant, but probably not harmful at the levels we detected it, except it may have affected certain fish’s 
enenews.com/scientists-fukushima-radiation-may-have-affected-certain-fish– in-california-fish-thyroids-are-sensitive-to-radioactive-iodine-high-l…
Dec 5, 2011  Following up this article Another man died of acute leukemia on 11/17/11. Just after this post was published, the editors of the magazine stated 
enenews.com/update-magazine-shows-fisherman-died-leukemia-fish– fukushima-weeks-after-meltdowns-photos
Jan 6, 2012  There is zero risk to human consumers from Pacific fish. Maximum radioactivity levels are set at a level that requires years of exposure to harm 
enenews.com/eu-recommending-nations-monitor-tuna-and-billfish-for- fukushima-radiation-yet-claims-eating-highly-contaminated-fish-lik…
Apr 7, 2011  It’s useless to check fish using ordinary Geiger counter, they should use spectrometer to test radioactive isotopes in fish. What they are doing is 
enenews.com/nyc-restaurants-radiation-detectors-fish-pacific-cbs-video
Apr 4, 2012  Smelt caught in Akagi Onuma Lake in the city of Maebashi were found to have 426 becquerels of radioactive cesium per kilogram, exceeding 
enenews.com/kyodo-radioactive-fish-at-400-govt-limit-found-200-km- inland-at-lake-in-gunma
Apr 6, 2011  Some in the fishing industry are now urging the government to test the Scientists who’ve studied the effects of radiation on fish say cesium 
enenews.com/tuna-swim-japan-west-coast-arriving-late-summer-spent-time- radioactive-water-earth-video
Nov 27, 2011  Died from acute lymphocytic leukemia; Wrote columns for a fishing  26; Was supporting Fukushima by eating Fukushima fish; Was living in 30 
enenews.com/journalist-dies-of-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia-was-living- inside-30-km-zone-to-support-fukushima
Feb 4, 2012  Tests conducted between April 19 and Jan. 10 in Gunma on 34 freshwater fish showed that 11 caught in Lake Onuma exceeded the maximum 
enenews.com/japan-times-there-could-be-hot-spots-under-the-sea-no-telling- when-contamination-levels-will-peak-13-of-fish-in-gunma-fish-ove…
Feb 22, 2012  Zooplankton, which get carried by currents, collected in those waters had levels of cesium-137 and the shorter-lived cesium-134 that were on 
enenews.com/cnn-high-levels-of-radioactive-silver-detected-in-fish-off-japan -coast
Sep 20, 2011  Fish Tests Radiation-negative, But Where’s It From?, Indian Country  he is puzzled at the agency’s reticence about where the fish were taken 
enenews.com/canadians-suspicious-over…/comment-page-1
Mar 30, 2012  Title: Highest level of radioactive cesium to date found in freshwater fish in Fukushima village. Source: Mainichi Daily News Date: March 30 
enenews.com/mainichi-highest-radiation-level-37-times-govt-limit-detected- river-trout-caught-40km-meltdowns
Apr 17, 2011  When I go fishing I only keep the salmon that are packaged in a “Safe Seafood” plastic wrapper. That way I know they are fit to eat.
enenews.com/fda-noaa-monitoring-pacific-fish-radioactivity-noaa-declines- answer-questions-check-fda
Sep 20, 2011  Fish Tests Radiation-negative, But Where’s It From?, Indian Country  eye on Pacific fish for radioactivity; NOAA declines to answer questions, 
enenews.com/canadians-suspicious-over-radiation-testing-of-seafood-official- puzzled-govt-withholding-where-samples-were-taken
Jan 29, 2012  The last 5 years have seen a huge drop off in certain animal populations and certain insects. At least anecdotally, I have to say though.
enenews.com/cbc-on-tmi-enormous-increase-in-cancer-deaths-reports-say- infant-mortality-rates-doubled-birds-disappeared-many-mutations-o…
Nov 21, 2011  Scientific groups say the animals represent the best chance for research on the effects of radiation. But in May, the Japanese government 
enenews.com/wapo-many-spots-15-km-higher-radiation-fukushima-front- gate-risk-minimal-day-zone-like-12-hr-plane-ride
eating animals is inhumane and uncourageous. simple as pie.  I’m very upset by the millions of critters/animals/marine life that are getting mowed down by this 
enenews.com/hawaii-milk-producers-fight…/comment-page-1

Fukushima Animals Affected By Low Level Radiation

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…………………………………………………………………………………

Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
UK Established Animal Radiation ‘Controls’ Due To Cesium Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html 
Radioactive Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl; Animal Studies Show Radiation Is Still Harming Our Wild Companions; via A Green Road Blog
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Radioactive Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl

It turns out that generations after the Chernobyl disaster, boar (wild pigs), deer and potentially other creatures are still unfit to eat, despite living more than 950 miles away from the disaster. 


It turns out that depending on what the pigs and deer are eating, anywhere from 20% to 80% of the animals are contaminated with radioactive Cesium 137, making them unfit to eat due to high radiation levels. After measuring, the government reimburses the hunters for game that is thrown in the garbage, as explained in the following video by AP. 



“We still feel the consequences of Chernobyl’s fallout here,” said Christian Kueppers, a radiation expert at Germany’s Institute for Applied Ecology in Freiburg. The problem is so common that now all wild boars bagged by hunters in the affected regions have to be checked for radiation. Government compensation to hunters whose quarry has to be destroyed has added up to €460,000 ($650,000) over the past 12 months, Hagbeck said.”
http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Latest-News-Wires/2011/0401/Radioactive-boars-in-Germany-a-legacy-of-Chernobyl
The number of animals that have to be disposed of numbers in the thousands each year. The unsafe radiation trigger in Germany is 600 Bq per kilogram or more.

In the UK the level of unsafe radiation was triggered at 1,000 Bq per kilogram Cesium 137 in sheep and other animals consumed for their meat. However, that testing and contaminated meat exclusion program has recently been dropped completely, so people in the UK can now eat radioactively contaminated sheep or other meat, with no radiation measurement or warning labels at all. This also means that this meat can be exported abroad. 

The average level of Cesium radiation found in meat before Chernobyl was less than .5 Bq per kilogram . A total amount of Cesium consumed per year would total around 100 Bq from both plant, milk and animal sources, (all of it coming from the nuclear bomb testing era)
Austria also has a problem with radioactive Cesium at levels much higher than normal in mushrooms, deer and wild pigs. 

In July of 2010, Spiegel  reported that; “according to the Environment Ministry in Berlin, almost €425,000 ($555,000) was paid out to hunters in 2009 in compensation for wild boar meat that was too contaminated by radiation to be sold for consumption. That total is more than four times higher than compensation payments made in 2007.

http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/0,1518,709345,00.html


The German Environment Ministry reports that the average level of radioactive Cesium is 7,000 Bq per kg in wild pigs that live in the southern parts of Germany including Bavaria, near the Czech Republic.  So far, Germany alone has paid out over €238 million to pay hunters for damages related to Chernobyl radiation, ever since Chernobyl  Reactor IV exploded on April 26, 1986.

Why are hunters being paid for wild pigs that test high in radioactivity? Germany has an Atomic Energy Law which forces the government to compensate people for harm done by radiation. It not only regulates nuclear energy, but it also requires that the government pay compensation to anyone who harvests a radioactively contaminated animal.

Since many hunters prefer to take home a wild boar rather than cash, Bavarian hunters have been searching for ways to reduce the radiation in wild pigs.  It seems that a chemical called Giese salt (AFCF) speeds up the excretion of cesium in wild pigs. This chemical binds itself to cesium, and is then taken out of the body. This same chemical is also being used in farm animals to reduce their radioactive burden.  




Radioactive Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-boars-and-deer-unfit-to-eat.html

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Share the blog post title and link above, (or the links below) by copying and pasting it into email, Facebook and Twitter. Or click on the share buttons below. Thanks for doing your part. Keep shining your light and sharing this information with friends, co-workers, politicians, doctors, professors, and other leaders! As the Dalai Lama says; “Never give up, never.”

The following links can be saved on your computer and used to ‘debate’ even the experts. Just copy and paste the following links into the comments sections below articles online. These links will make you the ‘expert’
.
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NUCLEAR BOMBS/WEAPONS
The Nuclear Fuel Chain That Leads To Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
2400 Global Nuclear Atmospheric Bomb Tests 1945-1998
Downwinders And Nuclear Bomb Testing; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/downwinders-and-nuclear-bomb-testing.html
Atomic Bomb Testing Veterans; via A Green Road Blog
Israel‘s Secret Illegal Nuclear Biological And Chemical Weapons  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/israels-secret-illegal-nuclear.html
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
Nuclear Bomb Test Sites And Atomic Lake in Kazakstan, Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
LOW DOSE RADIATION DANGERS
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Low dose radiation causing changes in children; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-causing-unusual-changes-whats.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Dr. Gorden Edwards PhD; Nuclear Power, Hope or Hoax Speech; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM MINING
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
ANIMALS AND RADIATION EFFECTS
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
UK Established Animal Radiation ‘Controls’ Due To Cesium Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html 
Radioactive Boars And Deer Unfit To Eat 950 Miles From Chernobyl; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR REACTOR RECERTIFICATION
Aging Reactors, Lies, Deceptions, Profits And Earthquakes; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/aging-reactors-lies-deceptions-profits.html 
The Diablo You Don’t Know; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry By Or-Well; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fukishima 15 Year Old Speech-Song
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS/ISOTOPES/ETC
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog
GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants, to 75% Renewable Energy; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog
Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html
SPIRITUAL
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/1-giant-leap-happiness.html
Raj Yoga; A Connection with Soul, God And Consciousness; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Mysteries And Theories: Is The Earth Growing? via a Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mystery-is-earth-growing.html
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
PEACE/WAR
War is a Racket; via A Green Road Blog
War/No More Trouble | Playing for Change | Song Around The World; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog
Tell Pres. Obama; Bring Troops Home NOW
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog


UK Established Animal Radiation ‘Controls’ Due To Cesium Contamination

After the meltdown and melt through happened at Chernobyl, dangerous levels of radiation spread far and wide for thousands of square miles, including into areas such as UK, Scotland, Russia, Norway, Belarus and many other countries.
Some countries like the UK established controls on the eating of meat from animals that were in areas contaminated with Cesium radiation. They rules were put in place to protect the public from eating meat that contained over 1,000 Bq/kg of Cesium radiation.  

The following article explains the animal controls in place inside the UK, since Chernobyl exploded. Affected and radioactively contaminated animals could not be exported, consumed or sold inside our outside of these ‘hot’ zones unless they were tested first, and found to be ‘safe’, with less than 1,000 Bq/kg of Cesium radiation.

