Comparing Contaminated Zones Around Chernobyl And Fukushima Ocean Radiation Released

The New York Times reports that the contaminated zone around Chernobyl; “the contaminated area, designated by Ukraine’s Parliament as 15,000 square miles. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/20/weekinreview/20chernobyl.html


According to Wiki; 1 square mile = 2.58998811 km

Square kilometre – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Factoring in the above square miles and adjusting for difference, the contaminated zone around Chernobyl would equal 38,000 square kilometers.


The Fukushima crisis created massive amounts of radiation that went out mostly over the Pacific ocean due to the prevailing winds. 


If we focus ONLY on the HIGHLY contaminated land at 10,000 Bq/m2 or more, over 30,000 square kilometers in Japan exceeded this level. The radiation contaminated land totals around 8 percent of the total land mass of Japan. No wonder they are declaring these contamined zones ‘safe’ and urging residents to move back in.  
Source:http://enenews.com/areas-with-10000-bqm%C2%B2-of-radioactivity-considered-highly-contaminated-by-study-over-30000-square-kilometers-in-japan-exceed-that-level-8-of-nation 

Take a look at the video animation of radioactive water coming out of Fukushima above. How large is this water leakage radiation contaminated zone?

Japan has a land mass of 145,925 square miles, or 377, 835 square kilometers.  Source:http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_Japan’_s_total_land_area

Just by looking at the contaminated zone in the Pacific Ocean, and comparing it to the size of Japan above, we could assume that the total surface area was at least 3 to 5 times larger than the land area in Japan  TOTAL, wouldn’t you agree?

This means the total amount of ocean that was contaminated with radiation from Fukushima water leaks  is between 1,133,505 to  3,777,000 square kilometers, and growing, because the leaks have not stopped, so this area is growing by the day.

Remember, it was not just highly radioactive water leaking from all of the basements as well as as the many leaks from the Rube Goldberg plastic tubing keeping the reactors and spent fuel pools cool today that are still going into the ocean. 

Plus, when #3 had a nuclear explosion, it blew all of the fuel rods out for 2-3 miles around the plant, with many ending up in the ocean. Those highly radioactive fuel rod pieces contaminate any ocean water flowing by, and will continue to do so for millions of years. For more information about this totally covered up part of this disaster, see the following articles. 

What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html


The above video shows ONLY one estimate of what happens to the radioactive water leaking into the ocean on a constant basis. Eventually, the whole Pacific Ocean will be contaminated with radiation, unless the SOURCES of radiation coming into are shut off or covered up. Currently, the Japanese are doing little to nothing about this.

Here is some more information about just the implications of radioactive water leaking into the Pacific ocean. 

Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog

http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/fukushima-leaking-radioactive-water.html


In addition to the radioactive water leaking into the ocean from Fukushima, airborne radiation coming out of Fukushima also ended up on Pacific Ocean, plus all other oceans. Because there is no cover or ‘lid’ on multiple reactors or spent fuel pools, the radioactive release into the air is also continuous from this same plant. 

In addition, melted coriums belch and burp radiation from deep underground, with no end in sight. These coriums plus the basement water in the reactor buildings also contaminate the underground water, which then moves into the ocean.

This may end up contaminating the whole Pacific Ocean, because the water leaks, underground leaks and air releases of radiation into the Pacific Ocean HAVE NOT STOPPED. 

The video below is an estimate of where the airborne radiation is going from Fukushima, but it DOES NOT show the radiation dropping into the ocean. Sadly, the Pacific ocean is where most of the radiation from Fukushima went, but this fact is being covered up, along with lots of other information about this disaster.

