300,000 Atomic Veterans Forcibly Exposed To Nuclear Radiation, Made Into Radioactive Lab Rats

EON is proud to host-post another important documentary by the Academy Award-winning team Vivienne Verdon-Roe and Michael Porter. Their 1994 expose’ tells the currently relevant story of the 300,000 U.S. soldiers and sailors who were used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS in America’s quest for nuclear dominance…and were then denied health care. These men were not volunteers, they were ordered to participate in a radiation experiment, without being told about the risks and without being given any protection.
A major voice in the film – directed and edited by Porter, produced and narrated by Verdon-Roe – is former Navy seaman Anthony Guarisco, founder of the INTERNATIONAL ALLIANCE OF ATOMIC VETERANS, c/o Vincent L. Guarisco, 5312 Covina Rd., Bullhead, AZ. 86426
To contact the filmmakers: ViviVR@aol.com
For updates on Anthony and his wife Mary, here are two recent articles by their son, journalist Vincent Guarisco
Never Forget The Lessons Of Yesterday For The Sake Of Tomorrow By Vincent Guarisco
Contact: vincespainting1@hotmail.com
These radiation victims sound like they are part of a Nazi death camp experiment, maybe that is because former Nazis were in charge of this nuclear program. The victims were victimized first by subjecting them forcibly to radiation and swearing them to secrecy. Then they were victimized and abused (second time), by not disclosing to them any warnings, treatment options, or even information about true radiation exposure.

Finally, the victims were abused again, for a (third time) by preventing them from suing anyone for damages or harm done via immunity laws passed by the military industrial complex and the nuclear industry. The abusers just waited for everyone to die.

Anyone who dared to speak out was punished for violating ‘secrecy’ laws. Nothing has changed, as this is still the situation today. Sailors aboard the Ronald Reagan were exposed to fallout from Fukushima, and were treated about the same as the first lab rats and pigs in the video above. 

Everyone on Earth was exposed to the radiation from these open air nuclear bomb tests, and everyone is still are being exposed to invisible radiation from DU, nuclear plants, uranium mines, reprocessing facilities, storage facilities and much more.

We are all guinea pigs in a huge planetary laboratory, studying the effects of low dose radiation on human beings. Just because radiation is invisible, does not mean it disappears and has no more effects. Precisely because a radioactive element’s radiation is invisible, that makes those radioactive elements that much more deadly and dangerous. Everything looks normal, and you cannot see the radiation that is killing you, plus causing genetic diseases and cancers.
The 2,400 open air nuclear bomb tests gave everyone on Earth a good ‘experimental’ dose of radiation. Most US citizens still have radioactive strontium 90 in their bones, measured in terms of units; 1-4. The amount each person has inside varies between 1 to 4, and yes there are some people that have 4 units of stronium inside of them.


A person who has only 1.5 units of strontium and who dies and is cremated has enough strontium in that ash to make a liter of water with those ashes in it, 180 times over the safe limit of set by the EPA for drinking water. Now Fukushima is releasing massive quantities of Strontium 90 into the Pacific, where it will be concentrated through bio concentration up the food chain into people.  http://www.nuclearcrimes.org/3-3.php

Have you ever wondered where these nuclear scientists that set off these bombs and who keep having these radiation ‘accidents’ that release ever increasing amounts of radiation into this world, (making everyone into unwilling radioactive lab rats), came from originally? 
In 1945, as part of Operation Paperclip, the United States government recruited 1,600 Nazi scientists, many of whom had performed human experimentation in Nazi concentration camps. The scientists were offered immunity from any war crimes they had committed during the course of their work for the Nazi government, in return for doing similar research for the United States government. Many of the Nazi scientists continued their human experimentation when they arrived in the United States.[158]



Project Paper Clip; USA Imported And Hired Hundreds Of Nazi War Criminals To Develop Nuclear Industry; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/04/project-paper-clip-usa-imported-and.html

Human Radiation Experiments Performed Without Consent Or Knowledge; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/09/human-radiation-experiments-performed.html


(In Project Paper Clip, The US imported hundreds, if not thousands of Nazi war criminals, who formed and molded the foundation of the entire nuclear weapons and nuclear power plant industry. 

What kind of future would you predict for any country getting involved with people like this? Any nation or city inviting these people in is building a nuclear house built on a foundation of extremism, secrecy, deceptions, double dealing and lies. 



The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html

If the nuclear industry can treat honorable US veterans little differently than the pigs that got radiated in metal cages, while squealing in agony, and then offer no help, while hiding and/or ‘losing’ the radiation dose records that they got exposed to, what do you think they are going to do with you and your family? Do you really believe that the nuclear industry that got started with Nazi’s, death camps, secrets, lies, genocide and invisible poisons is going to do good things for humanity?

As you can see from the video, this experiment was done on young men, in the prime of their life, but it now affects countless future generations. You can see with your own eyes, the effects it has had on their kids. If those kids survive and have their own kids, the result will be no different, but may end up being even worse, because the genetic damage accumulates with each generation. 

The radiation experiment continues today. We are all radioactive lab rats. As long as we allow this industry to continue to pour radioactive poisons into the air, water, and soil, it will bioconcentrate back up the food chain to your children. The results are obvious. Please do your part to help stop this genocide. 


End


300,000 Atomic Veterans Forcibly Exposed To Nuclear Radiation, Made Into Radioactive Lab Rats; via @AGreenRoad


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MD Reveals How To Prevent Radiation Sickness With Macrobiotic Diet

Part I
Part II

After Nagasaki, an MD worked with patients who were victims of radiation sickness using a special diet that anyone can use. 
Macrobiotic Diet Prevents Radiation Sickness Among A-Bomb Survivors in Japan – In August, 1945, at the time of the atomic bombing of Japan, Tatsuichiro Akizuki, M.D., was director of the Department of Internal Medicine at St. Francis’s Hospital in Nagasaki. Most patients in the hospital, located one mile from the center of the blast, survived the initial effects of the bomb, but soon after came down with symptoms of radiation sickness from the fallout that had been released. 

Dr. Akizuki fed everyone a strict macrobiotic diet of brown rice, miso soup, wakame, sea vegetables, Hokkaido pumpkin, and sea salt. He prohibited the consumption of sugar and sweets. He saved everyone in his hospital, while many other atomic bomb survivors in the city perished from radiation sickness. 

I gave the cooks and staff strict orders that they should make unpolished whole-grain rice balls, adding some salt to them, prepare strong miso soup for each meal, and never use sugar. When they didn’t follow my orders, I scolded them without mercy, ‘Never take sugar. Sugar will destroy your blood!
(Sources: Tatsuichiro Akizuki, M.D., Nagasaki 1945 (London: Quartet Books, 1981); Tatsuichiro Akizuki, “How We Survived Nagasaki,” East West Journal, December 1980):
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/vivian-norris-de-montaigu/deadly-silence-on-fukushi_b_859241.html

There is an ancient tradition going all the way back to the Greeks and Romans about using diet rather than medicines for self healing. Although changing diet is probably the most difficult thing for people to do, if it can be done, this may be one possible way to deal with difficult health challenges. 


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MD Reveals How To Prevent Radiation Sickness With Macrobiotic Diet; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/02/md-reveals-how-to-prevent-radiation.html 


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VA – List Of Diseases And Cancers Associated with Ionizing Radiation Exposure




List of Diseases Associated with Ionizing Radiation Exposure


“VA has recognized certain diseases as related to ionizing radiation exposure during military service. Veterans may be eligible for disability compensation and health care for these diseases. Their survivors also may be eligible for survivors’ benefits.
Presumptive diseases related to ionizing radiation
For Veterans who participated in a radiation-risk activity during service (including “Atomic Veterans”), VA assumes that certain cancers are related to their exposure. We call these “presumptive diseases.”
Cancers of the:

bile ducts,
bone,
brain,
breast,
colon,
esophagus,
gall bladder,
liver,
lung (including bronchiolo-alveolar cancer),
pancreas,
pharynx,
ovary,
salivary gland,
small intestine,
stomach,
thyroid,
urinary tract (kidney/renal, pelvis, urinary bladder, and urethra)

Leukemia (except chronic lymphocytic leukemia)
Lymphomas (except Hodgkin’s disease)
Multiple myeloma (cancer of plasma cells)
These Veterans don’t have to prove a connection between these diseases and their service to be eligible for disability compensation. Their survivors also may be eligible for survivors’ benefits if the Veteran dies as the result of one of these diseases.