“Post-Chernobyl monitoring and controls survey reports
The Food Standards Agency is responsible for ensuring food safety by preventing products with unacceptable levels of radioactivity from entering the food chain. Widespread monitoring in 1986 identified food safety concerns from meat from sheep grazing in the affected areas. The Agency manages restrictions on the movement of sheep in the affected areas to protect consumers.
The Agency’s primary concern is to ensure food safety by maintaining these controls, but also remove controls where these are no longer necessary.
Of the 9,800 UK holdings, and more than 4 million sheep, originally placed under restriction following the accident, there are 334 farms that remain under some form of restriction in North Wales, and in Cumbria, only eight farms still remain under restriction. All Mark and Release controls were lifted in Northern Ireland in 2000 and in Scotland in 2010.
The Agency has reviewed the post-Chernobyl sheep controls to assess whether these protective measures are still required to maintain food safety. To inform this review, an assessment has been made of the levels of radiocaesium in sheep within the restricted areas during the summers of 2010 and 2011, and the potential consumer doses if control measures were to be lifted. The survey showed that the levels of radiocaesium rarely exceed the 1,000 Bq/kg limit during the summer months, when levels tend to be at their peak. An assessment of the radiation doses that more highly exposed consumers could receive from eating sheep meat from these farms, shows that the consumer risk is now very low. The assessment report can be accessed via the link below.
The Agency has launched a consultation to seek the views of a range of stakeholders on the removal of the existing post-Chernobyl sheep controls. Details of the consultation and how to respond can be accessed via the link below.
During the review consultation period, and until a final decision is made, the current restrictions on the movement of sheep will remain in place.
Background to the Chernobyl accident
In 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former USSR (now Ukraine) released large quantities of radioactivity into the atmosphere. Some of this radioactivity, predominantly radiocaesium-137, was deposited on certain upland areas of the UK, where sheep farming is the primary land-use.
Due to the particular chemical and physical properties of the peaty soil types present in these upland areas, the radiocaesium is still able to pass easily from soil to grass and so accumulates in sheep.
Food safety controls
A maximum limit of 1,000 becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of radiocaesium is applied to sheep meat affected by the accident to protect consumers. This limit was introduced in the UK in 1986, based on advice from the European Commission’s Article 31 group of experts.
Under powers provided in the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985 (FEPA), which can be found on the Office of Public Sector Information website via the link below, emergency orders have been used since 1986 to impose restrictions on the movement and sale of sheep exceeding the limit in certain parts of Cumbria, North Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The emergency orders define geographical areas, often termed ‘restricted areas’, within which the controls must be followed. Under the FEPA orders, sheep with levels of contamination above the limit are not allowed to enter the food chain.
A management system known as the Mark and Release scheme operates in restricted areas. Under this scheme, a farmer wishing to move sheep out of a restricted area can have them monitored to determine the level of radiocaesium.
A live monitoring technique is used, where a radiation monitor is held against the sheep, giving a count rate (in counts per second), which is converted to a concentration (becquerels per kilogram or Bq/kg) using a derived conversion factor. To allow for inherent variability in live monitoring results, a pass mark is applied, which has been set so there is only a 1 in 40 chance of a sheep above the limit giving a monitor reading below.
Any sheep that exceed the monitoring pass mark are marked with a dye and are not released from restrictions. Those that pass are allowed to enter the food chain. 

Today however, the government agency in charge of these ‘hot spots’ is has lifted ALL CONTAMINATED ANIMAL CONTROLS, (as of Feb, 2012) despite the fact that animals are still testing in the range of 1,000 Bq/kg of Cesium radiation, and will be for the next 300 years (the half life of cesium, times 10) 
 http://www.food.gov.uk/news/consultations/ukwideconsults/2011/removalpostchernobylsheepcontrol


One of the well known effects of radiation coming out of nuclear plant accidents is to knock down the immune system, making an animal or human more subject to catching all kinds of diseases, including viruses. 

The UK has recently reported an outbreak of Schmallenberg virus. There are numerous reports of deformities and deaths of lambs in the UK and Scotland, which would be expected with these doses of Cesium radiation, as well as from other radioactive substances. 

From a 1996 report; “This month several deformed lambs have been born on the farm. One had no lower jaw, another was missing bones. A third delivered by Mr Roberts’ son, Emlyn, seemed like a solid mass of gristle.We’ve not seen anything like that before,” said Mr Roberts.
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/nuclear-cloud-hangs-over-the-hills-1306191….


This matches very well with what happens to animals after a nuclear accident, (as well as human beings). Now let’s fast forward to 2012. 

Feb 1, 2012 – The effects of this ‘virus’ affect about 10% (video above) to 50% (video below) of all of the lambs. The limb and body defects look remarkably like the effects of low level radiation damage. 

Even if this virus is truly causing all of these deaths and deformities, it would be also be a ‘normal’ and  expected effect of low level nuclear radiation reducing the immune strength. 

Our closing question is; are any of these sheep and their offspring that have these deformities and worse, being tested for radiation exposure? Is the virus being found primarily in areas that are also ‘hot’ zones?

Is anyone testing for things like cesium, strontium, plutonium, uranium in the bodies of these dead lambs?

So far at least, the interest of the farmers and government authorities seems to be to get rid of any traces or evidence that low level radiation is impacting animals in any way, rather then exploring in depth the effects of low level radiation on animal health. 



UK Established Animal Radiation ‘Controls’ Due To Cesium Contamination
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/uk-established-animal-radiation.html

END
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ANIMALS AND RADIATION EFFECTS
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa IllinoisDeath City
FukushimaPacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR BOMBS/WEAPONS
The Nuclear Fuel Chain That Leads To Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
2400 Global Nuclear Atmospheric Bomb Tests 1945-1998
Downwinders And Nuclear Bomb Testing; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/downwinders-and-nuclear-bomb-testing.html
Atomic Bomb Testing Veterans; via A Green Road Blog
Israel‘s Secret Illegal Nuclear Biological And Chemical Weapons  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/israels-secret-illegal-nuclear.html
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
Nuclear Bomb Test Sites And Atomic Lake in Kazakstan, Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
LOW DOSE RADIATION DANGERS
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Low dose radiation causing changes in children; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-causing-unusual-changes-whats.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Dr. Gorden Edwards PhD; Nuclear Power, Hope or Hoax Speech; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM MINING
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
NUCLEAR REACTOR RECERTIFICATION
Aging Reactors, Lies, Deceptions, Profits And Earthquakes; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/aging-reactors-lies-deceptions-profits.html 
The Diablo You Don’t Know; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry By Or-Well; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fukishima 15 Year Old Speech-Song
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog
GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants, to 75% Renewable Energy; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog
Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html






Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today

Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html

END
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SPIRITUAL
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/1-giant-leap-happiness.html
Raj Yoga; A Connection with Soul, God And Consciousness; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Mysteries And Theories: Is The Earth Growing? via a Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mystery-is-earth-growing.html
 GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants, to 75% Renewable Energy; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog
Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html

EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs

According to Wikipedia; “an electromagnetic pulse (sometimes abbreviated EMP) is a burst of electromagnetic radiation. The abrupt pulse of electromagnetic radiation usually results from certain types of high energy explosions, especially anuclear explosion, or from a suddenly fluctuating magnetic field. The resulting rapidly-changing electric fields and magnetic fields may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges.

In military terminology, a nuclear warhead detonated hundreds of kilometers above the Earth’s surface is known as a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) device. Effects of a HEMP device depend on a very large number of factors, including the altitude of the detonation, energy yieldgamma ray output, interactions with the Earth’s magnetic field, and electromagnetic shielding of targets.

History

The fact that an electromagnetic pulse is produced by a nuclear explosion was known since the earliest days of nuclear weapons testing. The magnitude of the EMP and the significance of its effects, however, were not realized for some time.[1]
During the first United States nuclear test on 16 July 1945, electronic equipment was shielded due to Enrico Fermi’s expectation of an electromagnetic pulse from the detonation. The official technical history for that first nuclear test states, “All signal lines were completely shielded, in many cases doubly shielded. In spite of this many records were lost because of spurious pickup at the time of the explosion that paralyzed the recording equipment.”[2]  During British nuclear testing in 1952–1953 there were instrumentation failures that were attributed to “radioflash“, which was then the British term for EMP.[3][4]
The high altitude nuclear tests of 1962, as described below, increased the awareness of EMP beyond the original small population of nuclear weapons scientists and engineers. The larger scientific community became aware of the significance of the EMP problem after a series of three articles were published about nuclear electromagnetic pulse in 1981 by William J. Broad in the weekly publication Science.[1][5][6]


Starfish Prime



In July 1962, a 1.44 megaton (6.0 PJ) United States nuclear test in space, 400 kilometres (250 mi) above the mid-Pacific Ocean, called the Starfish Prime test, demonstrated to nuclear scientists that the magnitude and effects of a high altitude nuclear explosion were much larger than had been previously calculated. Starfish Prime also made those effects known to the public by causing electrical damage in Hawaii, about 1,445 kilometres (898 mi) away from the detonation point, knocking out about 300 streetlights, setting off numerous burglar alarms and damaging a telephone company microwave link.[7]
Starfish Prime was the first successful test in the series of United States high-altitude nuclear tests in 1962 known as Operation Fishbowl. The subsequent Operation Fishbowl tests gathered more data on the high-altitude EMP phenomenon.
The Bluegill Triple Prime and Kingfish high-altitude nuclear tests of October and November 1962 in Operation Fishbowl finally provided electromagnetic pulse data that was clear enough to enable physicists to accurately identify the physical mechanisms that were producing the electromagnetic pulses.[8]
The EMP damage of the Starfish Prime test was quickly repaired because of the ruggedness (compared to today)[9] of the electrical and electronic infrastructure of Hawaii in 1962.
The relatively small magnitude of the Starfish Prime EMP in Hawaii (about 5600 volts/metre) and the relatively small amount of damage done (for example, only 1 to 3 percent of streetlights extinguished)[10] led some scientists to believe, in the early days of EMP research, that the problem might not be as significant as was later realized. Newer calculations[9] showed that if the Starfish Prime warhead had been detonated over the northern continental United States, the magnitude of the EMP would have been much larger (22 to 30 kilovolts/metre) because of the greater strength of the Earth’s magnetic field over the United States, as well as the different orientation of the Earth’s magnetic field at high latitudes. These new calculations, combined with the accelerating reliance on EMP-sensitive microelectronics, heightened awareness that the EMP threat could be a very significant problem.


Soviet Test 184

In 1962, the Soviet Union also performed a series of three EMP-producing nuclear tests in space over Kazakhstan, which were the last in the series called “The K Project“.[11] Although these weapons were much smaller (300 kiloton or 1.3 PJ) than the Starfish Prime test, since those tests were done over a populated large land mass (and also at a location where the Earth’s magnetic field was greater), the damage caused by the resulting EMP was reportedly much greater than in the Starfish Prime nuclear test. The geomagnetic storm–like E3 pulse (from the test designated as “Test 184”) even induced an electric current surge in a long underground power line that caused a fire in the power plant in the city of Karaganda. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the level of this damage was communicated informally to scientists in the United States.[12]  Formal documentation of some of the EMP damage in Kazakhstan exists[13][14] but is still sparse in the open scientificliterature.


Non-nuclear history

The concept of the explosively pumped flux compression generator for generating a non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse was conceived as early as 1951 by Andrei Sakharov in the Soviet Union,[15] but nations have usually kept their most recent work on non-nuclear EMP highly classified until the technology was old enough for similar ideas to be conceived by physicists in other nations.


Characteristics of nuclear EMP

The case of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse differs from other kinds of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) in being a complex electromagnetic multi-pulse. The complex multi-pulse is usually described in terms of three components, and these three components have been defined as such by the international standards commission called theInternational Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).[16]
The three components of nuclear EMP, as defined by the IEC, are called E1E2 and E3.


E1

The E1 pulse is the very fast component of nuclear EMP. The E1 component is a very brief but intenseelectromagnetic field that can quickly induce very high voltages in electrical conductors. The E1 component causes most of its damage by causing electrical breakdown voltages to be exceeded. E1 is the component that can destroy computers and communications equipment and it changes too quickly for ordinary lightning protectors to provide effective protection against it.