Reuters: Contamination concerns growing… High radiation levels 270+ km from meltdowns — Gundersen: Over half of Japanese living in contaminated areas… Includes places 400 km away from Fukushima (VIDEO) February 13, 2012 

The ocean bound radiation from Fukushima went out over a wide area of the Pacific Ocean. 70-95% of the total radiation released by Fukushima went into the Pacific Ocean. The small 5-30% radioactive gas remainder is what went over Japan land masses and made 30,000 square kilometers uninhabitable. 
The New York Times reports that; “Chernobyl-induced radiation in the Black Sea peaked in 1986 at about 1,000 becquerels per cubic meter.. By contrast, the radiation level off the coast near the Fukushima Daiichi plant peaked at more than 100,000 becquerels per cubic meter in early April.” http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/fukushimas-contamination-produces-some-surprises-at-sea/

No one has measured the total radiation that went into the ocean either through radioactive water leaks shown in the video model below, or the airborne radiation, shown in the video above.

Here is one attempt at putting together all of the radiation released from Fukushima, instead of splitting it up and only talking about a small piece of what was released, for a limited amount of time, as most mass media outlets end up reporting on. 
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
Bottom line, if 30,000 square kilometers of Japanese soil is highly contaminated, then we can assume based on most of the radiation going out over the ocean, that 100,000 square miles of ocean were also contaminated to an equivalent degree, just from air releases, NOT counting radioactive water releases. Add the radioactive water releases, PLUS the airborne radiation going into the Pacific and it is easier to understand why some people are starting to call this a potential global life extinction event. 

With multiple reactor melt downs, melt throughs, and multiple spent fuel pool melt downs, fires and possible explosions, Fukushima is without a doubt the largest, most disastrous nuclear event in history. 
For the rest of the story, explore the links below. This article is just the very tiny top of a HUGE iceberg, that has been hidden from public view for MANY years, since the discovery of atomic energy.


Feel free to share this article;


Comparing Contaminated Zones Around Chernobyl And Fukushima Ocean Radiation Released; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/comparing-contaminated-zones-around.html 


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ART AND SCIENCE OF DECEPTION
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html
Tokyo; is it safe to live in or visit? via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tokyo-is-it-safe-to-visit-or-live-in.html
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents; via A Green Road Blog
Free Ebook; Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Coverup And Denial Of 1 Million + Casualties; via A Green Road Blog
The Chernobyl Sacrifice; 1 MILLION Liquidators; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/chernobyl-sacrifice-1-million.html                                                            
The Battle Of Chernobyl Movie; via A Green Road Blog
Chernobyl Heart Movie; How Children Are Affected; via A Green Road Blog
Three Mile Island (TMI) Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/three-mile-island-coverups-exposed.html
Los Angeles Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Total Fukushima Radiation Released Into Ocean, Air, Groundwater, Storage Tanks; via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/total-fukushima-radiation-released-into.html
What really happened at Fukushima? via A Green Road Blog  http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/02/what-really-happened-at-fukushima.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Hot Particles (Fuel Fleas) From Fukushima Continue To Circulate Globally; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/hot-particles-from-fukushima-continue.html
Is Fukushima really in cold shutdown? via A Green Road Blog  
Ex Fukushima Engineer Confesses; No Cold Shutdown, Warned of Tsunami 20 Yrs Ago
Radioactive Smoke/Steam Coming Out Of Ground At Fukushima 2.28.2012; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Lies Movie Part I and II; via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima Tsunami Explosion Coverup? via A Green Road Blog  
Fukushima; Pacific Ocean Catastrophe Confirmed; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Leaking Radioactive Water Into Ocean Plume; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
TEPCO Loses ALL Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
Fukushima; Today’s Titantic and Costa Concordia; via A Green Road Blog
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
RECYCLING NUCLEAR FUEL/WEAPONS
Windscale: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/windscale-biggest-covered-up-uk-nuclear.html
Ozyorsk – Kyshtym – Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/ozyorsk-kyshtym-mayak-nuclear-waste.html
La Hague; France‘s Nuclear Waste Nightmare; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/la-hague-nuclear-waste-nightmare.html 
                       