Other diseases associated with radiation exposure
VA recognizes that the following diseases are possibly caused by exposure to ionizing radiation during service:

All cancers
Non-malignant thyroid nodular disease
Parathyroid adenoma
Posterior subcapsular cataracts
Tumors of the brain and central nervous system
Eligibility for disability compensation or survivors’ benefits depends on how much radiation the Veteran received and other factors, such as the period of time between exposure to radiation and the development of the disease. VA decides these claims on a case-by-case basis.
VA also will consider the possibility that other diseases not listed above were caused by radiation, if supported by medical or scientific evidence. To be eligible for compensation, VA must be able to establish that it is at least as likely as not that a Veteran’s disease was caused by his/her exposure to radiation during military service.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
VA presumes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diagnosed in all Veterans who had 90 days or more continuous active military service is related to their service, although ALS is not related to radiation exposure.”Source:
http://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/radiation/diseases.asp#sthash.y0eIhiO9.HJpqtHCz.dpuf

The VA has admitted to and is paying for the consequences of low dose radiation exposure causing a large variety of cancers and diseases. So why can’t the nuclear industry admit to these? They seem to think that no one gets sick after being exposed to radiation, when the VA is admitting radiation does cause multiple cancers and diseases, and then PAYS people for this damage or death. 
End
VA – List Of Diseases And Cancers Associated with Ionizing Radiation Exposure; via @AGreenRoad

DNA Evidence May Prove Link Between Cancers And Fukushima Radiation In The Near Future

What if there was a way to establish a direct and provable in court link between cancer and Fukushima radiation? 
In recent history, justice has been served by bringing DNA evidence into the courtroom around murders and other violent acts that result in death or injury. DNA evidence is now a well established science that provides evidence of a crime. 
DNA evidence is worth much more than even eyewitness testimony. DNA technology has been advancing constantly, so that less and less DNA to establish a ‘profile’. Nowadays, all it takes to make a court case and have enough DNA evidence, is just 3 or 4 cells. 
DNA evidence can also exonerate the innocent, as shown in the following video..
What is going to be the effect when DNA evidence is established as a DIRECT cause of cancer and death due to a mega nuclear disaster such as Fukushima? Here is the landmark scientific study that provides a potential FUTURE mechanism for any lawyer or legal lawsuit against the nuclear industry.
Hess, J. et al Gain of chromosome band 7q11 in papillary thyroid carcinomas of young patients is associated with exposure to low-dose irradiation. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS); Link to publication
“Scientists have been able to discriminate between the cancers caused by the radioactive contamination and those that arise naturally. Prof. Zitzelsberger ascribes the success of this study to the careful collection, documentation and storage of thyroid cancers from the Chernobyl region in the Chernobyl Tissue Bank. He noted that this unique collection of materials made it possible for the team to compare for the first time tumors from children of the same age and regional background. 
Gain of chromosome band 7q11 in papillary thyroid carcinomas of young patients is associated with exposure to low-dose irradiation
This DNA marker is could possibly end up being the nuclear industry’s worst nightmare in the near future. Can you imagine this scenario? A medical professional or lawyer team anywhere the world orders a DNA test and has the cancer tissue analyzed to see if it was caused by Fukushima or Chernobyl, or Santa Susana, or Three Mile Island radioactive elements, each of which have a unique ‘signature’, just like people have fingerprints. 
Obviously, the scientific study above was focused around Chernobyl and thyroid cancers, but the concept is applicable to any nuclear accident, including Fukushima. Quite possibly, the same process could be applied to any tissue sample, from any cancer, in any area of the body. This is definitely on the cutting edge and any lawyer plus DNA expert making a case this way will create history. 
If the courts and justices are even handed and really in pursuit of justice, rather than allying themselves with the nuclear industry while dismissing most cases brought by nuclear fallout victims, as has been the case so far, this could spell the end of the nuclear age. Imagine the effect of bringing in ‘fingerprint evidence’ that documents deaths caused DIRECTLY by nuclear accidents….
The crimes of genocide have been committed. Chernobyl has directly caused over 1 million deaths already. Thousands of victims have already been claimed due to Fukushima radiation. But at least now there is a chance that justice can be sought and found, if not by the victims, then by the relatives and family of the deceased. All that is needed is a tissue bank, as was established after Chernobyl. 
Lacking a tissue bank, DNA will last practically forever, if you dry the tissue or freeze it. Document the chain of custody from the person who took the sample to the testing person who brings the DNA evidence from the tissue into court. 
Quite possibly, a family of a cancer victim can sue for damages many years in the future, if they keep tissue samples of the cancer cells from a family victim. After all, there is no time limit for justice on murder, correct? 
Another method that can possibly be used to go after nuclear companies is to ID the chemical signature of the nuclear fuel that they leak, spill or allow to melt down. This would be much the same method that the Coast Guard uses when they go to court to prove that a specific ship spilled oil in a specific spot, despite lack of any witnesses or admission by the ship owners or captain. 
The Coast Guard gathers a sample of the ship’s oil, and then matches it chemically to the oil spilled. This is much the same process used in DNA matching of a murderer’s DNA found at a crime scene. In court, this chemical ‘fingerprint’ is admissible as evidence. Why couldn’t this be done with radioactive elements too, as they are also chemicals, just in the metals category?
For those who want to do something now, it is always possible to sue in small claims court. A large number of people can gather together and sue a nuclear company together in one case. No lawyers or special experts are involved, so the only cost is the filing of the small claims court fee. This technique has been used by neighborhoods to go after slum landlords who refuse to kick out drug dealers for example. No DNA evidence is involved, of course. 
A whole community could sue a nuclear utility for whatever harm they are causing (or have caused). The case can be over and done with fairly quickly. Just one local judge is involved and he/she usually lives in the local community. So if the people suing present a good case, it should be an open and shut case. 
Since the nuclear industry in many countries has a legal immunity from lawsuits, a recent class action to try and get this changed may open things up on a larger front. Wouldn’t you agree that a company that can harm or kill millions of people should not be immune from lawsuits? 
via MamaBears AgainstNukes “The lawyers for the 1.415 plaintiffs stated that they have filed a lawsuit at the Tokyo District Court, describing the case as a landmark challenge to nuclear power plant manufacturers immunity from liability in nuclear accidents.” 
The legal process can have a huge negative impact on nuclear companies. The San Onofre nuclear plant had a number of lawsuits filed against it re-opening, after it admitted that many of the steam tubes it had just replaced were leaking (within 18 months of installation). It is quite possible that the large number of lawsuits, combined with citizen activism, plus citizen reporting via numerous blogs and youtube videos, all made a difference. Bottom line, keep fighting and never give up. And remember, that there are many ways to ‘win’. 
Here is another way that women specifically can make a difference. “Japanese women have started a twitter account that says; “We won’t have sex with men who vote for Yoichi Masuzoe”! Yoichi is a misogynist candidate running in the Tokyo gubernatorial election. He says women can’t make good conductors nor composers so they aren’t meant to be politicians either.” Yoichi Masuzoe is the candidate for ProNuke and Restart Nuke Plants supported by LDP.
“One person with courage makes a majority.” Andrew Jackson
End
DNA Evidence May Prove Link Between Cancers And Fukushima Radiation In The Near Future; via @AGreenRoad
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What Happens If You Offer People Radioactive Fukushima Bottled Water To Drink?

Political prankster Mark Dice offers people cold bottles of “Fukushima Imported Mineral Water” that are clearly marked with a large radiation symbol he glued on the bottles to see if anyone would drink it without realizing the significance of the name “Fukushima” or realizing the bottles were marked “radioactive.” He goes so far as to say the water is from Fukushima, and has added radiation added to it, which does not seem to make any difference. 

Watch what happens as people choose to either refuse or accept and drink the bottled water that is clearly labeled ‘radioactive’. 