The mechanism for a 400 km high altitude burst EMP: gamma rays hit the atmosphere between 20–40 km altitude, ejecting electrons which are then deflected sideways by the Earth’s magnetic field. This makes the electrons radiate EMP over a massive area. Because of the curvature and downward tilt of Earth’s magnetic field over the USA, the maximum EMP occurs south of the detonation and the minimum occurs to the north.[17]

The E1 component is produced when gamma radiation from the nuclear detonation knocks electrons out of the atoms in the upper atmosphere. The electrons begin to travel in a generally downward direction at relativistic speeds (more than 90 percent of the speed of light). In the absence of a magnetic field, this would produce a large pulse of electric current vertically in the upper atmosphere over the entire affected area. The Earth’s magnetic field acts on these electrons to change the direction of electron flow to a right angle to the geomagnetic field. This interaction of the Earth’s magnetic field and the downward electron flow produces a very large, but very brief, electromagnetic pulse over the affected area.[18]
Physicist Conrad Longmire has given numerical values for a typical case of the E1 pulse produced by a second generation nuclear weapon such as those used in high altitude tests ofOperation Fishbowl in 1962. According to him, the typical gamma rays given off by the weapon have an energy of about 2 MeV (million electron volts). When these gamma rays collide with atoms in the mid-stratosphere, the gamma rays knock out electrons. This is known as the Compton effect, and the resulting electrons produce an electric current that is known as the Compton current. The gamma rays transfer about half of their energy to the electrons, so these initial electrons have an energy of about 1 MeV. This causes the electrons to begin to travel in a generally downward direction at about 94 percent of the speed of light. Relativistic effects cause the mass of these high energy electrons to increase to about 3 times their normal rest mass.[18]
If there were no geomagnetic field and no additional atoms in the lower atmosphere for additional collisions, the electrons would continue to travel downward with an average current density in the stratosphere of about 48amperes per square metre.[18]
Because of the downward tilt of the Earth’s magnetic field at high latitudes, the area of peak field strength is a U-shaped region to the equatorial side of the nuclear detonation. As shown in the diagram at the right, for nuclear detonations over the continental United States, this U-shaped region is south of the detonation point. Near theequator, where the Earth’s magnetic field is more nearly horizontal, the E1 field strength is more nearly symmetrical around the burst location.
The Earth’s magnetic field quickly deflects the electrons at right angles to the geomagnetic field, and the extent of the deflection depends upon the strength of the magnetic field. At geomagnetic field strengths typical of the central United States, central Europe or Australia, these initial electrons spiral around the magnetic field lines in a circle with a typical radius of about 85 metres (about 280 feet). These initial electrons are stopped by collisions with other air molecules at an average distance of about 170 metres (a little less than 580 feet). This means that most of the electrons are stopped by collisions with air molecules before they can complete one full circle of its spiral around the Earth’s magnetic field lines.[18]
This interaction of the very rapidly-moving negatively-charged electrons with the magnetic field radiates a pulse of electromagnetic energy. The pulse typically rises to its peak value in about 5 nanoseconds. The magnitude of this pulse typically decays to half of its peak value within 200 nanoseconds. (By the IEC definition, this E1 pulse is ended at one microsecond (1000 nanoseconds) after it begins.) This process occurs simultaneously with about 1025 other electrons.[18]
There are a number of secondary collisions which cause the subsequent electrons to lose energy before they reach ground level. The electrons generated by these subsequent collisions have such reduced energy that they do not contribute significantly to the E1 pulse.[18]
These 2 MeV gamma rays will normally produce an E1 pulse near ground level at moderately high latitudes that peaks at about 50,000 volts per metre. This is a peak power density of 6.6 megawatts per square metre.
The process of the gamma rays knocking electrons out of the atoms in the mid-stratosphere causes this region of the atmosphere to become an electrical conductor due to ionization, a process which blocks the production of further electromagnetic signals and causes the field strength to saturate at about 50,000 volts per metre. The strength of the E1 pulse depends upon the number and intensity of the gamma rays produced by the weapon and upon the rapidity of the gamma ray burst from the weapon. The strength of the E1 pulse is also somewhat dependent upon the altitude of the detonation.
There are reports of “super-EMP” nuclear weapons that are able to overcome the 50,000 volt per metre limit by the very nearly instantaneous release of a burst of gamma radiation of much higher energy levels than are known to be produced by second generation nuclear weapons. The reality and possible construction details of these weapons are classified, and therefore cannot be confirmed by scientists in the open scientific literature.[19]


E2

The E2 component is generated by scattered gamma rays and inelastic gammas produced by weapon neutrons. This E2 component is an “intermediate time” pulse that, by the IEC definition, lasts from about 1 microsecond to 1 second after the beginning of the electromagnetic pulse. The E2 component of the pulse has many similarities to the electromagnetic pulses produced by lightning, although the electromagnetic pulse induced by a nearby lightning strike may be considerably larger than the E2 component of a nuclear EMP. Because of the similarities to lightning-caused pulses and the widespread use of lightning protection technology, the E2 pulse is generally considered to be the easiest to protect against.
According to the United States EMP Commission, the main potential problem with the E2 component is the fact that it immediately follows the E1 component, which may have damaged the devices that would normally protect against E2.
According to the EMP Commission Executive Report of 2004, “In general, it would not be an issue for critical infrastructure systems since they have existing protective measures for defense against occasional lightning strikes. The most significant risk is synergistic, because the E2 component follows a small fraction of a second after the first component’s insult, which has the ability to impair or destroy many protective and control features. The energy associated with the second component thus may be allowed to pass into and damage systems.”[20]


Practical considerations for nuclear EMP

Older, vacuum tube (valve) based equipment is generally much less vulnerable to EMP than newer solid stateequipment. Soviet Cold War–era military aircraft often had avionics based on vacuum tubes due to both limitations in Soviet solid-state capabilities and a belief that the vacuum-tube gear would survive better.[1]
Although vacuum tubes are far more resistant to EMP than solid state devices, other components in vacuum tube circuitry can be damaged by EMP. Vacuum tube equipment actually was damaged in 1962 nuclear EMP testing.[14]  Also, the solid state PRC-77 VHF manpackable 2-way radio survived extensive EMP testing.[25] The earlier PRC-25, nearly identical except for a vacuum tube final amplification stage, had been tested in EMP simulators but was not certified to remain fully functional.
Many nuclear detonations have taken place using bombs dropped by aircraft. The B-29 aircraft that delivered the nuclear weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not lose power due to damage to their electrical or electronic systems. This is simply because electrons (ejected from the air by gamma rays) are stopped quickly in normal air for bursts below roughly 10 km (about 6 miles), so they do not get a chance to be significantly deflected by theEarth’s magnetic field (the deflection causes the powerful EMP seen in high altitude bursts), thus the limited use of smaller burst altitudes for widespread EMP.[26]
If the aircraft carrying the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs had been within the intense nuclear radiation zone when the bombs exploded over those cities, then they would have suffered effects from the charge separation(radial) EMP. But this only occurs within the severe blast radius for detonations below about 10 km altitude.
During nuclear tests in 1962, EMP disruptions were suffered aboard KC-135 photographic aircraft flying 300 km (190 mi) from the 410 kt (1,700 TJ) Bluegill Triple Prime and 410 kt (1,700 TJ) Kingfish detonations (48 and 95 km (30 and 59 mi) burst altitude, respectively)[27] but the vital aircraft electronics were far less sophisticated than today and the aircraft were able to land safely.


Generation of nuclear EMP

Several major factors control the effectiveness of a nuclear EMP weapon. These are
  1. The altitude of the weapon when detonated;
  2. The yield and construction details of the weapon;
  3. The distance from the weapon when detonated;
  4. Geographical depth or intervening geographical features;
  5. The local strength of the magnetic field of the Earth.
Beyond a certain altitude a nuclear weapon will not produce any EMP, as the gamma rays will have had sufficient distance to disperse. In deep space or on worlds with no magnetic field (the moon or Mars for example) there will be little or no EMP. This has implications for certain kinds of nuclear rocket engines, such as Project Orion.


Weapon altitude

How the area affected depends on the burst altitude.

How the peak EMP on the ground varies with the weapon yield and burst altitude. The yield here is the prompt gamma ray output measured in kilotons. This varies from 0.115–0.5% of the total weapon yield, depending on weapon design. The 1.4 Mt total yield 1962 Starfish Prime test had a gamma output of 0.1%, hence 1.4 kt of prompt gamma rays. (The bluepre-ionisation‘ curve applies to certain types ofthermonuclear weapon, where gamma and x-raysfrom the primary fission stage ionise the atmosphere and make it electrically conductive before the main pulse from the thermonuclear stage. The pre-ionisation in some situations can literally short out part of the final EMP, by allowing a conduction current to immediately oppose the Compton current of electrons.)[28][29]

According to an internet primer published by the Federation of American Scientists[30]
A high-altitude nuclear detonation produces an immediateflux of gamma rays from the nuclear reactions within the device. These photons in turn produce high energy freeelectrons by Compton scattering at altitudes between (roughly) 20 and 40 km. These electrons are then trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field, giving rise to an oscillatingelectric current. This current is asymmetric in general and gives rise to a rapidly rising radiated electromagnetic fieldcalled an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Because the electrons are trapped essentially simultaneously, a very large electromagnetic source radiates coherently.
The pulse can easily span continent-sized areas, and this radiation can affect systems on land, sea, and air. The first recorded EMP incident accompanied a high-altitude nuclear test over the South Pacific and resulted in power system failures as far away as Hawaii. A large device detonated at 400–500 km (250 to 312 miles) over Kansas would affect all of the continental U.S. The signal from such an event extends to the visual horizon as seen from the burst point.
Thus, for equipment to be affected, the weapon needs to be above the visual horizon. Because of the nature of the pulse as a large, high powered, noisy spike, it is doubtful that there would be much protection if the explosion were seen in the sky just below the tops of hills or mountains.
The altitude indicated above is greater than that of theInternational Space Station and many low Earth orbit satellites. Large weapons could have a dramatic impact on satelliteoperations and communications such as occurred during the 1962 tests. The damaging effects on orbiting satellites are usually due to other factors besides EMP. In the Starfish Prime nuclear test, most satellite damage was due to damage to the solar panels from satellites passing through radiation belts created by the high altitude nuclear explosion.[31]


Weapon yield

Typical nuclear weapon yields used during Cold War planning for EMP attacks were in the range of 1 to 10 megatons (4.2 to 42 PJ)[32] This is roughly 50 to 500 times the sizes of the weapons the United States used in Japan at Hiroshima andNagasaki. Physicists have testified at United States Congressional hearings, however, that weapons with yields of 10 kilotons (42 TJ) or less can produce a very large EMP.[33]
If one compares explosions with different yields, the EMP at a fixed distance from a nuclear weapon would not increase at the same rate as the explosion yield, but at most only as the square root of the yield (see the illustration to the right).  This means that although a 10 kiloton weapon has only 0.7% of the total energy release of the 1.44-megaton Starfish Prime test, the EMP will be at least 8% as powerful. Since the E1 component of nuclear EMP depends on the prompt gamma ray output, which was only 0.1% of yield in Starfish Prime but can be 0.5% of yield in pure fission weapons of low yield, a 10 kiloton bomb can easily be 5 x 8% = 40% as powerful as the 1.44 megaton Starfish Prime at producing EMP.[27]
The total prompt gamma ray energy in a fission explosion is 3.5% of the yield, but in a 10 kiloton detonation the high explosive around the bomb core absorbs about 85% of the prompt gamma rays, so the output is only about 0.5% of the yield in kilotons. In the thermonuclear Starfish Prime the fission yield was less than 100% to begin with, and then the thicker outer casing absorbed about 95% of the prompt gamma rays from the pusher around the fusion stage. Thermonuclear weapons are also less efficient at producing EMP because the first stage canpre-ionize the air[27] which becomes conductive and hence rapidly shorts out the electron Compton currentsgenerated by the final, larger yield thermonuclear stage. Hence, small pure fission weapons with thin cases are far more efficient at causing EMP than most megaton bombs.
This analysis, however, only applies to the fast E1 and E2 components of nuclear EMP. The geomagnetic storm-like E3 component of nuclear EMP is more closely proportional to the total energy yield of the weapon.[34]


Weapon distance

A unique and important aspect of nuclear EMP is that all of the components of the electromagnetic pulse are generated outside of the weapon. The important E1 component is generated by interaction with the electrons in the upper atmosphere that are hit by gamma radiation from the weapon — and the subsequent effects upon those electrons by the Earth’s magnetic field.[30]
For high-altitude nuclear explosions, this means that much of the EMP is actually generated at a large distance from the detonation (where the gamma radiation from the explosion hits the upper atmosphere). This causes the electric field from the EMP to be remarkably uniform over the large area affected.
According to the standard reference text on nuclear weapons effects published by the U.S. Department of Defense, “The peak electric field (and its amplitude) at the Earth’s surface from a high-altitude burst will depend upon the explosion yield, the height of the burst, the location of the observer, and the orientation with respect to the geomagnetic field.  As a general rule, however, the field strength may be expected to be tens of kilovolts per metre over most of the area receiving the EMP radiation.”[35]
The same reference book also states that, “… over most of the area affected by the EMP the electric field strength on the ground would exceed 0.5Emax.   For yields of less than a few hundred kilotons, this would not necessarily be true because the field strength at the Earth’s tangent could be substantially less than 0.5Emax.”[35]
(Emax refers to the maximum electric field strength in the affected area.)
In other words, the electric field strength in the entire area that is affected by the EMP will be fairly uniform for weapons with a large gamma ray output; but for much smaller weapons, the electric field may fall off at a comparatively faster rate at large distances from the detonation point.
It is the peak electric field of the EMP that determines the peak voltage induced in equipment and other electrical conductors on the ground, and most of the damage is determined by induced voltages.
For nuclear detonations within the atmosphere, the situation is more complex. Within the range of gamma ray deposition, simple laws no longer hold as the air is ionised and there are other EMP effects, such as a radial electric field due to the separation of Compton electrons from air molecules, together with other complex phenomena. For a surface burst, absorption of gamma rays by air would limit the range of gamma ray deposition to approximately 10 miles, while for a burst in the lower-density air at high altitudes, the range of deposition would be far greater.


Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse

Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NNEMP) is an electromagnetic pulse generated without use of nuclear weapons. There are a number of devices that can achieve this objective, ranging from a large low-inductance capacitor bank discharged into a single-loop antenna or a microwave generator to an explosively pumped flux compression generator. To achieve the frequency characteristics of the pulse needed for optimal coupling into the target, wave-shaping circuits and/or microwave generators are added between the pulse source and the antenna. A vacuum tube particularly suitable for microwave conversion of high energy pulses is the vircator.[36]
NNEMP generators can be carried as a payload of bombs, cruise missiles and drones, allowing construction of electromagnetic bombs with diminished mechanical, thermal and ionizing radiation effects and without the political consequences of deploying nuclear weapons.
The range of NNEMP weapons (non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse bombs) is severely limited compared to nuclear EMP. This is because nearly all NNEMP devices used as weapons require chemical explosives as their initial energy source, but nuclear explosives have an energy yield on the order of one million times that of chemical explosives of similar weight.[37]  In addition to the large difference in the energy density of the initial energy source, the electromagnetic pulse from NNEMP weapons must come from within the weapon itself, while nuclear weapons generate EMP as a secondary effect, often at great distances from the detonation.[29]  These facts severely limit the range of NNEMP weapons as compared to their nuclear counterparts, but allow for more surgical target discrimination. The effect of small e-bombs has proven to be sufficient for certain terrorist or military operations. Examples of such operations include the destruction of certain fragile electronic control systems of the type critical to the operation of many ground vehicles and aircraft.[38]

A right front view of a Boeing E-4 National Airborne Operations Center aircraft on the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) simulator (HAGII-C) for testing.

USS Estocin (FFG-15) moored near the Electro Magnetic Pulse Radiation Environmental Simulator for Ships I (EMPRESS I) facility (antennae at top of image).

Information about the EMP simulators used by the United States during the latter part of the Cold War, along with more general information about electromagnetic pulse, are now in papers under the care of the SUMMA Foundation,[39] which is now hosted at the University of New Mexico.
The SUMMA Foundation web site includes documentation about the huge woodenATLAS-I simulator (better known as TRESTLE, or “The Sandia Trestle”) atSandia National Labs, New Mexico, which was the world’s largest EMP simulator.[40]  Nearly all of these large EMP simulators used a specialized version of a Marx generator.[3][4]  The SUMMA Foundation now has a 44-minute documentary movie on its web site called “TRESTLE: Landmark of the Cold War”.[41]
Many large EMP simulators were also built in the Soviet Union, as well as in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Italy.[3][4]


Post–Cold War nuclear EMP attack scenarios

The United States military services have developed, and in some cases have published, a number of hypothetical EMP attack scenarios.[42]
The United States EMP Commission was authorized by the United States Congress in Fiscal Year 2001, and re-authorized in Fiscal Year 2006. The commission is formally known as the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack.[43]
The United States EMP Commission has brought together a group of notable scientists and technologists to compile several reports. In 2008, the EMP Commission released the Critical National Infrastructures Report.[34]This report describes, in as much detail as practical, the likely consequences of a nuclear EMP on civilian infrastructures. Although this report was directed specifically toward the United States, most of the information can obviously be generalized to the civilian infrastructure of other industrialized countries.
The 2008 report was a followup to a more generalized report issued by the commission in 2004.[22][44]
In written testimony delivered to the United States Senate in 2005, an EMP Commission staff member reported:
The EMP Commission sponsored a worldwide survey of foreign scientific and military literature to evaluate the knowledge, and possibly the intentions, of foreign states with respect to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack. The survey found that the physics of EMP phenomenon and the military potential of EMP attack are widely understood in the international community, as reflected in official and unofficial writings and statements. The survey of open sources over the past decade finds that knowledge about EMP and EMP attack is evidenced in at least Britain, France, Germany, Israel, Egypt, Taiwan, Sweden, Cuba, India, Pakistan, Iraq under Saddam Hussein, Iran, North Korea, China and Russia.
. . .
Many foreign analysts–particularly in Iran, North Korea, China, and Russia–view the United States as a potential aggressor that would be willing to use its entire panoply of weapons, including nuclear weapons, in a first strike. They perceive the United States as having contingency plans to make a nuclear EMP attack, and as being willing to execute those plans under a broad range of circumstances.
Russian and Chinese military scientists in open source writings describe the basic principles of nuclear weapons designed specifically to generate an enhanced-EMP effect, that they term “Super-EMP” weapons. “Super-EMP” weapons, according to these foreign open source writings, can destroy even the best protected U.S. military and civilian electronic systems.[19]


Clarification of common misconceptions

In non-technical writings about nuclear EMP, both in print and on the Internet, some common misconceptions about EMP are nearly always found. These widely-repeated misconceptions have led to a very considerable amount of confusion about the subject. In 2010, a technical report written for the US government’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory even included a brief section addressing some of those EMP myths.[45]  Here are some further clarifications on common areas of confusion that have already been discussed (with references) in the above sections of this article:
  1. Most nuclear weapons effects vary greatly depending upon the altitude of the detonation. This is especially true of nuclear EMP. The standard reference text on nuclear weapon effects published by the U.S. Department of Defense discusses this relationship extensively in the first two chapters, and provides mutually-exclusive definitions for phrases such as “air burst” and “high-altitude burst.” [46] As explained in above sections of this article, nuclear detonations at all altitudes within the Earth’s magnetic field will produce an electromagnetic pulse; but the magnitude of the EMP and area that is affected by the EMP are strongly affected by many factors, and is especially strongly dependent upon the altitude of the detonation. (See the discussion above in the “Weapon altitude” and “Weapon distance” sections.)  A nuclear explosion in deep space and not in a strong planetary magnetic field would be ineffective at generating EMP.
  2. EMP is not a new kind of weapon effect. As stated in the “History” section above, nuclear EMP from a nuclear air burst has been known since 1945. The unique characteristics of high-altitude nuclear EMP have been known since at least 1962. Non-nuclear EMP has been known since at least 1951. Electromagnetic pulse is a prompt secondary effect of a nuclear explosion, and nearly all of the nuclear EMP is produced outside of the weapon.  All nuclear weapons can produce EMP as a secondary effect, but the effect can be enhanced by special weapon design.[19][22]
  3. The E3 component of nuclear EMP that produces geomagnetically induced currents in very long electrical conductors is roughly proportional to the total energy yield of the weapon. The other components of nuclear EMP are less likely to be dependent on total energy yield of the weapon. The E1 component, in particular, is proportional to prompt gamma ray output; but EMP levels can be strongly affected if more than one burst of gamma rays occurs in a short time period. Large thermonuclear weapons produce large energy yields through a multi-stage process. This multi-stage process is completed within a small fraction of a second, but it nevertheless requires a finite length of time. The first fission reaction is usually of relatively small yield, and the gamma rays produced by the first stage pre-ionize atmospheric molecules in the stratosphere. This pre-ionization causes the gamma ray emission from the high-energy final stage of the thermonuclear weapon (a fraction of a second later) to be relatively ineffective at producing a large E1pulse.[33][34] (See the blue pre-ionization curve in the “Peak Electric Field at Ground Zero” graph above.)
  4. It has long been known that there are many ways to protect against nuclear EMP (or to quickly begin repairs where protection is not practical); but the United States EMP Commission determined that such protections are almost completely absent in the civilian infrastructure of the United States, and that even large sectors of the United States military services were no longer protected against EMP to the level that they were during the Cold War. The public statements of the physicists and engineers working in the EMP field tend to emphasize the importance of making electronic equipment and electrical components resistant to EMP — and of keeping adequate spare parts on hand, and in the proper location, to enable prompt repairs to be made.[22][34][47] The United States EMP Commission did not look at the civilian infrastructures of other nations.


References

  1. a b c Broad, William J. “Nuclear Pulse (I): Awakening to the Chaos Factor”, Science. 29 May 1981 212: 1009–1012
  2. ^ Bainbridge, K.T., Trinity (Report LA-6300-H), Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. May 1976. Page 53 [1]
  3. a b c Baum, Carl E., “Reminiscences of High-Power Electromagnetics”, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. Vol. 49, No. 2. pp. 211–218. May 2007. [2]
  4. a b c Baum, Carl E., “From the Electromagnetic Pulse to High-Power Electromagnetics”, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol.80, No. 6, pp. 789–817. June 1992 [3]
  5. ^ Broad, William J. “Nuclear Pulse (II): Ensuring Delivery of the Doomsday Signal”, Science. 5 June 1981 212: 1116–1120
  6. ^ Broad, William J. “Nuclear Pulse (III): Playing a Wild Card”, Science. 12 June 1981 212: 1248–1251
  7. ^ Vittitoe, Charles N., “Did High-Altitude EMP Cause the Hawaiian Streetlight Incident?” Sandia National Laboratories. June 1989. [4]
  8. ^ Longmire, Conrad L., “Fifty Odd Years of EMP”, NBC Report, Fall/Winter, 2004. pp. 47-51. U.S. Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency [5]
  9. a b Theoretical Notes – Note 353 – March 1985 – EMP on Honolulu from the Starfish Event* Conrad L. Longmire – Mission Research Corporation
  10. ^ Rabinowitz, Mario (1987) “Effect of the Fast Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse on the Electric Power Grid Nationwide: A Different View”. IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, PWRD-2, 1199–1222 arXiv:physics/0307127
  11. ^ Zak, Anatoly “The K Project: Soviet Nuclear Tests in Space”, The Nonproliferation Review, Volume 13, Issue 1 March 2006 , pp. 143-150 [6]
  12. ^ SUBJECT: US-Russian meeting – HEMP effects on national power grid & telecommunications From: Howard Seguine, 17 Feb. 1995 MEMORANDUM FOR RECORD
  13. ^ Greetsai, Vasily N., et al. “Response of Long Lines to Nuclear High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP)” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 40, No. 4, November 1998, [7]
  14. a b Loborev, Vladimir M. “Up to Date State of the NEMP Problems and Topical Research Directions”, Electromagnetic Environments and Consequences: Proceedings of the EUROEM 94 International Symposium, Bordeaux, France, 30 May – 3 June 1994, pp. 15–21
  15. ^ Stephen Younger, et al. “Scientific Collaborations Between Los Alamos and Arzamas-16 Using Explosive-Driven Flux Compression Generators” Los Alamos Science, No. 24, pp. 48–71, 1996 [8]Retrieved 2009-24-10
  16. ^ Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 2: Environment – Section 9: Description of HEMP environment – Radiated disturbance. Basic EMC publication, IEC 61000-2-9
  17. ^ U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range, Nuclear Environment Survivability. Report ADA278230. Page D-7. 15 April 1994. [9]
  18. a b c d e f Longmire, Conrad L. “Justification and Verification of High-Altitude EMP Theory, Part 1” LLNL-9323905, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. June 1986 [10] (Retrieved 2010-15-12)
  19. a b c Statement, Dr. Peter Vincent Pry, EMP Commission Staff, before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security. March 8, 2005 [11]
  20. ^ Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack. Volume 1. Executive Report. 2004. Page 6. [12]
  21. ^ High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP): A Threat to Our Way of Life, 09.07, By William A. Radasky, Ph.D., P.E. – IEEE
  22. a b c d Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack [13]
  23. ^ Report Meta-R-321: “The Late-Time (E3) High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and Its Impact on the U.S. Power Grid” January 2010. Written by Metatech Corporation for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [14]
  24. ^http://web.archive.org/web/20110726030320/http://www.empactamerica.org/solar_emp.php
  25. ^ Seregelyi, J.S, et al. Report ADA266412 “EMP Hardening Investigation of the PRC-77 Radio Set”[15] Retrieved 2009-25-11
  26. ^ Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Philip J., The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Chapter 11, section 11.09. United States Department of Defense. 1977.
  27. a b c Effects of Nuclear Weapons Tests: Scientific Facts: EMP radiation from nuclear space bursts in 1962
  28. ^ Louis W. Seiler, Jr. A Calculational Model for High Altitude EMP. Air Force Institute of Technology. Report ADA009208. Pages 33 and 36. March 1975 [16]
  29. a b Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Philip J., The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Chapter 11. 1977. United States Department of Defense. [17]
  30. a b Federation of American Scientists. Nuclear Weapon EMP Effects
  31. ^ Hess, Wilmot N. (September 1964) (PDF). The Effects of High Altitude ExplosionsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA TN D-2402. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
  32. ^ U.S. Congressional hearing Transcript H.S.N.C No. 105–18, p. 39
  33. a b U.S. Congressional hearing Transcript H.A.S.C.No. 106–31, p. 48
  34. a b c d EMP Commission Critical National Infrastructures Report
  35. a b Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Philip J., The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Chapter 11, section 11.73. United States Department of Defense. 1977.[18]
  36. ^ Kopp, Carlo (October 1996). “The Electromagnetic Bomb – A Weapon of Electrical Mass Destruction”.USAF CADRE Air Chronicles (U.S. Air Force). DTIC:ADA332511. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  37. ^ Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Philip J., The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Chapter 1. 1977. United States Department of Defense. [19]
  38. ^ Marks, Paul “Aircraft could be brought down by DIY ‘E-bombs'” New Scientist, 01 April 2009, pp. 16-17 [20]
  39. ^ The SUMMA Foundation The University of New Mexico.
  40. ^ The Atlas-I Trestle at Kirtland Air Force Base Story by Charles Reuben, The University of New Mexico
  41. ^ TRESTLE: Landmark of the Cold War (Documentary Movie)
  42. ^ Miller, Colin R., Major, USAF “Electromagnetic Pulse Threats in 2010” Air War College, Air University, United States Air Force, November 2005 [21]
  43. ^ Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack
  44. ^ Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack Volume 1: Executive Report 2004
  45. ^ Report Meta-R-320: “The Early-Time (E1) High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and Its Impact on the U.S. Power Grid.” January 2010. Written by Metatech Corporation for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Appendix: E1 HEMP Myths [22]
  46. ^ Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Philip J., The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Chapters 1 and 2. United States Department of Defense. 1977. [23]
  47. ^ Ross, Lenard H., Jr. and Mihelic, F. Matthew, “Healthcare Vulnerabilities to Electromagnetic Pulse,” American Journal of Disaster Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 321–325. November/December 2008. [24]