Hanford; Lethal And Leaking; A Race To Armageddon?  via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/hanford-lethal-and-leaking-race-to.html
NUCLEAR WASTE
The Fallacy Of High Level Nuclear Waste Geological Storage; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Chris Busby; Consequences of Burning Radioactive Waste In Japan; via A Green Road Blog
No Solutions For Nuclear Disasters Or Nuclear Waste; via A Green Road Blog
What Happens To Nuclear Waste In Your Country? via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-happens-to-nuclear-waste-in-your.html 
Huge Number Of Radiation Contaminated Sites In Just ONE State; via A Green Road Blog
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
Nuclear Plants And Radioactive Water Contamination; via A Green Road Blog
Nuclear Spent Fuel/Radioactive Waste Storage; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radioactive-nuclear-spent-fuel-storage.html 
List Of Countries/Nations Closing Down ALL Nuclear Power Plants; via A Green Road Blog
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
POETRY AND MUSIC
Anti-Nuclear Music/Songs; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/anti-nuclear-music-and-songs-around.html

Anti-Nuclear Poetry; via A Green Road Blog  
FRYING DUTCHMAN humanERROR Anti Nuclear Musical performance; via A Green Road Blog
Fukishima 15 Year Old Speech-Song
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS/ISOTOPES/ETC
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road Blog   
Alpha Radiation Dangers; Polonium, Radon, Radium, Plutonium, Uranium….
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-radiation-dangers-polonium-radon.html
How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/how-dangerous-is-400-600-pounds-of.html
Radon Dangers; Hormesis Explored; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/radon-dangers-and-hormesis.html 
Radium Girls & Radium Dials; Ottowa Illinois, Death City
How Cesium And Strontium 90 Kills Children (German w English CC) via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/german-how-cesium-and-strontium-90.html 
Depleted Uranium Effects In The Human Body; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/depleted-uranium-effects-in-human-body.html 
75% US Nuclear Plants Leaking Toxic Tritium Radiation Into Drinking Water Supply; via A Green Road Blog
Uranium Mining Legacy; Toxic Waste For 1,000,000 Years; via A Green Road Blog  
CORPORATIONS
The Art of Deception: The Cult of Nuclearists, Uranium Weapons and Fraudulent Science; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/primer-in-art-of-deception-cult-of.html 
TEPCO Loses Insurance Coverage; Japanese Nuclear Plants; Via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tepco-loses-insurance-coverage-for-all.html
How Corporations Control Governments, Media, Politicians; Confessions Of An Economic Hit Man; via A Green Road Blog
ALEC Exposed; How Corporations Buy, Corrupt, And Control The Federal And State Governments; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/alec-exposed-how-corporations-buy.html
The Psychopathy Of Corporations; “I Am Fishhead”
Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism; via A Green Road Blog
How Do Corporations Dominate Elections With Money In the US? via a Green Road Blog
Classified, Top Secret, Classified, Top Secret; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/classified-top-secret-classified-top.html
Mother Beats Monsanto in Court; Indian Farmers Committing Suicide By Drinking Product; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mother-beats-monsanto-in-court-proves.html
How To Identify GMO Foods; Found Even At Health Food Stores; via A Green Road Blog
WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS MUST BE SHUT DOWN
Dr. Helen Caldicott MD On Nuclear Weapons, MAD/Nuclear Armageddon; via A Green Road Blog
On 3/11; 15 Nuclear Reactors In Japan Were Damaged, Not 3 or 4
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/14-nuclear-reactors-at-4-japan-sites.html
Atucha Nuclear Reactor Taken Over By Terrorists; via A Green Road Blog
Fukushima Reactor 4;  Global Life Extinction Event If It Collapses; via A Green Road Blog
12 reasons why all nuclear power plants must be shut down; via A Green Road Blog   http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/12-reasons-why-all-nuclear-power-plants.html
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth In 2013 ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via A Green Road Blog
EMP; Electromagnetic Pulse Effect And High Altitude Nuclear Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
Japan Plans To Evacuate 40 Million Citizens; Russia Shocked; via A Green Road
Multiple Nuclear Reactors Bombed; All Nuclear Reactors ARE Bombs; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/multiple-nuclear-reactors-bombed-all.html
CIA Remote Viewers Predict Solar “Kill Shot” Coming To Earth Soon; via A Green Road Blog
American Indian Prophecy, Living As Soul on Earth; via A Green Road Blog
How To Live in a Public Or Private Nuclear Radiation Fallout Shelter; via A Green Road Blog