Political prankster Mark Dice asks San Diego beach-goers if they’ll sign a petition supporting “the Police State” which includes “Orwellian” and “Nazi-Style” tactics to “keep Americans safe” in this “Brave New World.” Amazingly, people do not even hesitate; they just sign. People seem to not be able to think for themselves, even when confronted with a Nazi who is proposing to install a Nazi style police state in the USA. 

What is the take away? Think about what people are telling you. Think about what people are asking for. Think about what people are asking you to sign or support. Do not just automatically say yes. Your voice, your signature, your vote makes a HUGE difference both in the affirmative, and in the negative. 


End

What Happens If You Offer People Radioactive Fukushima Bottled Water To Drink? via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/02/what-happens-if-you-offer-people.html

Wisdom Versus Intelligence When It Comes To Nuclearism, Global Corporatism And 1% ‘Rulership’

Peter Coyote reveals the role and power of a mysterious, very unscientific wisdom. 

What the US values currently is a trust and faith in scientific ‘certainty’ and formulas so complex, that no one but the ‘experts’ can understand them or their special language. What is the price that people are paying for this blind worshiping at the alter of science and the dogma it’s proponents must believe?


What is the role and power of an invisible world that may be full of mysteries? Are there powers and dimensions not accessible to science? What happens to a culture that values only materialism and the physical senses of sight, sound, touch and smell? What is the value of love? Who can measure love? Who can live without love, and exist solely in the world of ‘science’ and certainty, where everything must be proven through peer reviewed ‘studies’?


The invisible dimensions such as love and intuition or consciousness are NOT just the domain of religions. These invisible but valuable parts of life are a common heritage that is shared alike by not just humans, but also by animals, plants, and yes, even rocks.

The values of the invisible dimensions include but are not limited to such things as all beings being equal and having an equal right to exist. Science claims that some people are ‘special’, namely nuclear scientists and the corporations representing them.

The corporations representing nuclear scientists must be held up and worshiped, both with money, power, money and influence in politics, plus media control. Meanwhile, those who are not ‘special’, and who hold only ‘wisdom’ or common sense, are demonized, attacked, demeaned, made fun of, ignored, and smeared, just as imported religions demonized, attacked and squelched the American Indian wisdom, culture and traditions 200 plus years ago. 

The ancient wisdom contained in the commons states that all people have an equal voice and say in what should be their fate, not just a special few, the 1%, or any other ‘special’ group, such as the pro nuclear scientists.
Another part of the commons and wisdom code is that people are not masters of the present universe, but stewards of this world and all it contains, taking care of it.

Our one duty as stewards is passing on what we were given by those who came before us in the form of air, water, soil, animals and plants, in as good a shape or better than it was received by us, for many future generations. (Obviously, this is not happening, in part due to a combination of hyper focusing on the ‘value’ of science, math and technology as the ONLY solutions.)

A their part of the commons and ancient wisdom code is that people value culture. Culture consists in part of music, dance and art above all else.  In sustainable cultures, these things are held in high regard and valued above science and technology, because they hold the secrets and sacred mysteries.  There are multiple dimensions, not accessible to scientists, mathematicians and nuclearists within the arts.

When civilizations stray too far from the core commons and ancient mysterious wisdom contained and held within the 99% there is great danger. When the 1% take or are given too much power, too much control, too much money, the result will be disaster and ecological suicide on a global scale, because of the dis-ease of greed, which the American Indians pointed at when the ‘settlers’ came to claim and take what they felt ‘entitled’ to.

Will the modern day rainbow tribe learn and teach what it takes to live in harmony with Nature? Will there be an awakening of consciousness fast enough to save humanity and planet Earth? 
We are all part of the awakening, so keep resisting the urge to go back to sleep. Keep growing in awareness and consciousness, because that is really the only thing that offers any hope to humanity at this point.
“The longest road you will ever have to walk is the sacred journey from your head to your heart.”
-Chief Phil Lane Jr. Ihanktonwan Dakota and Chickasaw Nations

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Wisdom Versus Intelligence When It Comes To Nuclearism, Global Corporatism And 1% ‘Rulership’
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/02/wisdom-versus-intelligence-when-it.html


Castle Bravo Hydrogen Bomb ‘Fission-Fusion-Fission’ Test

The video above is a pro nuclear military propaganda film.. The general talks a lot about expensive instruments and testing equipment, but fails to disclose most of them were destroyed and they did not get data out of them at all. According to this video, an unknown number of US military men working on the project received 3.8 Roentgens total exterior radiation dose. They did not do internal dose radiation monitoring, and this added to the above. 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Castle Bravo
Castle Bravo was the code name given to the first United States test of a dry fuel, hydrogen bomb, detonated on March 1, 1954, at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as the first test of Operation Castle. Castle Bravo was the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated by the United States (and just under one-third the energy of the most powerful ever detonated), with a yield of 15megatons of TNT
That yield, far exceeding the expected yield of 4 to 8 megatons (6 Mt predicted),[1] combined with other factors, led to the most significant accidental radiological contamination ever caused by the United States.
Fallout from the detonation—intended to be a secret test—fell on residents ofRongelap and Utirik atolls and spread around the world. The islanders were not evacuated until three days later and suffered radiation sickness. They were returned to the islands three years later but were removed again when their island was found to be unsafe.[2]
The crew of the Japanese fishing vessel Daigo Fukuryū Maru (“Lucky Dragon No. 5”), was also contaminated by fallout, killing one crew member. The blast created an international reaction about atmospheric thermonuclear testing.[3]
Test location
The device was a very large cylinder weighing 23,500 pounds (10.7 t) and measuring 179.5 inches (4.56 m) in length and 53.9 inches (1.37 m) in width.[1] It was mounted in a “shot cab” on an artificial island built on a reef off Namu Island, in the Bikini Atoll. A sizable array of diagnostic instruments was trained on it, including high-speed cameras which were trained through an arc of mirror towers around the shot cab.
Coordinates for Bravo Crater are 11°41′50″N 165°16′19″E. The coordinates of the remains of the Castle Bravo causeway are11°42′6″N 165°17′7″E.
Bomb design
Shrimp
The Shrimp device in its shot cab.
Production history
Designer Ben Diven-project engineer[4]
Designed 24 February 1954 (GMT)
Number built 1
Specifications
Weight 10,659 kilograms (23,499 lb)
Length 455.93 centimeters (179.50 in)
Diameter 136.90 centimeters (53.90 in)
Filling 
Lithium-6 Deuteride
Blast yield 15 megatons of TNT (63 PJ)
The device detonated for the test was named “Shrimp” and was the same basic configuration as the experimental Ivy Mike device, except with a different type of fusion fuel. The Shrimp used lithium deuteride, which is solid at room temperature; Ivy Mike used cryogenic liquid deuterium, which required elaborate cooling equipment. Castle Bravo was the first test by the United States of a practical deliverable fusion bomb (hydrogen bomb). The successful test rendered the cryogenic design used by Ivy Mike and its derivative, the Mark 16 nuclear bomb, obsolete.
Inside the cylindrical case was a smaller cylinder of lithium deuteride fusion fuel (the secondary) with a fission atomic bomb (the primary) at one end, the latter employed to create the conditions needed to start the fusion reaction. 
Running down the center of the secondary, was a cylindrical rod of plutonium (the sparkplug), which was used to ignite the fusion reaction. Surrounding this assembly was a uraniumtamper. The space between the tamper and the case formed aradiation channel to conduct X-rays from the primary to the secondary. The function of the X-rays was to compress the secondary (see Teller-Ulam design), increasing the density and temperature of the deuterium to the level needed to sustain a thermonuclear reaction, and compress the sparkplug to supercriticalignition. (See nuclear weapon design.)
It was practically identical to the “Runt” device later detonated inCastle Romeo, but used partially enriched lithium in the fusion fuel. Natural lithium is a mixture of lithium-6 and lithium-7 isotopes (with 7.5% of the former). The enriched lithium used in Bravo was approximately 40% lithium-6. The primary was a standard RACER IV fusion-boosted atomic bomb.[1]
Detonation
The Castle Bravo mushroom cloud.
The detonation took place at 06:45 on March 1, 1954 local time (18:45 on February 28 GMT).[5]
When Bravo was detonated, it formed a fireball almost four and a half miles (roughly 7 km) across within a second. This fireball was visible on Kwajalein atoll over 250 miles (400 km) away. The explosion left a crater 6,500 feet (2,000 m) in diameter and 250 feet (76 m) in depth. 
The mushroom cloud reached a height of 47,000 feet (14,000 m) and a diameter of 7 miles (11 km) in about a minute; it then reached a height of 130,000 feet (40 km) and 62 miles (100 km) in diameter in less than 10 minutes and was expanding at more than 100 meters per second (360 km/h; 220 mph). 
As a result of the blast, the radioactive cloud contaminated more than seven thousand square miles of the surrounding Pacific Ocean including some of the surrounding small islands like Rongerik, Rongelap and Utirik.[6]