[edit]Further reading

  • ISBN 978-1-59-248389-1 21st Century Complete Guide to Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack Threats, Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic … High-Altitude Nuclear Weapon EMP Attacks (CD-ROM)
  • ISBN 978-0-16-056127-6 Threat posed by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to U.S. military systems and civil infrastructure: Hearing before the Military Research and Development Subcommittee … first session, hearing held July 16, 1997 (Unknown Binding)
  • ISBN 978-0-471-01403-4 Electromagnetic Pulse Radiation and Protective Techniques
  • ISBN 978-0-16-080927-9 Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack

[edit]External links


EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
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PEACE/WAR
War is a Racket; via A Green Road Blog
War/No More Trouble | Playing for Change | Song Around The World; via A Green Road Blog
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Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog
Tell Pres. Obama; Bring Troops Home NOW
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Secret US War On Laos And The Killing Legacy Left Behind; via A Green Road Blog 
Drones: Secret War, Expanded Violation Of Sovereign Nations, Citizen’s Constitutional Rights 
Fahrenheit 911 Movie – Michael Moore; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/fahrenheit-911-full-length-movie.html
JUSTICE/PRISONS
What Are Universal Human Rights? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/what-are-universal-human-rights.html
US ranks 5th in Executions; With IraqChinaRussia; via A Green Road Blog  
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Trayvon Martin; Brutal Murder, or Justified Defense of Life? via A Green Road Blog  
Prison Mistakes, Prison Reform; via A Green Road Blog
Secret Jury Rights And Ignored Constitutional Duty
Hillary Clinton: Women Deserve The Right To Choose; via A Green Road Blog 
Every Person Has Needs; From Survival To Transcendence; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/every-person-has-set-of-needs.html
 
NUCLEAR BOMBS/WEAPONS
The Nuclear Fuel Chain That Leads To Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
2400 Global Nuclear Atmospheric Bomb Tests 1945-1998
Downwinders And Nuclear Bomb Testing; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/downwinders-and-nuclear-bomb-testing.html
Atomic Bomb Testing Veterans; via A Green Road Blog
Israel‘s Secret Illegal Nuclear Biological And Chemical Weapons  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/israels-secret-illegal-nuclear.html
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
Nuclear Bomb Test Sites And Atomic Lake in Kazakstan, Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
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LOW DOSE RADIATION DANGERS
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Low dose radiation causing changes in children; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-causing-unusual-changes-whats.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Dr. Gorden Edwards PhD; Nuclear Power, Hope or Hoax Speech; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM MINING
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
ANIMALS AND RADIATION EFFECTS
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR REACTOR RECERTIFICATION
Aging Reactors, Lies, Deceptions, Profits And Earthquakes; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/aging-reactors-lies-deceptions-profits.html 
The Diablo You Don’t Know; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry By Or-Well; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog
GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants, to 75% Renewable Energy; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog
Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html
SPIRITUAL
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/1-giant-leap-happiness.html
Raj Yoga; A Connection with Soul, God And Consciousness; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Mysteries And Theories: Is The Earth Growing? via a Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mystery-is-earth-growing.html
PEACE/WAR
War is a Racket; via A Green Road Blog
War/No More Trouble | Playing for Change | Song Around The World; via A Green Road Blog
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Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored

NBC’s Rossen Reports on the danger of RADON in schools and in your home.


According to Wikipedia; “Radon (play /ˈrdɒn/ ray-don) is a chemical element with the atomic number 86, and is represented by the symbol Rn. It is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, occurring naturally as the decay product of uranium or thorium. Its most stable isotope222Rn, has a half-life of 3.8 days. 
Radon is one of the densest substances that remains a gas under normal conditions. It is also the only gas that only has radioactive isotopes, and is considered a health hazard due to its radioactivity. Intense radioactivity has also hindered chemical studies of radon and only a few compounds are known.
Radon is formed as part of the normal radioactive decay chain of uranium and thorium. Uranium and thorium have been around since the earth was formed and their most common isotope has a very long half-life (4.5 billion years). Uranium and thorium, radium, and thus radon, will continue to occur for millions of years at about the same concentrations as they do now.[1] As the radioactive gas of radon decays, it produces new radioactive elements called radon daughters or decay products. Radon daughters are solids and stick to surfaces such as dust particles in the air. If contaminated dust is inhaled, these particles can stick to the airways of the lung and increase the risk of developing lung cancer.[2]
Radon is responsible for the majority of the public exposure to ionizing radiation. It is often the single largest contributor to an individual’s background radiation dose, and is the most variable from location to location. Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as attics and basements. It can also be found in some spring waters and hot springs.[3]
Epidemiological studies have shown a clear link between breathing high concentrations of radon and incidence of lung cancer. Thus, radon is considered a significant contaminant that affects indoor air quality worldwide. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, radon is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking, causing 21,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. About 2,900 of these deaths occur among people who have never smoked. While radon is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, it is the number one cause among non-smokers, according to EPA estimates.[4]


Characteristics

Physical properties

Radon is a colorless and odorless gas, and therefore not detectable by human senses alone. At standard temperature and pressure, radon forms a monatomic gas with a density of 9.73 kg/m3,[5] about 8 times the density of the Earth’s atmosphere at sea level, 1.217 kg/m3.[6] Radon is one of the densest gases at room temperature and is the densest of the noble gases. Although colorless at standard temperature and pressure, when cooled below its freezing point of 202 K (−71 °C; −96 °F), radon has a brilliant phosphorescence which turns from yellow to orange-red as the temperature is lowered.[7]Upon condensation, radon glows because of the intense radiation it produces.[8]


Chemical properties

Being a noble gas, radon is chemically not very reactive. However, the 3.8 day half-life of radon-222 makes it useful in physical sciences as a natural tracer.

An electron shell diagram for radon. Note the eight electrons in the outer shell.

Radon is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called noble gases. It is inert to most common chemical reactions, such as combustion, because the outer valence shell contains eight electrons. This produces a stable, minimum energy configuration in which the outer electrons are tightly bound.[9]1037 kJ/mol is required to extract one electron from its shells (also known as the first ionization energy).[10] However, in accordance with periodic trends, radon has a lower electronegativity than the element one period before it,xenon, and is therefore more reactive. Radon is sparingly soluble in water, but more soluble than lighter noble gases. Radon is appreciably more soluble in organic liquids than in water. Early studies concluded that the stability of radonhydrate should be of the same order as that of the hydrates of chlorine (Cl2) orsulfur dioxide (SO2), and significantly higher than the stability of the hydrate ofhydrogen sulfide (H2S).[11]
Because of its cost and radioactivity, experimental chemical research is seldom performed with radon, and as a result there are very few reported compounds of radon, all either fluorides oroxides. Radon can be oxidized by a few powerful oxidizing agents such as fluorine, thus forming radon fluoride.[12][13] It decomposes back to elements at a temperature of above 250 °C. It has a low volatility and was thought to be RnF2. But because of the short half-life of radon and the radioactivity of its compounds, it has not been possible to study the compound in any detail. Theoretical studies on this molecule predict that it should have a Rn-F bond distance of 2.08 Ǻ, and that the compound is thermodynamically more stable and less volatile than its lighter counterpart XeF2.[14] The octahedral molecule RnF6 was predicted to have an even lower enthalpy of formation than the difluoride.[15] The [RnF]+ ion is believed to form by the reaction:[16]
Rn (g) + 2 [O2]+[SbF6] (s) → [RnF]+[Sb2F11] (s) + 2 O2 (g)
Radon oxides are among the few other reported compounds of radon.[17] Radon carbonyl RnCO has been predicted to be stable and to have a linear molecular geometry.[18] The molecules Rn2 and RnXe were found to be significantly stabilized by spin-orbit coupling.[19] Radon caged inside a fullerene has been proposed as a drug for tumors.[20]

[edit]Isotopes

Uranium series

The radium or uranium series.

Radon has no stable isotopes. However, 36 radioactive isotopes have been characterized, with their atomic masses ranging from 193 to 228.[21] The most stable isotope is 222Rn, which is a decay product of 226Ra, a decay product of 238U.[22]Among the daughters of 222Rn is also the highly unstable isotope 218Rn.
There are three other radon isotopes that have a half-life of over an hour: 211Rn,210Rn and 224Rn. The 220Rn isotope is a natural decay product of the most stablethorium isotope (232Th), and is commonly referred to as thoron. It has a half-life of 55.6 seconds and also emits alpha radiation. Similarly, 219Rn is derived from the most stable isotope of actinium (227Ac)—named “actinon”—and is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 3.96 seconds.[21] No radon isotopes occur significantly in the neptunium(237Np) decay series.