The Drugging Of Our Children – Dr Gary Null PhD

“In the absence of any objective medical tests to determine who has ADD or ADHD, doctors rely in part on standardized assessments and the impressions of teachers and guardians while they administer leave little room for other causes or aggravating factors, such as diet, or environment.


Hence, diagnosing a child or adolescent with ADD or ADHD is often the outcome, although no organic basis for either disease has yet to be clinically proven. Psychiatrists may then prescribe psychotropic drugs for the children without first without making it clear to parents that these medications can have severe side-effects including insomnia, loss of appetite, headaches, psychotic symptoms and even potentially fatal adverse reactions, such as cardiac arrhythmia. 


And yet, despite these dangers, many school systems actually work with government agencies to force parents to drug their children, threatening those who refuse with the prospect of having their children taken from the home unless they cooperate.”
http://www.autismmadeintheusa.com | http://www.wanttoknow.info
Source: Video description

The Drugging Of Our Children – Dr Gary Null PhD; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/drugging-of-our-children-dr-gary-null.html

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The following links can be saved on your computer and used to ‘debate’ even the experts. Just copy and paste the following links into the comments sections below articles online.

A Green Road Bloghttp://agreenroadblog.com
A Green Road Website – http://www.agreenroad.com
A Green Road Twitter Micro Blog – http://www.twitter.com/agreenroad
A Green Road Discussion Group – http://www.care2.com/c2c/group/agreenroad
IGoogle Gadget: Tryout the A Green Road Blog -gadget on your iGoogle homepage »
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Using the links below will make you the ‘expert’. Feel free to copy and use.
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DRUGS – MEDICINE
Sicko; Michael Moore Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/sicko-michael-moore.html
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
Robert Kennedy Jr. Explains Dangers Of Vaccines; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Russell Blaylock MD Discusses Vaccine Dangers; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/dr-russell-blaylock-md-discusses.html
Dr. Maurice Hilleman Admits Vaccines Contaminated; Viral Cancer, Leukemia, AIDS, Etc
Dr. Viera Scheibner PhD – Vaccination, The Hidden Truth; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Rebecca Carley MD; Now Holistic Practicioner, Due To Vaccine Dangers; via A Green Road Blog

Dr. Rebecca Carley MD, Now Holistic Practicioner, Due To Vaccine Dangers

Dr. Rebecca Carley MD reports that ADVERSE REACTIONS to immunizations are more common than many people realize.



Dr. Rebecca (Roczen) Carley received her Bachelor’s degree in Diagnostic Ultrasound, attended medical school (and received the Samuel L. Kountz award for clinical excellence in surgery at graduation), and trained to be a general surgeon at State University of New York at Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn.


Dr. Carley also worked as an attending Emergency Room physician at Kings County Medical Center in Brooklyn (which is the primary training affiliate for Downstate students), and is the largest hospital (and busiest trauma center) in the United States.


Dr. Carley left the practice of General Surgery and “allopathic” medicine after realizing that no one was actually being healed of their diseases, and she started researching “alternative” medicine while taking time off to start a family.


After Dr. Carley’s only child was brain damaged as a result of inoculations he received, Dr. Carley learned how to reverse the damage with homeopathy and other natural supplements, and subsequently realized that inoculations of disease are causing the corruption in the immune system which leads to all autoimmune diseases and cancer. 

Dr. Carley has developed the Hippocrates Protocol which has successfully reversed all autoimmune diseases (including autism) and cancer in over 2,000 clients (including pets) over the past 9 years.