In terms of TNT tonnage equivalence, Castle Bravo was about 1,000 times more powerful than each of the atomic bombs which were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. The largest nuclear explosion ever produced was a test conducted by the Soviet Union seven and a half years later, the 50 Mt Tsar Bomba. Castle Bravo is the fifth largest nuclear explosion in history, exceeded by the Soviet tests of Tsar Bomba at 50.6 Mt, Test 219 (24.2 Mt), and two other ~20 Mt Soviet tests in 1962 at Novaya Zemlya.
Cause of high yield
The yield of 15 megatons was three times the yield of 5 Mt predicted by its designers.[7][1] The cause of the higher yield was a theoretical error made by designers of the device at Los Alamos National Laboratory. They considered only the lithium-6 isotope in the lithium deuteride secondary to be reactive; the lithium-7 isotope, accounting for 60% of the lithium content, was assumed to be inert.[8]
It was expected that lithium-6 isotope would absorb a neutron from the fissioning plutonium and emit an alpha particle and tritiumin the process, of which the latter would then fuse with the deuterium and increase the yield in a predicted manner. Lithium-6 obeyed this assumption.
When the lithium-7 isotope is bombarded with energetic neutrons, it captures a neutron then decays yielding an alpha particle, a tritium nucleus, and the captured neutron. This means more tritium was produced than expected, and the extra tritium is fused with deuterium. In addition to tritium formation the extra neutron released from lithium-7 decay produced a larger neutron flux. This caused more fissioning of the uranium tamper and increased yield.
This resultant extra fuel (both lithium-6 and lithium-7) contributed greatly to the fusion reactions and neutron production and in this manner greatly increased the device’s explosive output. The test used lithium with a high percentage of lithium-7 only because lithium-6 was then scarce and expensive; the later Castle Union test used almost pure lithium-6. Had more lithium-6 been available, the usability of the common lithium-7 might not have been discovered.
Fallout
The Bravo fallout plume spread dangerous levels of radiation over an area over 100 miles (160 km) long, including inhabited islands. The contour lines show the cumulative radiation dose in roentgens(R) for the first 96 hours after the test.[9]
The fission reactions of the natural uranium tamper were quite dirty, producing a large amount of fallout. That, combined with the much-larger-than-expected yield and a major wind shift, produced some very serious consequences. In the de-classified film “Operation Castle”, task force commander Major General Percy Clarkson points to a diagram indicating that the wind shift was still in the range of “acceptable fallout”, although just barely.
The decision to fire the Bravo bomb under the prevailing winds was made by Dr. Alvin C. Graves, the Scientific Director of Operation Castle. Graves had total authority over firing the weapon, above that of the military Commander of Operation Castle. Graves had himself received an exposure of 400 röntgens, or 3.5 grays (Gy), in the 1946 Los Alamos accident in which his personal friend, Louis Slotin, died from radiation exposure. 
Graves appears in the widely available film of the earlier 1952 test “Ivy Mike”, which examines the last-minute fallout decisions. The narrator, Western actor Reed Hadley, is filmed aboard the control ship in that film, showing the final conference. Hadley points out that 20,000 people live in the potential area of the fallout. 
He asks the control panel scientist if the test can be aborted and is told “yes”, but it would ruin all their preparations in setting up timed measuring instruments in the race against the Russians. In Mike the fallout correctly landed north of the inhabited area but, in the 1954 Bravo test, there was a lot of wind shear, and the wind that was blowing north the day before the test steadily veered towards the east.
Radioactive fallout was spread eastward onto the inhabited Rongelap and Rongerik atolls, which were evacuated[10] 48 hours after the detonation.[11] Subsequently many Marshall Islands natives suffered from birth defects and received compensation from the U.S. federal government. A medical study, named Project 4.1, studied the effects of the fallout on the islanders.[11]
Map showing points (X) where contaminated fish were caught or where the sea was found to be excessively radioactive. B=original “danger zone” around Bikini announced by the U.S. government. W=”danger zone” extended later. xF=position of the Lucky Dragonfishing boat. NE, EC, and SE are equatorial currents.
Although the atmospheric fallout plume drifted eastward, once fallout landed in the water it was carried in several directions by ocean currents, including northwest and southwest.[12]
A Japanese fishing boat, Daigo Fukuryu Maru (Lucky Dragon No.5), came in direct contact with the fallout, which caused many of the crew to grow ill; one died of a secondary infection. This resulted in an international uproar and reignited Japanese concerns about radiation, especially as Japanese citizens were once more adversely affected by U.S. nuclear weapons.[13] 
The (dishonest and deceptive) official U.S. line had been that the growth in the strength of atomic bombs was not accompanied by an equivalent growth in radiation released. Japanese scientists who had collected data from the fishing vessel disagreed with this. 
Sir Joseph Rotblat, working at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, demonstrated that the contamination caused by the fallout from the test was far greater than that stated officially. Rotblat was able to deduce that the bomb had three stages and showed that the fission phase at the end of the explosion increased the amount of radioactivity a thousandfold. 
Rotblat’s paper was taken up by the media, and the outcry in Japan reached such a level that diplomatic relations became strained and the incident was even dubbed by some as “a second Hiroshima”.[14] 
Nevertheless, the Japanese and U.S. governments quickly reached a political settlement, with the transfer to Japan of a compensation of US $15,300,000,[15] with the surviving victims receiving about ¥ 2 million each ($5,550 in 1954, or about $48,200 in 2014)[16][unreliable source?] It was also agreed that the victims would not be given Hibakusha status.
The device’s firing crew were located on Enyu island, variously spelt as Eneu island as depicted here.
Unanticipated fallout and the radiation that is emitted by it also affected many of the vessels and personnel involved in the test, in some cases forcing them into bunkers for several hours.[17] In contrast to the crew of the Lucky Dragon No. 5, who did not appreciate the hazard and therefore did not take shelter in the hold of their ship, or refrain from licking the fallout dust,[18] the firing crew that triggered the explosion were able to safely shelter in their firing station when they noticed the wind was carrying the fallout in the unanticipated direction towards the island of Enyu on the Bikini Atoll where they were located, with the fire crew sheltering in place or “button[ing] up” until several hours had passed and the radiation levels outside had decayed to values safe enough to travel in.[17][19]
Sixteen crew members of the aircraft carrier USS Bairoko received beta burns and there was an increased cancer rate. Radioactive contamination also affected many of the testing facilities built on other islands of the Bikini atoll system.
The fallout spread traces of radioactive material as far as Australia, India and Japan, and even the United States and parts of Europe. Though organized as a secret test, Castle Bravo quickly became an international incident, prompting calls for a ban on the atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices.[20]
In addition to the radiological accident, the unexpectedly high yield of the device severely damaged many of the permanent buildings on the control site island on the far side of the atoll. 