Progenies

222Rn belongs to the radium and uranium-238 decay chain, and has a half-life of 3.8235 days. Its four first products (excluding marginal decay schemes) are very short-lived, meaning that the corresponding disintegrations are indicative of the initial radon distribution. Its decay goes through the following sequence:[21]
At the next step, 214Po decays to 210Pb, which has a much longer half-life of 22.3 years. Its progenies are:
  • 210Bi, 5.013 days, beta decaying to…
  • 210Po, 138.376 days, alpha decaying to…
  • 206Pb, stable.
The radon equilibrium factor[23] is the ratio between the activity of all short-period radon progenies (which are responsible for most of radon’s biological effects), and the activity that would be at equilibrium with the radon parent.
If a closed volume is constantly supplied with radon, the concentration of short-lived isotopes will increase until an equilibrium is reached where the rate of decay of each decay product will equal that of the radon itself. The equilibrium factor is 1 when both activities are equal, meaning that the decay products have stayed close to the radon parent long enough for the equilibrium to be reached, within a couple of hours. Under these conditions each additional pCi/L of radon will increase exposure, by 0.01 WL (see explanation of WL below). These conditions are not always met: in many homes, the equilibrium fraction is typically 40%; that is, there will be 0.004 WL of progeny for each pCi/L of radon in air.[24] 210Pb takes much longer (decades) to come in equilibrium with radon, but, if the environment permits accumulation of dust over extended periods of time, 210lead and its decay products may contribute to overall radiation levels as well.
Because of their electrostatic charge, radon progenies adhere to surfaces or dust particles, whereas gaseous radon does not. Attachment removes them from the air, usually causing the equilibrium factor in the atmosphere to be less than one. The equilibrium factor is also lowered by air circulation or air filtration devices, and is increased by airborne dust particles, including cigarette smoke. In high concentrations, airborne radon isotopes contribute significantly to human health risk. The equilibrium factor found in epidemiological studies is 0.4.[25]

[edit]History and etymology

Apparatus used by Ramsay and Whytlaw-Gray to isolate radon. M is a capillary tube where approximately 0.1 mm3were isolated. Rn mixed with H2 entered the evacuated system through siphon A; mercury is shown in black.

Radon was the fifth radioactive element to be discovered, in 1900 by Friedrich Ernst Dorn, after uranium, thorium, radium and polonium.[26][27][28] In 1900 Dorn reported some experiments in which he noticed that radium compounds emanate a radioactive gas which he named Radium Emanation (Ra Em).[29] Before that, in 1899, Pierre andMarie Curie observed that the “gas” emitted by radium remained radioactive for a month.[30] Later that year, Robert B. Owens and Ernest Rutherford, at McGill University in Montreal, noticed variations when trying to measure radiation from thorium oxide.[31] Rutherford noticed that the compounds of thorium continuously emit a radioactive gas which retain the radioactive powers for several minutes and called this gas “emanation” (from Latin “emanare”—to elapse and “emanatio”—expiration),[32] and later Thorium Emanation (Th Em). In 1901, he demonstrated that the emanations are radioactive, but credited the Curies for the discovery of the element.[33] In 1903, similar emanations were observed from actinium by André-Louis Debierne[34][35] and were called Actinium Emanation (Ac Em).
Several names were suggested for these three gases: exradioexthorio, and exactinioin 1904;[36] radonthoron, and akton in 1918;[37] radeonthoreon, and actineon in 1919,[38] and eventually radonthoron, and actinon in 1920.[39] The likeness of the spectra of these three gases with those of argon, krypton, and xenon, and their observed chemical inertia led Sir William Ramsay to suggest in 1904 that the “emanations” might contain a new element of the noble gas family.[36]
In 1910, Sir William Ramsay and Robert Whytlaw-Gray isolated radon, determined its density, and determined that it was the heaviest known gas.[40] They wrote that “L’expression de l’émanation du radium est fort incommode,” (the expression of radium emanation is very awkward) and suggested the new name niton (Nt) (from the Latin “nitens” meaning “shining”) in order to emphasize the property of gases that cause the phosphorescence of some substances,[40] and in 1912 it was accepted by the International Commission for Atomic Weights. In 1923, the International Committee for Chemical Elements and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) chose among the names radon (Rn), thoron (Tn), and actinon (An). Later, when isotopes were numbered instead of named, the element took the name of the most stable isotope, radon, while Tn was renamed 220Rn and An was renamed219Rn. As late as the 1960s, the element was also referred to simply as emanation.[41] The first synthesized compound of radon, radon fluoride, was obtained in 1962.[42]
The danger of high exposure to radon in mines, where exposures reaching 1,000,000 Bq/m3 can be found, has long been known. In 1530, Paracelsus described a wasting disease of miners, the mala metallorum, and Georg Agricola recommended ventilation in mines to avoid this mountain sickness (Bergsucht).[43][44] In 1879, this condition was identified as lung cancer by Herting and Hesse in their investigation of miners from Schneeberg, Germany. The first major studies with radon and health occurred in the context of uranium mining in theJoachimsthal region of Bohemia.[45] In the US, studies and mitigation only followed decades of health effects on uranium miners of the Southwestern United States employed during the early Cold War; standards were not implemented until 1971.[46]
The presence of radon in indoor air was documented as early as 1950. Beginning in the 1970’s research was initiated to address sources of indoor radon, determinants of concentration, health effects, and approaches to mitigation. In the United States, the problem of indoor radon received widespread publicity and intensified investigation after a widely publicized incident in 1984. During routine monitoring at a Pennsylvania nuclear power plant, a worker was found to be contaminated with radioactivity. A high contamination of radon in his home was subsequently identified as responsible for the contamination.[47]


Occurrence

[edit]Concentration units

210Pb is formed from the decay of 222Rn. Here is a typical deposition rate of 210Pb as observed in Japan as a function of time, due to variations in radon concentration.[48]

All discussions of radon concentrations in the environment refer to222Rn. While the average rate of production of 220Rn (from the thorium decay series) is about the same as 222Rn, the amount of220Rn in the environment is much less than that of 222Rn because of the short half-life of 220Rn (1 minute versus 4 days).[1]
Radon concentration is usually measured in the atmosphere, inbecquerel per cubic meter (Bq/m3), the SI derived unit. Typical domestic exposures are about 100 Bq/m3 indoors, and 10–20 Bq/m3 outdoors.[citation needed]
It is often measured in picocuries per liter (pCi/L) in the USA, with 1 pCi/L=37 Bq/m3.[24]
In the mining industry, the exposition is traditionally measured inworking level (WL), and the cumulative exposition in working level month (WLM): 1 WL equals any combination of short-lived 222Rn progeny (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi, and 214Po) in 1 liter of air that releases 1.3 × 105 MeV of potential alpha energy;[24] one WL is equivalent to 2.08 × 10−5 joules per cubic meter of air (J/m3).[1] The SI unit of cumulative exposure is expressed in joule-hours per cubic meter (J·h/m3). One WLM is equivalent to 3.6 × 10−3J·h/m3. An exposure to 1 WL for 1 working month (170 hours) equals 1 WLM cumulative exposure.[citation needed]
A cumulative exposition of 1 WLM is roughly equivalent to living one year in an atmosphere with a radon concentration of 230 Bq/m3.[49]
Radon (222Rn), when released into the air, decays to 210Pb and other radioisotopes, the levels of 210Pb can be measured. The rate of deposition of this radioisotope is weather dependent.
Radon concentrations found in natural environments are much too low to be detected by chemical means. A 1000 Bq/m3 (relatively high) concentration corresponds to 0.17 picogram per cubic meter. The average concentration of radon in the atmosphere is about 6×10−20 atoms of radon for each molecule in the air, or about 150 atoms in each ml of air.[50] The radon activity of the Earth atmosphere originates from some tens of grams of radon, consistently replaced by decay of larger amounts of radium and uranium.[51]

[edit]Natural

Radon concentration next to a uranium mine.

Radon is produced by the radioactive decay of radium-226, which is found in uranium ores; phosphate rock; shales; igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite, gneiss, and schist; and, to a lesser degree, in common rocks such as limestone.[52] Every square mile of surface soil, to a depth of 6 inches (2.6 km2 to a depth of 15 cm), contains approximately 1 gram of radium, which releases radon in small amounts to the atmosphere[1] On a global scale, it is estimated that 2,400 million curies (90 TBq) of radon are released from soil annually.[53]
Radon concentration varies widely from place to place. In the open air, it ranges from 1 to 100 Bq/m3, even less (0.1 Bq/m3) above the ocean. In caves or aerated mines, or ill-aerated houses, its concentration climbs to 20–2,000 Bq/m3.[54]Radon concentration can be much higher in mining contexts. Ventilation regulations instruct to maintain radon concentration in uranium mines under the “working level”, with 95th percentile levels ranging up to nearly 3 WL (546 pCi 222Rn per liter of air; 20.2 kBq/m3, measured from 1976 to 1985).[1] The concentration in the air at the (unventilated) Gastein Healing Gallery averages 43 kBq/m3 (1.2 nCi/L) with maximal value of 160 kBq/m3 (4.3 nCi/L).[55]
Radon mostly appears with the decay chain of the radium and uranium series (222Rn), and marginally with the thorium series (220Rn). The element emanates naturally from the ground, and some building materials, all over the world, wherever traces of uranium or thorium can be found, and particularly in regions with soils containing granite or shale, which have a higher concentration of uranium. However, not all granitic regions are prone to high emissions of radon. Being a rare gas, it usually migrates freely through faults and fragmented soils, and may accumulate in caves or water. Owing to its very short half-life (four days for 222Rn), radon concentration decreases very quickly when the distance from the production area increases. Radon concentration varies greatly with season and atmospheric conditions. For instance, it has been shown to accumulate in the air if there is ameteorological inversion and little wind.[56]
High concentrations of radon can be found in some spring waters and hot springs.[57] The towns of Boulder, MontanaMisasaBad KreuznachGermany; and the country of Japan have radium-rich springs which emit radon. To be classified as a radon mineral water, radon concentration must be above a minimum of 2 nCi/L (74 kBq/m3).[58] The activity of radon mineral water reaches 2,000 kBq/m3 in Merano and 4,000 kBq/m3 in Lurisia (Italy).[55]
Natural radon concentrations in Earth’s atmosphere are so low that radon-rich water in contact with the atmosphere will continually lose radon by volatilization. Hence, ground water has a higher concentration of 222Rn than surface water, because radon is continuously produced by radioactive decay of 226Ra present in rocks. Likewise, the saturated zone of a soil frequently has a higher radon content than the unsaturated zone because ofdiffusional losses to the atmosphere.[59][60]
In 1971, Apollo 15 passed 110 km (68 mi) above the Aristarchus plateau on the Moon, and detected a significant rise in alpha particles thought to be caused by the decay of 222Rn. The presence of 222Rn has been inferred later from data obtained from the Lunar Prospector alpha particle spectrometer.[61]
Radon is found in some petroleum. Because radon has a similar pressure and temperature curve to propane, and oil refineries separate petrochemicals based on their boiling points, the piping carrying freshly separated propane in oil refineries can become radioactive because of decaying radon and its products.[62]
Residues from the petroleum and natural gas industry often contain radium and its daughters. The sulfate scale from an oil well can be radium rich, while the water, oil, and gas from a well often contains radon. Radon decays to form solid radioisotopes which form coatings on the inside of pipework. [62]

[edit]Accumulation in houses

Typical log-normal radon distribution in dwellings.

The phenomenon of heightened radon contamination in homes was discovered by chance in 1985 after the stringent radiation testing conducted at a nuclear power plant entrance revealed that Stanley Watras, an engineer entering the plant, was contaminated by radioactive substances.[63] Typical domestic exposures are of approximately 100 Bq/m3 indoors. Depending on how houses are built and ventilated, radon may accumulate in basements and dwellings. Radon can also seep into an indoor environment through cracks in solid floors, construction joints, cracks in walls, gaps in suspended floors, gaps around service pipes, cavities inside walls, and the water supply.[64] Radon concentrations in the same location may differ by a factor of two over a period of 1 hour. Also, the concentration in one room of a building may be significantly different than the concentration in an adjoining room.[1]
The distribution of radon concentrations tends to be asymmetrical around the average: the larger concentrations have a disproportionately greater weight. Indoor radon concentration is usually assumed to follow a lognormal distribution on a given territory.[65] Thus, the geometric mean is generally used for estimating the “average” radon concentration in an area.[66] The mean concentration ranges from less than 10 Bq/m3 to over 100 Bq/m3 in some European countries.[67] Typical geometric standard deviations found in studies range between 2 and 3, meaning (given the 68-95-99.7 rule) that the radon concentration is expected to be more than a hundred times the mean concentration for 2 to 3% of the cases.
The highest average radon concentrations in the United States are found in Iowa and in the Appalachian Mountain areas in southeastern Pennsylvania.[68] Some of the highest readings ever have been recorded in the Irish town of Mallow, County Cork, prompting local fears regarding lung cancer. Iowa has the highest average radon concentrations in the United States due to significant glaciation that ground the granitic rocks from theCanadian Shield and deposited it as soils making up the rich Iowa farmland.[69] Many cities within the state, such as Iowa City, have passed requirements for radon-resistant construction in new homes. In a few locations,uranium tailings have been used for landfills and were subsequently built on, resulting in possible increased exposure to radon.[1


Concentration scale

Bq/m3 pCi/L Occurrence example
1 ~0.03 Radon concentration at the shores of large oceans is typically 1 Bq/m3.