She has written the definitive paper explaining the mechanism whereby inoculations with disease are causing VIDS (Vaccine Induced Diseases), which has been featured in multiple publications all over the world and is available under the title “Inoculations: the True Weapons of Mass Destruction” on her website at http://www.drcarley.com. 

She has offered a $10,000 reward for any vaccine promoter to come on her internet radio show and refute the documents she has authored. No one has stepped forward to do so. Dr. Carley has been qualified in court as an expert witness in VIDS, Legal Abuse Syndrome, Vaccinology, and child abuse.
Dr. Carley no longer “practices medicine”, but instead teaches clients nationally and internationally how to reverse their diseases using the Hippocrates protocol she developed. She also goes into the hospital as a patient advocate for clients who are not satisfied with the care their loved ones are receiving.
Besides being a guest on over 200 radio and television shows, for over 9 years Dr. Carley had her own weekly public access television show in Long Island, followed by a weekly internet radio show now on http://www.bbsradio.com (Station 2) on Thursdays at 8:30 PM EST and on http://www.republicbroadcasting.org on Wednesdays at 12 noon EST, all entitled “What’s Ailing America” (archives are also available for both internet shows). 
Dr. Carley is also available to give talks to interested groups to teach what she has learned about vaccine induced diseases, and how they can be reversed; and has developed a course through the “Hippocrates Academy” where interested students can learn and be certified how to do the Hippocrates Protocol developed by Dr. Carley, which reverses all autoimmune diseases and cancer in people and in pets using natural therapies.


Please visit her website: http://www.drcarley.com/

Dr. Rebecca Carley MD; Now Holistic Practicioner, Due To Vaccine Dangers; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/dr-rebecca-carley-md-now-holistic.html

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Share the blog post title and link above, (or the links below) by copying and pasting it into email, Facebook and Twitter. Or click on the share buttons below. Thanks for doing your part. Keep shining your light and sharing this information with friends, co-workers, politicians, doctors, professors, and other leaders! As the Dalai Lama says; “Never give up, never.” 

The following links can be saved on your computer and used to ‘debate’ even the experts. Just copy and paste the following links into the comments sections below articles online.

A Green Road Bloghttp://agreenroadblog.com
A Green Road Website – http://www.agreenroad.com
A Green Road Twitter Micro Blog – http://www.twitter.com/agreenroad
A Green Road Discussion Group – http://www.care2.com/c2c/group/agreenroad
IGoogle Gadget: Tryout the A Green Road Blog -gadget on your iGoogle homepage »
AGR RSS NewsFeed (for your website) http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/feeds/posts/default
FeedBurner makes it easy to receive content updates in My Yahoo!, Newsgator, Bloglines, and other news readers. Click on link above to learn more.
Using the links below will make you the ‘expert’. Feel free to copy and use.
.………………………………………………………………………………


DRUGS – MEDICINE
Sicko; Michael Moore Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/sicko-michael-moore.html
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
Robert Kennedy Jr. Explains Dangers Of Vaccines; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Russell Blaylock MD Discusses Vaccine Dangers; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/dr-russell-blaylock-md-discusses.html
Dr. Maurice Hilleman Admits Vaccines Contaminated; Viral Cancer, Leukemia, AIDS, Etc
Dr. Viera Scheibner PhD – Vaccination, The Hidden Truth; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Rebecca Carley MD; Now Holistic Practicioner, Due To Vaccine Dangers; via A Green Road Blog

Dr. Viera Scheibner PhD – Vaccination, The Hidden Truth

In this extremely informative movie, fifteen people, including Dr. Viera Scheibner (a PhD researcher), five medical doctors, other researchers, reveal what is really going on in relation to illness and vaccines. Ironically, the important facts come from the orthodox medicine’s own peer-reviewed research.