Little of the desired diagnostic data on the shot was collected; many instruments designed to transmit their data back before being destroyed by the blast were instead vaporized instantly, while most of the instruments that were expected to be recovered for data retrieval were destroyed by the blast.
The fallout also affected islanders who had previously inhabited the atoll, and who returned there some time after the tests. This was found to be due to the presence of radioactive caesium in locally grown coconut milk. Plants and trees absorb potassium as part of the normal biological process, but will also readily absorb cesium if present, being of the same group on the periodic table, and therefore very similar chemically.[21] 

Islanders consuming contaminated coconut milk were found to have abnormally high concentrations of cesium in their bodies and then had to be evacuated from the atoll a second time.
The American magazine Consumer Reports warned of the contamination of milk with strontium-90.[22]
Weapon history
The Soviet Union had previously used lithium deuteride in their Sloika design (known as the “Joe-4” in the U.S.), in 1953. It was not a true hydrogen bomb. Fusion provided only 15–20% of its yield, most coming from boosted fission reactions. Its yield was 400 kilotons, and it could not be infinitely scaled, as with a true thermonuclear device.
The Teller-Ulam-based Ivy Mike device had a much greater yield of 10.4 Mt, but most of this also came from fission: 77% of the total came from fast fission of its natural uranium tamper.
Castle Bravo had the greatest yield of any U.S. nuclear test, 15 Mt, though again, a substantial fraction came from fission. In the Teller-Ulam design, the fission and fusion stages were kept physically separate in a reflective cavity. The radiation from the exploding fission primary brought the fuel in the fusion secondary to critical density and pressure, setting off thermonuclear (fusion) chain-reactions, which in turn set off a tertiary fissioning of the bomb’s outer casing. Consequently this type of bomb is also known as a “fission-fusion-fission” device. The Soviet researchers, led by Andrei Sakharov, independently developed and tested their first Teller-Ulam device in 1955.

The Shrimp device design later evolved into the Mk-21 bomb, of which 275 units were produced, weighing 15,000 pounds (6,800 kg) and measuring 12.5 feet (3.8 m) long and 56 inches (1.4 m) in diameter. This 4 megaton bomb was produced until July 1956. In 1957, it was converted into the Mk-36 and entered into production again.”

End
Castle Bravo Hydrogen Bomb ‘Fission-Fusion-Fission’ Test; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/02/castle-bravo-hydrogen-bomb-fission.html

Huge, Mysterious ‘Interstellar’ Objects That Appear To Be Machines Or Spacecraft


Channel rprocyon presents ‘Interstellar’ a short film by Jose Escamilla. Full recognition goes out to John Lenard Walson for discovering these objects, machines or entities, for developing the means to capture them and for having the integrity to get this important information out to the people. 


What appears to be very huge interstellar objects, machines or entities that also transform themselves, have been caught on camera far out in deep space. See for yourselves. Why are these not being reported on by the corporate media? 
Of course, it could all be faked, created by software and an enterprising mind bent on deceiving people. But that still leaves the question; is there other life out there, besides us? How many planets could there be out there like ours, that could potentially support life of some kind? It turns out that very recent astronomical observations have raised some very amazing and mind boggling results. 
It turns out that one in five stars or suns that we see out there, just in our galaxy, have planets revolving around them that have a set of conditions that are supportive for life. According to people who do nothing but study space, this means that we may have 2 BILLION to 60 BILLION planets just in our galaxy that may support or actually have life of some kind on them. 
Two billion planets in our galaxy may be suitable for life
Billions Of Planets Could Support Life
60 Billion Alien Planets Could Support Life, Study Suggests
Remember, the studies above are focusing just on the possibility of life in our one galaxy. Our galaxy is just one of many. How many galaxies are there besides ours? Would you believe that there are 500 BILLION galaxies out there, visible to a space telescope?
“The Hubble Space Telescope site estimates there are hundreds of billions of galaxies in the universe. A recent German super-computer simulation estimates that the number may be as high as 500 billion, with many older than the Milky Way. Common obervational wisdom among astronomers is that there are 17 billion Earth-sized planets in our galaxy. They don’t yet know how many of these worlds are in habitable zones, but the implications of this discovery are astounding. Simply put: If there are 17 billion Earth-sized worlds in our galaxy alone, it’s clear that the Universe has the potential to be teeming with life.”
What is the take away from this video and these space studies? The odds that other life forms exist (other than human) out there are HUGE. What does that life look like? Would be able to recognize those life forms if they appeared?
Since some of these planets and suns are much older than ours, life could be much further along than what has evolved or happened so far on planet Earth. If there are other more advanced ‘races’, beings or forms of life, what would they look like? Could they be much bigger, much smaller, have entirely different make ups, such as being based on silicone, or sulfur? Could they be nano sized, making them impossible to see without scientific equipment, but have entire civilizations on the head of a pin for example? Could they be so huge, that we would not see them, because we would mistake them for something else?
Could life have evolved in completely different directions and taken them into different dimensions, not visible to the naked eye, such as flying interdimensional beings, rods, cones, pyramids, or beings based on things we cannot even wrap our minds around, such as those in this video? Life indeed may be much more mysterious, abundant and vibrant than we have been led to believe. 
And if life is indeed much more mysterious, abundant and diverse than we have believed historically, how will that change us, our religions, our belief systems? Remember that at one point in history, scientists, philosophers and religious scholars all were in agreement that the sun revolved around the Earth, that the Earth was flat and that you would fall off the edge if you went ‘too far out in the ocean’.

Fully unsustainable. Fully.  Thanks to @[107279015969787:274:1,000,000 Strong Against Offshore Drilling] for the image.
Stay open to the mystery, because we may not know as much as we think we do. Maybe it would pay to work in harmony with the forces of Nature and the universe. Maybe it would benefit us, our planet and our civilization to work on preserving and enhancing life for seven future generations.
Instead of trying to destroy it all due to greed and short sighted power motives, as we are now, maybe we can look to the stars and plan on a future that will support life not only on this planet for millions of years into the future, but also traveling to those other planets, carrying with us a message of sustainability and agape love. 

End
Huge, Mysterious ‘Interstellar’ Objects That Appear To Be Machines Or Spacecraft; via @AGreenRoad
Mystery; Ancient Aircraft And Spaceship Evidence; via @AGreenRoad  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/06/mystery-ancient-aircraft-and-spaceship.html

Mystery; NASA Compilation of UFO Pictures and Videos; via @AGreenRoad 
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/06/nasa-compilation-of-ufo-pictures-and.html

Mystery; Extraterrestial Archeology On Mars And Moon? via @AGreenRoad 
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/06/mystery-extraterrestial-archeology-on.html

Mystery: Atomic Warfare 15,000 Years Ago? via @AGreenRoad  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/06/mystery-atomic-warfare-15000-years-ago.html

The Mystery Of Life On Other Planets; Does It Exist? via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/08/the-mystery-of-life-on-other-planets.html

Rosie ODonnel On Crop Circle Mystery And Longer Interview With Suzanne Taylor; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/09/rosie-odonnel-on-crop-circle-mystery.html


Huge, Mysterious ‘Interstellar’ Objects That Appear To Be Machines Or Spacecraft; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/02/huge-mysterious-interstellar-objects.html


Free Full Length Movie; UFO Delegation (W56) Contacts And Befriends Italian Group; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/09/free-full-length-movie-ufo-delegation.html

Michael Tellinger – Ancient 500,000 Year Old Sacred Mystery And Civilization Revealed; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/09/michael-tellinger-ancient-500000-year.html

History Channel; UFO Files And Alien Encounters Of The 1st, 2nd, 3rd Kind; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/09/history-channel-ufo-files-and-alien.html

Dr. Michio Kaku On UFO Existence And Alien DNA Tested To Prove Life Exists On Other Planets; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/10/dr-michio-kaku-on-ufo-existence-and.html

Alien Contact – Warning Message Live on TV in UK – We Come to Warn you About your Race and your Planet; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/10/alien-warning-message-live-on-tv-in-uk.html

George Van Tassel Contacts UFO, Receives Extraterrestial Advanced Technology; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/10/george-van-tassel-contacts-ufo-receives.html


Nikola Tesla Invention Tutorial; How to Construct Your Own Teleportation Portal; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/07/nikola-tesla-invention-tutorial-how-to.html



Dow Chemicals; Destroying The World, And Poisoning Our Food

Center for Food Safety has just launched a new national campaign focusing the food movement’s growing power on stopping the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) approval of the next generation of genetically engineered (GE), pesticide-promoting crops: corn and soybeans engineered to be repeatedly doused in 2,4-D, a powerful herbicide that formed one half of Agent Orange

The campaign features a petition to the USDA and President Obama to reject Dow Chemical’s new GE crops, a campaign website and an animated video examining Dow Chemical’s sordid history.

Why Dow Chemical? Dow Chemical has a long and troubling history of selling dangerous chemicals and poisons, and now they are targeting our food supply. We are launching this campaign to give people the chance to fight back, to speak with one voice and stop Dow Chemical’s “Agent Orange” crops.