Radon trace concentration above oceans or in Antarctica can be lower than 0.1 Bq/m3.
10 0.27 Mean continental concentration in the open air: 10 to 30 Bq/m3.

Based on a series of surveys, the global mean indoor radon concentration is estimated to be 39 Bq/m3.
100 2.7 Typical indoor domestic exposure. Most countries have adopted a radon concentration of 200–400 Bq/m3 for indoor air as an Action or Reference Level. If testing shows levels less than 4 picocuries radon per liter of air (150 Bq/m3), then no action is necessary. A cumulated exposure of 230 Bq/m3 of radon gas concentration during a period of 1 year corresponds to 1 WLM.
1,000 27 Very high radon concentrations (>1000 Bq/m3) have been found in houses built on soils with a high uranium content and/or high permeability of the ground. If levels are 20 picocuries radon per liter of air (800 Bq/m3) or higher, the home owner should consider some type of procedure to decrease indoor radon levels.
10,000 270 The “Working Level” in uranium mines corresponds to a 7000 Bq/m3 concentration.

The concentration in the air at the (unventilated) Gastein Healing Gallery averages 43 kBq/m3(about 1.2 nCi/L) with maximal value of 160 kBq/m3 (about 4.3 nCi/L).[55]
100,000 ~2700
About 100,000 Bq/m3 (2.7 nCi/L) was measured in Stanley Watras’s basement
1,000,000 27000 Concentrations reaching 1,000,000 Bq/m3 can be found in unventilated uranium mines.


Applications

[edit]Medical

An early-20th-century form of quackery was the treatment of maladies in a radiotorium.[73] It was a small, sealed room for patients to be exposed to radon for its “medicinal effects”. The carcinogenic nature of radon due to its ionizing radiation became apparent later on. Radon’s molecule-damaging radioactivity has been used to kill cancerous cells.[74] It does not, however, increase the health of healthy cells. In fact, the ionizing radiation causes the formation of free radicals, which results in genetic and other cell damage, resulting in increased rates of illness, including cancer.

An apparatus for (allegedly) dissolving radon into drinking water, in a restaurant in Japan

Exposure to radon, a process known as radiation hormesis, has been suggested to mitigate auto-immune diseases such as arthritis.[75][76] As a result, in the late 20th century and early 21st century, some “health mines” were established in Basin, Montana which attracted people seeking relief from health problems such as arthritis through limited exposure to radioactive mine water and radon. However, the practice is discouraged because of the well-documented ill effects of high-doses of radiation on the body.[77]
Radioactive water baths have been applied since 1906 in JáchymovCzech Republic, but even before radon discovery they were used in Bad Gastein,Austria. Radium-rich springs are also used in traditional Japanese onsen inMisasaTottori Prefecture. Drinking therapy is applied in Bad Brambach,Germany. Inhalation therapy is carried out in Gasteiner-Heilstollen, Austria, inŚwieradów-ZdrójCzerniawa-ZdrójKowaryLądek Zdrój, Poland, in Harghita Băi, Romania, and in Boulder, United States. In the United States and Europe there are several “radon spas,” where people sit for minutes or hours in a high-radon atmosphere in the belief that low doses of radiation will invigorate or energize them.[76][78]
Radon has been produced commercially for use in radiation therapy, but for the most part has been replaced by radionuclides made in accelerators and nuclear reactors. Radon has been used in implantable seeds, made of gold or glass, primarily used to treat cancers. The gold seeds were produced by filling a long tube with radon pumped from a radium source, the tube being then divided into short sections by crimping and cutting. The gold layer keeps the radon within, and filters out the alpha and beta radiations, while allowing the gamma rays to escape (which kill the diseased tissue). The activities might range from 0.05 to 5 millicuries per seed (2 to 200 MBq).[74] The gamma rays are produced by radon and the first short-lived elements of its decay chain (218Po,214Pb, 214Bi, 214Po).
Radon and its first decay products being very short-lived, the seed is left in place. After 12 half-lives (43 days), radon radioactivity is at 1/2000 of its original level. At this stage, the predominant residual activity originates from the radon decay product 210Pb, whose half-life (22.3 years) is 2000 times that of radon (and whose activity is thus 1/2000 of radon’s), and its descendants 210Bi and 210Po, totalizing 0.03% of the initial seed activity.[citation needed]
In the early part of the 20th century in the USA, gold which was contaminated with 210Pb entered the jewelry industry. This was from gold seeds which had held 222Rn that had been melted down after the radon had decayed.[79][80] Wearing a contaminated ring could lead to a skin exposition of 10 to 100 rad/day (0.4 to 4 mSv/h)[81]

[edit]Scientific

Mean concentration of radon in the atmosphere.

Radon emanation from the soil varies with soil type and with surface uranium content, so outdoor radon concentrations can be used to track air masses to a limited degree. This fact has been put to use by some atmospheric scientists. Because of radon’s rapid loss to air and comparatively rapid decay, radon is used in hydrologic research that studies the interaction between ground water and streams. Any significant concentration of radon in a stream is a good indicator that there are local inputs of ground water. Radon is also used in the dating of oil-containing soils because radon has a high affinity for oil-like substances.[citation needed]
Radon soil-concentration has been used in an experimental way to map buried close-subsurface geological faultsbecause concentrations are generally higher over the faults.[82] Similarly, it has found some limited use in prospecting for geothermal gradients.[citation needed]
Some researchers have investigated changes in groundwater radon concentrations for earthquake prediction.[83][84][85] Radon has a half-life of approximately 3.8 days, which means that it can be found only shortly after it has been produced in the radioactive decay chain. For this reason, it has been hypothesized that increases in radon concentration is due to the generation of new cracks underground, which would allow increased ground water circulation, flushing out radon. The generation of new cracks might not unreasonably be assumed to precede major earthquakes. In the 1970s and 1980s, scientific measurements of radon emissions near faults found that earthquakes often occurred with no radon signal, and radon was often detected with no earthquake to follow. It was then dismissed by many as an unreliable indicator.[86] However, as of 2009, it is under investigation as a possible precursor by NASA.[87]
Radon is a known pollutant emitted from geothermal power stations, though it disperses rapidly, and no radiological hazard has been demonstrated in various investigations. The trend in geothermal plants is to reinject all emissions by pumping deep underground, and this seems likely to ultimately decrease such radon hazards further.[citation needed]
In the 1950s, radon has been used in industrial radiography.[88]

[edit]Health epidemiology

Relative risk of lung cancer mortality by cumulative exposure to radon decay products (in WLM) from the combined data from 11 cohorts of underground hard rock miners. Though high exposures (>50 WLM) cause statistically significant excess cancers, the case of small exposures (10 WLM) is inconclusive and appears slightly beneficial in this study.

Radon-222 has been classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer as being carcinogenic to humans,[89] and as a gas that can be inhaled, lung cancer is a particular concern for people exposed to high levels of radon for sustained periods of time. During the 1940s and 50s, when safety standards requiring expensive ventilation in mines were not widely implemented,[90] radon exposure was linked to lung cancer among non-smoking miners of uranium and other hard rock materials in what is now theCzech Republic, and later among miners from the Southwestern United States.[91][92][93]
Since that time, ventilation and other measures have been used to reduce radon levels in most affected mines that continue to operate. In recent years, the average annual exposure of uranium miners has fallen to levels similar to the concentrations inhaled in some homes. This has reduced the risk of occupationally induced cancer from radon, although health issues may persist for those who are currently employed in affected mines and for those who have been employed in them in the past.[94] As the relative risk for miners has decreased, so has the ability to detect excess risks among that population.[95]
Radon exposure (actually radon progeny) has been linked to lung cancer in numerous case-control studies performed in the United States, Europe and China. There are approximately 21,000 deaths per year in the USA due to radon-induced lung cancers.[4]
One of the most comprehensive radon studies performed in the United States by Dr. R. William Field and colleagues found a 50% increased lung cancer risk even at the protracted exposures at the EPA’s action level of 4 pCi/L. North American and European Pooled analyses further support these findings.[96] Many researchers have highlighted a theoretical possible increased risk of leukemia of radon, but empirical support for this has not emerged.[97][98]
The effects of radon if ingested are similarly unknown, although studies have found that its biological half-life ranges from 30–70 minutes, with 90 percent removal at 100 minutes. In 1999 National Research Council investigated the issue of radon in drinking water. The risks associated with ingestion was considered almost negligible.[99]
As well as being ingested through drinking water, radon is also released from water when temperature is increased, pressure is decreased and when water is aerated. Optimum conditions for radon release and exposure occur during showering. Water with a radon concentration of 10 4 pCi/L can increase the indoor airborne radon concentration by 1 pCi/L under normal conditions of water use.[100]

[edit]Domestic-level exposure

A controversial epidemiological study showing decreased cancer risk vs. radon domestic exposure (5 pCi/L ≈ 200 Bq/m3).[101] This study lacks individual level controls for smoking and radon exposure, and therefore lacks statistical power to draw definitive conclusions. Because of this the error bars (which simply reflect the raw data variability) are probably too small.[102] Among other expert panels, the WHO‘s International Agency for Research on Cancerconcluded that these analyses “can be rejected.”[103]

Most models of residential radon exposure are based on studies of miners, and direct estimates of the risks posed to homeowners would be more desirable.[94] Nonetheless, because of the difficulties of measuring the risk of radon relative to other contributors—namely smoking—models of their effect have often made use of them.
Radon has been considered the second leading cause of lung cancer and leading environmental cause of cancer mortality by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.[104] Others have reached similar conclusions for the United Kingdom [94] and France.[105] Radon exposure in homes and offices may arise from certain subsurface rock formations and also from certain building materials (e.g. some granites); greatest risk of radon exposure arises from buildings which are tight, insufficiently ventilated and have leaks that let in soil air from the ground into basements and dwelling rooms.
The actionable concentration of radon in a home varies depending on the organization doing the recommendation, for example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency encourages that action be taken at concentrations as low as 74 Bq/m3 (2 pCi/L),[106] and the European Unionrecommends action be taken when concentrations reach 400 Bq/m3 (11 pCi/L) for old houses and 200 Bq/m3 (5 pCi/L) for new ones.[citation needed]
On 8 July 2010 the UK’s Health Protection Agency issued new advice setting a “Target Level” of 100 Bq/m3 whilst retaining an “Action Level” of 200 Bq/m3.[107]

[edit]Radon and smoking

Results from epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of lung cancer increases with exposure to residential radon. However, there are always major uncertainties in these studies. A classical and well-known example of source of error is smoking.
In addition, smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. In the West, tobacco smoke is estimated to cause about 90% of all lung cancers. There is a tendency for other hypothetical lung cancer risks to drown in the risk of smoking. Results from epidemiological studies must always be interpreted with caution. According to the EPA, the risk of lung cancer for smokers is significant due to synergistic effects of radon and smoking. For this population about 62 people in a total of 1,000 will die of lung cancer compared to 7 people in a total of 1,000 for people who have never smoked.[4]
Radon, like other known or suspected external risk factors for lung cancer, is a threat for smokers and former smokers. This was clearly demonstrated by the European pooling study.[108] A commentary[109] to the pooling study stated: “it is not appropriate to talk simply of a risk from radon in homes. The risk is from smoking, compounded by a synergistic effect of radon for smokers. Without smoking, the effect seems to be so small as to be insignificant.”
A study[110] of radiation from postmastectomy radiotherapy shows that the simple models previously used to assess the combined and separate risks from radiation and smoking need to be developed. This is also supported by new discussion about the calculation method, LNT, which routinely has been used.[111]


Testing and mitigation

A radon test kit.

There are relatively simple tests for radon gas. In some countries these tests are methodically done in areas of known systematic hazards. Radon test kits are commercially available. The short-term radon test kits used for screening purposes are inexpensive, in some cases free. The kit includes a collector that the user hangs in the lowest livable floor of the house for 2 to 7 days. The user then sends the collector to a laboratory for analysis. Long term kits, taking collections for up to one year, are also available. An open-land test kit can test radon emissions from the land before construction begins.[4]
Radon levels fluctuate naturally, due to factors like transient weather conditions, so an initial test might not be an accurate assessment of a home’s average radon level. Radon levels are at a maximum during the coolest part of the day when pressure differentials are greatest.[113] Therefore, a high result (over 4 pCi/L) justifies repeating the test before undertaking more expensive abatement projects. Measurements between 4 and 10 pCi/L warrant a long term radon test. Measurements over 10 pCi/L warrant only another short term test so that abatement measures are not unduly delayed. Purchasers of real estate are advised to delay or decline a purchase if the seller has not successfully abated radon to 4 pCi/L or less.[4]
Because the half-life of radon is only 3.8 days, removing or isolating the source will greatly reduce the hazard within a few weeks. Another method of reducing radon levels is to modify the building’s ventilation. Generally, the indoor radon concentrations increase as ventilation rates decrease.[1] In a well ventilated place, the radon concentration tends to align with outdoor values (typically 10 Bq/m3, ranging from 1 to 100 Bq/m3).[4]
Radon levels in indoor air can be lowered in a number of ways, from sub-slab depressurization to increasing the ventilation rate of the building. The four principal ways of reducing the amount of radon accumulating in a house are:[4][114]
  • Sub-slab depressurization (soil suction) by increasing under-floor ventilation;
  • Improving the ventilation of the house and avoiding the transport of radon from the basement into living rooms;
  • Installing a radon sump system in the basement;
  • Installing a positive pressurization or positive supply ventilation system.
According to the EPA’s “A Citizen’s Guide to Radon”,[4] the method to reduce radon “primarily used is a vent pipe system and fan, which pulls radon from beneath the house and vents it to the outside”, which is also called sub-slab depressurization, active soil depressurization, or soil suction. Generally indoor radon can be mitigated by sub-slab depressurization and exhausting such radon-laden air to the outdoors, away from windows and other building openings. “EPA generally recommends methods which prevent the entry of radon. Soil suction, for example, prevents radon from entering your home by drawing the radon from below the home and venting it through a pipe, or pipes, to the air above the home where it is quickly diluted” and “EPA does not recommend the use of sealing alone to reduce radon because, by itself, sealing has not been shown to lower radon levels significantly or consistently” according to the EPA’s “Consumer’s Guide to Radon Reduction: How to fix your home”.[115]
Positive-pressure ventilation systems can be combined with a heat exchanger to recover energy in the process of exchanging air with the outside, and simply exhausting basement air to the outside is not necessarily a viable solution as this can actually draw radon gas into a dwelling. Homes built on a crawl space may benefit from a radon collector installed under a “radon barrier” (a sheet of plastic that covers the crawl space).[4][116] For crawlspaces, the EPA states “An effective method to reduce radon levels in crawlspace homes involves covering the earth floor with a high-density plastic sheet. A vent pipe and fan are used to draw the radon from under the sheet and vent it to the outdoors. This form of soil suction is called submembrane suction, and when properly applied is the most effective way to reduce radon levels in crawlspace homes.”[115] Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radon

Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog

http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html

END
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NUCLEAR BOMBS/WEAPONS
The Nuclear Fuel Chain That Leads To Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
2400 Global Nuclear Atmospheric Bomb Tests 1945-1998
Downwinders And Nuclear Bomb Testing; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/downwinders-and-nuclear-bomb-testing.html
Atomic Bomb Testing Veterans; via A Green Road Blog
Israel‘s Secret Illegal Nuclear Biological And Chemical Weapons  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/israels-secret-illegal-nuclear.html
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
Nuclear Bomb Test Sites And Atomic Lake in Kazakstan, Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
LOW DOSE RADIATION DANGERS
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Low dose radiation causing changes in children; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-causing-unusual-changes-whats.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Dr. Gorden Edwards PhD; Nuclear Power, Hope or Hoax Speech; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM MINING
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html
ANIMALS AND RADIATION EFFECTS
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR REACTOR RECERTIFICATION
Aging Reactors, Lies, Deceptions, Profits And Earthquakes; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/aging-reactors-lies-deceptions-profits.html 
The Diablo You Don’t Know; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry By Or-Well; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog
GREEN ENERGY, GREEN LIVING
Earth Day Is Every Day – Honor And Respect Yourself, The Planet, All Living Beings –
Energy Usage And Costs Compared To Nuclear And Coal; via A Green Road Blog
UN Proposal To Establish Ecocide; Prevent  Damage To Environment; via A Green Road Blog  
Breakthrough Hydrogen From Sun Method Rivals Speed of Natural Photosynthesis; via A Green Road Blog
List Of Countries/Nations With NO Nuclear Power Plants, to 75% Renewable Energy; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
Concentrated Solar Energy Power Generation Methods (Large Scale); via A Green Road Blog
Ten Largest Wind Turbine Manufacturers; Largest Wind Turbines, Wind Stats; via A Green Road Blog

Sustainable, Green, Alternative Energy Products And Experiments; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/sustainable-green-and-alternative.html

Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes

Granted, most people love their pets as much as their kids, and sometimes maybe even more. But imagine that you are in a radioactive fallout zone and radiation is all around you. You are fleeing the danger zone. Will you take your pet(s) with you? 

If you are in a radiation fallout zone, you more than like CANNOT bring those pets inside a fallout shelter. Of course you can always wander around outside with your pets, but now all of you are exposed to radiation for a much longer period. The difference between radiation levels outside and inside can be rather large.


The paws and hair on pets is an excellent radiation collection/storage and accumulation system. Pets concentrate radiation very well. Pets can track radiation into a house by collecting dust and dirt on their paws and bringing this into a shelter or your home.



There is almost no way to wash the radiation out, short of shaving the pet completely. How do you do that without contaminating everything that the water touches which is used to wash the pet? 

Pets are not allowed in any fallout shelter for reasons involving sanitation and hygiene.  Pets will get continued exposure to radiation if they go outside to go pottie for example and then bring it back inside with them.

It has been estimated that between 5,000 to 10,000 pets were left behind when residents fled the Fukushima nuclear plant disaster.  It was not just small pets, but also all kinds of farm animals including cows, horses, sheep, etc. 


Think of it this way.. The hair on any animal is a like a radiation sponge, soaking up radiation like a dry sponge soaks up water. Fur attracts dust like a dust mop soaks up dust in a house.


When you rub your hand or touch anything to the contaminated pet, whatever touches the pet gets contaminated too, your hand, anything your hand touches after that, the fallout shelter, the car, the house, the kids, the parents, all the other people around you, etc. 


It is hard enough to decontaminate a human by taking off all of their clothes and disposing of it as hazardous waste. 

Decontaminating smooth human skin with little or no hair is very difficult once exposed to radiation… it is almost impossible to decontaminate a furry animal of any size.


“Contact with and movement of contaminated animals might expose more individuals and items. A thorough cleaning of animals can present a challenge because there is no layer of clothing to take off and animals with long hair are more difficult to clean (NSSOSTP). As with people, any action to dust off and partially remove contamination is helpful (NSSOSTP). When brushing animals, care should be taken to avoid inhaling any particulates. Using a dust mask and brushing the animals outside and upwind from the animal may be appropriate (NSSOSTP). If you must decontaminate your pet, the suggested method is to bathe your pet thoroughly with shampoo and water and rinse completely.”

Bottom line, people being sheltered from radiation need to choose whether they want to save themselves needless exposure to radiation, or risk more radioactive contamination by touching and/or bringing in animals of any kind.

What happens when your pet wants to go outside of a radiation shelter for a walk? What happens when other people bring in their beloved cats to a shelter? Then other people bring in their beloved dogs. None of them like to be cooped up. Pretty soon, pets start chasing and fighting each other, or barking and jowling, screaming and moaning, even if they are not injured or sick. What happens if some of them are sick or injured, or if they have been exposed to high doses of radiation by walking through ‘hot spots’?

Even if all of the pets are in pet kennels, it makes things much more difficult inside of an emergency shelter in terms of smell, noise, sanitation, disease control, disposal of wastes, feeding, radiation control, etc. 

In crowded conditions, disease transmission is easy, and germ control is difficult. Adding pets to that mix is a recipe for disaster. 

Bottom line, in case of a nuclear disaster, either leave your pets behind, or take them to a pet shelter that will take of them until things normalize. 

This is the reason why an estimated 10,000 animals had to be left behind at Fukushima. It was hard enough to evacuate and take care of an estimated 60,000 people. It is that much harder and more expensive to separately evacuate, decontaminate and care for all of those animals. In reality, it is impossible to do, after any kind of nuclear accident. 



Fukushima is a desperate situation and desperate measures needed to be taken. All of those abandoned pets indicate how severe the accident was and still is.

Imagine what would happen if this disaster happened near you, in a large city like Tokyo, Los Angeles or New York, with MILLIONS of people and pets… 14 million people live close to a nuclear reactor in the USA. The potential for disaster is huge, and evacuation preparations are totally inadequate.  

Nuclear power plants pose a HUGE risk to all humanity and to all living things, including beloved pets. The risk to all living beings on Earth grows with each passing year. As nuclear plants get older, the risk grows and exponentially increases.  

Imagine you have a pet in a contaminated ‘no go’ radiation zone. You had to leave all that owned, including your house, all possessions and business. 

You have been forbidden to bring your pet out of this radiation zone. In the above video, pet owners risk their health and lives to go back in to the highly contaminated zone to feed their pets. They stay for only one hour and then leave quickly. 

What would you do with your animal(s) if you were in their shoes? There is no easy answer, other than to close down all nuclear plants, so that all living beings will be protected. 


In the following Reuters 1 minute video, pet owners from the Fukushima area attend a memorial to mourn and get closure for the pets that they had to leave behind. 
http://www.reuters.com/video/2012/04/22/fukushima-evacuees-mourn-lost-pets?videoId=233748167



Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/pets-and-radioactive-contamination-in.html

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NUCLEAR BOMBS/WEAPONS
The Nuclear Fuel Chain That Leads To Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
2400 Global Nuclear Atmospheric Bomb Tests 1945-1998
Downwinders And Nuclear Bomb Testing; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/downwinders-and-nuclear-bomb-testing.html
Atomic Bomb Testing Veterans; via A Green Road Blog
Israel‘s Secret Illegal Nuclear Biological And Chemical Weapons  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/israels-secret-illegal-nuclear.html
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
Nuclear Bomb Test Sites And Atomic Lake in Kazakstan, Russia; via A Green Road Blog
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
LOW DOSE RADIATION DANGERS
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Low dose radiation causing changes in children; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-causing-unusual-changes-whats.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Dr. Gorden Edwards PhD; Nuclear Power, Hope or Hoax Speech; via A Green Road Blog
URANIUM MINING
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  

Uranium Mines Dot Navajo Land, Neglected and Still Perilous; via A Green Road Blog  
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Mining, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
Canada Uranium Mining – Interview With Dr. Gordon Edwards, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility; via A Green Road Blog
Radioactive Uranium Mines, Toxic Waste Dump In  Kyrgyzstan Russia; via A Green Road Blog
URANIUM ENRICHMENT
Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Enrichment Plant; Dirty Global Warming Secrets; via A Green Road Blog
Port Hope Ontario Canada; Uranium Enrichment, Processing & Production; via A Green Road Blog
LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION IN FOOD AND WATER
Radiation dangers in food and water; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radiation-contamination-standards-for.html
Radioactive Bananas? Peeling The Mystery; via A Green Road Blogm http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/radioactive-bananas-peeling-mystery.html 
Radiation Safety Standards for Food: Comparing Chernobyl vs Fukushima; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Plume Into Ocean; via A Green Road Blog
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
EFFECTS OF INTERNAL LOW LEVEL NUCLEAR RADIATION
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
ANIMALS AND RADIATION
Bird Radiation Studies; Chernobyl, TMI & Fukushima; Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/bird-studies-and-chernobyl-tmi-and.html
Pets, Animals And Radioactive Contamination In Shelters Or Homes; via A Green Road Blog
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death