2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), produced by Dow Chemical, was a component of Agent Orange, the toxic defoliant used in Vietnam. 2,4-D and other herbicides of its class have been independently associated with deadly immune system cancers, Parkinson’s disease, endocrine disruption, and reproductive problems.

Dow Chemical’s crops are the worst possible application of biotechnology.They offer zero consumer benefit while doubling down on the most devastating aspects of industrial agriculture. Instead of feeding the world, Dow Chemical’s new genetically engineered crops will poison it. Unless we stop them.Check out our new animated video and campaign website, and join the campaign!

Center for Food Safety
660 Pennsylvania Ave, SE, #302
Washington DC 20003
phone (202) 547-9359 | fax (202) 547-9429
Contact Us: 
office@centerforfoodsafety.org

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This material is protected under International and Federal Copyright Laws and Treaties. Any unauthorized reprint or use of this material is prohibited. No text may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without express written permission or proper citation. Please credit any and all use of our work product to: Center for Food Safety, www.centerforfoodsafety.org.

Plutonium Is The Most Toxic, Radioactive, Man Made Element, With No Natural Biological Role In The Human Body

What is plutonium? According to the nuclear expert above, plutonium is the most TOXIC and dangerous element on the planet. But is there any OTHER proof of that, because he might just have a chip on his shoulder, right?

“If you inhale a millionth of a gram of plutonium, the surrounding cells receive a very, very high dose. Most die within that area, because it’s an alpha emitter. The cells on the periphery remain viable. They mutate, and the regulatory genes are damaged. Years later, that person develops cancer. Now, that’s true for radioactive iodine, that goes to the thyroid; cesium-137, that goes to the brain and muscles; strontium-90 goes to bone, causing bone cancer and leukemia.”

Renowned doctor and scientist Dr. Helen Caldicott MD

According to a National Institutes Of Health published study; “Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway, receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin;…

Organisms have no natural mechanism for specifically recognizing plutonium (Pu) as it is a non-essential element that until 1941 only existed on earth in biologically insignificant concentrations for at least the last two billion years. Nevertheless, Pu is radiotoxic and is strongly retained by organisms1, Pu uptake from an accident, environmental contamination, or a nuclear or radiological attack can pose significant health risks. Plutonium localizes principally in the liver and skeleton in humans where it remains for decades2. It associates in vivo with the iron-containing proteins serum transferrin and ferritin3,4, but despite the danger of plutonium poisoning, the specific molecular-level pathways Pu travels to enter and localize in cells have never been identified2,5 and no complete structure of a plutonium-protein complex has ever been reported. Understanding how a synthetic element like plutonium subverts existing biological metal-acquisition pathways to enter cells and where the pathways of plutonium and essential metals, such as iron, converge or diverge could provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms organisms use to distinguish between metal ions and enable new treatments for plutonium poisoning.


Plutonium’s chemistry bears limited resemblance to that of biologically important transition metals. Plutonium is highly redox active with four oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) potentially relevant to living organisms, although Pu(IV) has long been considered the most important under physiological conditions6. Regardless of oxidation state, Pu ions are hard Lewis acids that generally form kinetically labile bonds with ligands7. They are also large ions (crystallographic radii = 0.85 – 1.14 Å for CN = 68, depending on the oxidation state) that prefer high coordination numbers; plutonium complexes with coordination numbers of 8 or 9 are common9.


While these properties set Pu apart from transition metals commonly encountered in the metallome, Pu and transition metals do share important similarities. Similar to high-valent transition metals, tetravalent Pu is strongly hydrolyzed at physiological pH10. In the absence of steric constraints, Pu4+ tends to form complexes that are about as stable as those of trivalent first row transition metals, notably Fe3+, because the metals’ charge to radius ratios are similar1,11. These properties give plutonium a chemistry that partly resembles transition metals, especially iron. The chemical similarities of Fe and Pu are particularly important to the metal transport protein serum transferrin (Tf). Transferrin functions to strongly bind and carry two Fe3+ ions into cells, but it also binds Pu4+strongly12 with a reported conditional pKd = 21.25± 0.7513, and it accounts for 70–90 % of the Pu in serum3,13.

Diferric transferrin (holo-transferrin, Fe2Tf) delivers iron to mammalian cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis in a multi-step process. Transferrin is a bilobal glycoprotein. Each lobe of Tf, the C-lobe and N-lobe, is composed of two domains with one iron binding site located at the bottom of the inter-domain cleft in each lobe. When an appropriate metal ion and a synergistic anion (i.e., CO32−) are both present in one binding site, the domains close around the binding site, sequestering the metal and binding it tightly (Kd = 10−21.4 M for Fe3+)14. When both lobes of Tf are thus properly closed, the metal-transferrin complex is in the proper conformation to be recognized by the transferrin receptor protein (TR) on the cellular surface. At the extracellular pH of 7.4, TR binds Fe2Tf strongly (Kd = 5 nM)15. Other forms of transferrin, metal-free apo-transferrin and the monoferric transferrins FeNTf and FeCTf (with the metal-containing lobe indicated by the subscript N or C), are not in the proper conformation to be well-recognized by TR because one or both of the lobes remain open in the absence of a metal cation16. As a result, the receptor binding constants of apo-Tf, FeNTf, and FeCTf are at least an order of magnitude smaller than that of Fe2Tf-TR15.
While some have suggested that transferrin may carry Pu into cells17, extensive in vitro experiments have been taken to imply that plutonium-transferrin complexes are not taken into cells in a manner similar to the iron-transferrin complex2,1820, presumably because Pu4+ is a larger ion than Fe3+and strongly prefers higher coordination numbers. Instead, an ill-defined uptake pathway, which does not involve transferrin, has been invoked as the source of intracellular Pu18,20.
Studying the conformations and biochemical interactions of plutonium-transferrin complexes using a low specific activity plutonium isotope (242Pu) to minimize radiation effects, we found that mammalian cells could acquire Pu through the common Fe uptake pathway of receptor-mediated endocytosis of metallo-transferrins. However, to be taken into the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis, Pu needed help from Fe because only one isomer of the monoplutonium-monoiron-transferrin complex was active. In the active form of the plutonium-laden protein, Pu4+ was bound in the metal binding site of the protein’s C-terminal lobe and Fe3+ was bound in the protein’s N-lobe (PuCFeNTf). All other forms of plutonium-transferrin that could exist in vivo failed to adopt the proper conformation for receptor recognition and uptake. Although the metal binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar14,21, the differences between transferrin’s two lobes restricted, but did not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.
Receptor binding of plutonium-transferrins
To understand how cells take up plutonium and if the cellular uptake mechanisms of Fe3+ and Pu4+diverge, we systematically examined the binding of Pu-Tf complexes to the transferrin receptor protein, which is a prerequisite for cellular uptake of a metallo-transferrin. Receptor binding assays of plutonium-bearing human transferrins were conducted using the soluble extracellular fragment of human transferrin receptor 1 isolated from serum22, which retains its capacity to bind Fe2Tf23. The binding of the controls apo-Tf and Fe2Tf (Fig. 1) were as expected from the previously reported binding constants15,24. The two Fe3+ cations in diferric transferrin were then systematically replaced with Pu4+, individually producing the mixed monoplutonium-monoiron-transferrin complexes PuCFeNTf and FeCPuNTf, and the diplutonium-transferrin complex Pu2Tf (i.e., PuCPuNTf), which were incubated with the transferrin receptor. The receptor binding assays of the three plutonium-transferrins (Fig. 1) indicated that each of these metallo-transferrins could bind soluble TR under our experimental conditions. However, the different forms of Pu-Tf showed different receptor binding behaviors. The affinity of TR for Pu2Tf and FeCPuNTf, was substantially lower than for PuCFeNTf and Fe2Tf, suggesting that although Pu4+ binds to Tf in the Fe3+ binding site13, neither Pu2Tf nor FeCPuNTf would be recognized at physiological concentrations. In contrast, PuCFeNTf should be recognized by TR.
PuCFeNTf is the only Pu-transferrin that binds TR well
Solution conformations of plutonium-transferrins
One form of plutonium-transferrin, PuCFeNTf, bound the transferrin receptor well but the two other forms, FeCPuNTf and Pu2Tf, did not. Because the transferrin receptor only binds transferrin well if both the protein’s lobes are in the closed conformation, we examined a series of metallo-transferrins using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to obtain low resolution solution models of the bovine proteins. The scattering profiles of the transferrins (see Supplementary Results and Supplementary Fig. S1a online) fell into three distinct groups. Based on the scattering of the natural transferrins, we assigned these groups of scattering curves to transferrin with both lobes open, one lobe open and one lobe closed, or both lobes closed, which we term open, mixed, and closed transferrins, respectively. The scattering profiles of the closed transferrins (i.e., Fe2Tf, PuCFeNTf, and In2Tf, di-indium transferrin) were qualitatively distinguished from the other curves by a distinct drop in scattering intensity between 0.15 and 0.20 Å−1 (Supplementary Fig. S1b)25.
The differences between the protein conformations indicated by the scattering were clarified by ab initio shape reconstruction of low-resolution protein models from the SAXS by simulated annealing of dummy atom (bead) models26. The resulting three-dimensional solution structures of the proteins calculated from the scattering data agree well with the reported crystal structures of serum transferrin27,28 (Fig. 2a and Supplementary Fig. S2). As depicted in Figure 2, the two lobes of each metallo-transferrin are clearly visible at the top and bottom of each model, as was the open or closed conformation of each lobe. Most importantly, the structures of PuCFeNTf and closed Fe2Tf, which both bound TR well, were very similar (Figs. 2a and 2b), and both had two closed lobes. In contrast, the conformations of the other plutonium-bearing transferrins, FeCPuNTf and Pu2Tf, were clearly mixed. Those models (Figs. 2a and 2b) showed one smaller closed lobe at the bottom of the displayed structural model and one open lobe at the top with a cleft between the lobe’s two domains, just as observed for mixed FeCTf.
Structural models of bovine serum transferrins derived from SAXS demonstrate that PuCFeNTf adopts a closed conformation
Although the resolution of these measurements did not allow direct identification of the C- and N-lobes of each metallo-transferrin from the SAXS data, the systematic substitution of Pu4+ into Tf allowed identification of the one open lobe observed for FeCPuNTf and Pu2Tf. Fe3+ binding causes lobe closure under the conditions of our experiments. Consequently, the iron-containing C-lobe of FeCPuNTf was closed and the plutonium-containing N-lobe must be the open lobe observed for this form of the protein. This implied that the N-lobe of Pu2Tf also was open. In fact, the conformation and overall dimensions of the open lobe determined for the mixed transferrins (FeCTf, FeCPuNTf, and Pu2Tf) from the SAXS data matched the crystal structure of the open N-terminal half apo-transferrin fragment29 well, as depicted for Pu2Tf in Fig. 2a.
The conformation of Pu2Tf indicated that transferrin’s two iron-binding sites respond to Pu4+differently. The N-lobe of Pu2Tf was open; therefore the second plutonium cation in the C-lobe must promote C-lobe closure because the SAXS data indicated that one lobe of Pu2Tf was closed (Fig. 2a). Since Pu4+ in the C-lobe and Fe3+ in either lobe caused lobe closure, both lobes of PuCFeNTf were expected to be closed. The structural reconstruction of PuCFeNTf confirmed this (Figs. 2a and 2b). Although Pu2Tf and FeCPuNTf adopted the mixed conformation with one open and one closed lobe, solutions of PuCFeNTf contained the protein in a fully closed configuration that matched the native form of the protein found for Fe2Tf. The slight deviations observed between the structures of Fe2Tf and PuCFeNTf (Fig. 2c) were within the uncertainty of the experiment and analysis, and principally arose from the slightly different maximum protein diameters derived from the SAXS data used for the shape reconstruction (Dmax = 104 ± 10 Å for PuCFeNTf vs. 100 ± 10 Å for Fe2Tf, seeSupplementary Table S1).
Cellular uptake of plutonium-transferrins
Plutonium’s inability to induce closure of transferrin’s N-lobe explained the receptor binding experiments and implied that under physiological conditions only PuCFeNTf, the sole closed plutonium-transferrin complex, could be recognized by TR and incorporated into cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. To test this hypothesis, we incubated PC12 cells for 3 hours in complete growth medium supplemented with rat transferrin presented as either closed PuCFeNTf, which should be recognized and carry Pu into cells, or mixed FeCPuNTf, which should not. The elemental content and distribution in individual cells was monitored with synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXFM) (Fig. 3a–e, Supplementary Figs. S3 and S4, and Supplementary Table S2). As expected from the protein conformations and receptor binding experiments, Pu presented as closed PuCFeNTf was taken into the cells (Figs. 3b and 3e), and localized in the cytoplasm (Supplementary Figs. S3d–f). The average intracellular content of the Pu containing cells was 1.6 ± 0.3 ng Pu/cm2 (±S.E.M at 95% confidence, n = 8). In contrast, the average cellular uptake of Pu from mixed FeCPuNTf was sharply reduced to only 0.3 ± 0.2 ng Pu/cm2 (±S.E.M at 95% confidence, n = 21), as illustrated in Figures 3c and 3e.
PC12 cells take in plutonium as PuCFeNTf
To ensure that the cells remained viable over the course of treatment at the concentrations of 242Pu used, cell viability was quantified by trypan blue exclusion in separate experiments prior to the SXFM measurements. Individual determinations of the viability of cells grown in media supplemented with the highest concentrations of Pu, chloroquine (vide infra), or Pu and chloroquine ranged from 86 to 105% of control cells with a run to run range of ±10% for each measurement of control or treated cells. The average cell viabilities (Supplementary Table S3) were indistinguishable from those of PC12 control samples for the first 3 hours of incubation.
The initial plutonium-transferrin uptake experiments were consistent with receptor-mediated endocytosis of PuCFeNTf, just like Fe2Tf. To further explore this possibility, the cellular uptake of Pu from closed PuCFeNTf was studied under conditions that would reduce Pu uptake by that pathway. First, Pu uptake from complete media supplemented with an equimolar mixture of PuCFeNTf and Fe2Tf was examined. While PC12 cells still took in Pu from this medium, the average intracellular concentration of Pu (Fig. 3e) decreased to 39 ± 15% of the value observed for cells incubated with PuCFeNTf alone (error propagated ±S.E.M., 4 Fe2Tf co-treated cells studied). This was in reasonable agreement with the value expected for simple competition between equal concentrations of PuCFeNTf and Fe2Tf (50%) if the all aspects of the uptake and retention of Pu and Fe are equivalent and the presence of 12.5 μM Fe2Tf does not down regulate transferrin-mediated uptake over the time frame of our experiment.
Transferrin endocytosis also is temperature dependent 30. No difference was discernable between the uptake of PuCFeNTf at 25 °C (1.5 ± 0.5 ng Pu/cm2, ±S.E.M. at 95% confidence, n = 3 cells)and 37 °C (1.8 ± 0.4 ng Pu/cm2, ±S.E.M. at 95% confidence, n = 5 cells), presumably because of normal cell-to-cell variations in the elemental content and the small sample size. However, lowering the incubation temperature to 4 °C curtailed Pu uptake as expected for active uptake of PuCFeNTf by endocytosis. Bulk Pu uptake at 4 °C was 17 ± 17% of the uptake of cells incubated at 37 °C (n = 3, error propagated ±S.E.M. at 95% confidence).
To further study Pu uptake from closed PuCFeNTf, PC12 cells also were incubated for 3 hours in complete media supplemented with rat PuCFeNTf (12.5 – 25 μM) and chloroquine (50 μM), which is known to disrupt the uptake of iron through receptor-mediated endocytosis of Fe2Tf. It does so by preventing complete acidification of the endosomes thereby inhibiting iron release from the Fe2Tf-TR complex into the endosomes30. In these experiments, chloroquine treatment severely reduced Pu uptake from PuCFeNTf by intact cells (Fig. 3e) to an average of 0.2 ± 0.3 ng Pu/cm2 (±S.E.M at 95% confidence, 8 cells studied). While very little Pu was associated with intact chloroquine-treated cells, measurable Pu was found in the SXFM maps associated with cellular debris (Fig. 3d) in the chloroquine treated system. This implied that chloroquine inhibited Pu uptake by living cells, but it did not inhibit Pu binding to the intracellular constituents from ruptured cells. Thus, a drug that disrupts Fe release from Fe2Tf into the endosomes also disrupted the active uptake of Pu from PuCFeNTf by living cells.
The lack of plutonium uptake from mixed FeCPuNTf, coupled with the proportional reduction in Pu uptake from mixtures of Fe2Tf and PuCFeNTf and the ability of low temperatures or the presence of chloroquine to inhibit plutonium uptake from closed PuCFeNTf demonstrated that PuCFeNTf, which has the same closed conformation as Fe2Tf, followed Fe2Tf into the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and was not taken up through non-specific pinocytosis.
Our studies each indicated that plutonium could infiltrate mammalian cells using the normal Tf-TR iron uptake system, but only with help from iron and only for one particular isomer of the plutonium-iron-transferrin complex, PuCFeNTf…. Other pathways for plutonium uptake that do not involve transferrin likely exist, as is known for iron31, but our results demonstrated that PuCFeNTf was capable of efficiently delivering Pu to mammalian cells in vitrothrough receptor-mediated endocytosis.
The specific requirement for iron binding in the N-lobe of transferrin restricted plutonium’s ability to exploit the transferrin-mediated uptake pathway; however PuCFeNTf likely would constitute a substantial portion of the Pu-Tf species in the blood of exposed individuals. In circulating human blood transferrin concentrations normally range between 25 and 46 μM32. Iron usually consumes only a fraction of transferrin’s iron-binding capacity, leaving ample capacity for transferrin to bind plutonium and giving rise to a distribution of different transferrin species. For normal blood iron loadings, an average distribution of transferrin species of 37% apo-Tf, 45% FeNTf, 8% FeCTf, and 11% Fe2Tf in human serum has been reported33. The precursors to PuCFeNTf, FeNTf and apo-Tf (which can react to form PuCTf), constitute the major fraction of the transferrin in human serum. Thus the inability of plutonium to trigger N-lobe closure in serum transferrin is not sufficient to prohibit Pu uptake through the Tf-TR pathway in vivo where iron is available to fill the N-lobe.
Several possible advantages of modern bilobal transferrins over their single-lobed progenitors have been proposed. As a partial iron mimic, the interactions between plutonium and transferrin suggest another, enhanced selectivity for iron. By itself, transferrin does not effectively discriminate against the man-made element plutonium, binding Pu4+ almost as strongly as Fe3+ 13, but the bilobal nature of transferrin and the differences between the lobes confer a measure of selectivity against plutonium to the Tf-TR uptake system. Contrary to predictions34,35, Pu4+ and Fe3+ are sufficiently different that plutonium binding did not trigger closure of the N-lobe. Therefore, neither Pu2Tf nor FeCPuNTf were efficiently recognized by the transferrin receptor, and cellular uptake of Pu was diminished. Plutonium could overcome the selectivity of the multi-step metal recognition system of the Tf-TR pair only with the assistance of Fe through the formation of PuCFeNTf, which efficiently bound TR.
The Tf-TR iron uptake system achieves its partial selectivity for iron over plutonium in spite of the similarity of the C- and N-lobes, which show high sequence similarity (40–50% for serum transferrins)36. The residues involved in metal binding are completely conserved between the two lobes and also are conserved in the closely related proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and ovotransferrin14. Since the identity and the configuration of the binding resides are the same in both lobes of serum transferrin, the partial discrimination of the Tf-TR system against Pu could not arise from plutonium’s presumed direct interactions with the binding residues (2 Tyr, 1 Asp, 1 His) in the metal binding sites. Moreover, when lactoferrin binds Ce4+, another tetravalent f-element cation with the same size and coordination preferences as Pu4+, the crystal structure of diceric lactoferrin (Ce2Lf) shows that the coordination environment of Ce4+ matches that of Fe3+ in Fe2Lf and that both the C-lobe and the N-lobe are closed35. Consequently, the different responses of transferrin’s two lobes to Pu binding and the ability of the Tf-TR uptake system’s ability to attenuate Pu uptake appear to arise from one or more known structural differences between the lobes28,37 outside of the actual metal binding sites.
The protein conformations we observed for the plutonium-iron-transferrin complexes also suggest that mixed-metal transferrin complexes may play an important role in the metallome by allowing an unsuspected trafficking pathway for naturally occurring metals. Transferrin is known to bind over 30 different metals, but the cellular uptake of the metal-transferrin complexes is believed relevant for a only a few of them14. Since transferrin’s two lobes can react differently to binding the same metal ion, the uptake of mixed iron-metal-transferrin complexes (MCFeNTf or FeCMNTf) in vivo may represent substantial uptake pathways for other metals as well if metal binding induces closure of one lobe but not the other. The relevance of mixed-metal transferrins would not be apparent from studies of the receptor-binding or cellular uptake of simple M2Tf complexes as one lobe of M2Tf would be open and the complex would not be recognized by TR.
The intracellular pathways plutonium follows between its putative release from Tf in the endosomes and its retention in the cytoplasm have yet to be identified, but our demonstration that a specific form of plutonium-transferrin entered mammalian cells using the normal Fe2Tf-TR pathway is of practical significance because this well-defined pathway presents multiple targets to block plutonium uptake and spare cells from its highly destructive α-radiation. Currently approved therapies for plutonium poisoning, based on ligands that strongly bind Pu, are unable to extract all intracellular Pu1,38,39. In contrast, novel strategies to disrupt the PuCFeNTf-TR pathway could preempt plutonium accumulation in cells. Such strategies might include blocking the binding of PuCFeNTf to TR, or inhibiting the intracellular release of Pu in the endosome (mimicking the action of chloroquine in our experiments), which would keep Pu from accumulating in cells and could promote faster clearance from the body, particularly if used in conjunction with plutonium-specific chelators.
Source; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462652/#

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What is the take away and summary? Plutonium is the most toxic heavy metal, and the most dangerous radioactive man made element that is absorbed both by animals and human beings after any nuclear accident, since all nuclear reactors contain some plutonium.

MOX (plutonium) fueled reactors or breeder reactors contain even more plutonium than just plain old uranium fueled nuclear reactors. The bad news is that all reactors are being switched over to run on plutonium.

There is no known beneficial use for human health in regards to plutonium. It is one of the most toxic heavy metals and one of the most dangerous radioactive substances on Earth, precisely because humans have never been exposed to it, and thus have no defenses against it. 

According to Dr. Helen Caldicott MD, one pound of plutonium nano dust distributed equally to all humans on Earth is enough to kill them all, via cancer or other negative health effects. One microgram of plutonium is sufficient to kill a person, if lodged in the deepest lobe area of the lung for example, and that amount is smaller than a dust mote in a sunbeam. Fukushima Daichi released between 600 – 6000 pounds of plutonium, and it went all around the world in the form of nano ‘hot particles’. Remember though, it was not just plutonium that came out of Fukushima and all of the other accidents and 2,400 atomic bomb tests. 

Dr. Paolo Scampa – 9 Tons Of Radiotoxic Isotopes Came Out Of Fukushima, Enough To Kill The Whole Human Race By Internal Radiation; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/11/dr-paolo-scampa-9-tons-of-radiotoxic.html

Live in San Francisco? You, Your Dog And Your Kids Inhaled Billions Of Radioactive Plutonium Atoms; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/01/live-in-san-francisco-you-your-dog-and.html

The study presented in this article documents how plutonium mimics iron in the body and attaches to iron to circulate all around the body, causing damage both via alpha radiation and via heavy metal poisoning. 


Since iron accumulates with red blood cells in very vital areas of the body such as the lungs, liver and bone marrow, this sets up a person for diseases and cancers involving not just these areas, but also any place where red blood cells containing iron go.

End

Plutonium Is The Most Toxic, Radioactive, Man Made Element, With No Natural Biological Role In The Human Body; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/01/plutonium-is-toxic-radioactive-man-made.html

For more articles;

Individual Radioactive Elements/Isotopes

http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/individual-radioactive-elementsisotopes.html

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