With so much government and medical promotion of vaccination for prevention of disease, the video is clearly devoted to presenting the other side of the issue that parents and others are not being told. The result is a damning account of the ineffectiveness of vaccines and their often harmful effects. 
It declares that parents are not being told the truth by the media, the Health Department and the medical establishment, with a medical doctor, Dr. Mark Donohoe, confessing that “It is a problem for me that I am part of a profession that is systematically lying to people…”
The video presents well documented answers to questions like: Was it really vaccines that saved us? Why are they only counterproductive? How are many statistics misleading? What do vaccines contain? What are they doing to our organs, immune systems, even our genes? 
Are childhood diseases really dangerous to healthy children? Why does vaccination continue? What are our rights? Can vaccine damage be evaluated and countered? What is the true key to immunity? 
The video raises the fundamental question of whether we should be trying to prevent childhood diseases anyway, in that they contribute to the development of a healthy immune system. If what the video says is true, why is vaccination pushed so heavily by the government authorities?
In the video, Dr. Viera Scheibner, who has studied almost 100,000 pages of orthodox medical research on vaccination, warns:
“It took almost three years of research before we looked at each other and said ‘Vaccines are killing babies’… It is a well documented fact that the incidence and mortality from infectious diseases fell by 90% well before any vaccine was even introduced.”
And this from Dr. Archie Kalokerinos, author of the book “Every Second Child”:
“So it was obvious that I, and every other doctor for that matter, had been grossly misled… It was clearly shown that the only people who got smallpox twice were the vaccinated.”
If you are in the frustrating position of wanting to inform your spouse, friends and/or relatives about vaccination, but they won’t read appropriate literature, then this video is ideal. It is clear and logical and an eye-opener. Every doctor should see and respond to it.
~New Dawn magazine review, by Mary Ellen Wheeler
Source; Video description. 
The average amount of mercury found in vaccines in the year 2000 was 187 micrograms, per dose.
“Based on information from vaccine manufacturers provided to the FDA, the lots of vaccine manufactured before this time that contained thimerosal as a preservative and had been released to the market had expiration dates in 2002 (FDA, 2004). 
Based on these changes, the maximum amount of mercury from vaccines on the recommended childhood immunization schedule that an infant (less than 6 months of age) can now be exposed to is less than 3 μg, down from 187.5 μg in 1999 (FDA, 2001, 2004).” http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10997&page=5

The estimated rate of autism for babies born in the year 2000 is one in 88. 
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html

Over 90 million doses of flu vaccine were injected into children, pregnant mothers, and more in the year 2012. Each dose of these vaccines contained approximately 25 micrograms of mercury. 
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/vaxsupply.htm

Dr. Viera Scheibner PhD – Vaccination, The Hidden Truth; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/dr-viera-scheibner-phd-vaccination.html


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DRUGS – MEDICINE
Sicko; Michael Moore Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/sicko-michael-moore.html
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
Robert Kennedy Jr. Explains Dangers Of Vaccines; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Russell Blaylock MD Discusses Vaccine Dangers; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/dr-russell-blaylock-md-discusses.html
Dr. Maurice Hilleman Admits Vaccines Contaminated; Viral Cancer, Leukemia, AIDS, Etc
Dr. Viera Scheibner PhD – Vaccination, The Hidden Truth; via A Green Road Blog

Dr. Maurice Hilleman Admits Vaccines Contaminated; Viral Cancer, Leukemia, AIDS, Etc

In this video interview Dr. Maurice Hilleman reveals some astounding revelations. He admits that Merck drug company vaccines (Polio) had been deliberately contaminated with SV40, a cancer-causing monkey virus from 1953 – 63. 

For years, researchers suggested that millions of vials of polio vaccine, contaminated with SV40, infected individuals which caused human tumors, and by 1999, molecular evidence of SV40 infections were showing up in children born after 1982. Some experts now suggest the virus may have remained in the polio vaccine until as late as 1999. 

In 2002, the journal Lancet published compelling evidence that contaminated polio vaccine was responsible for up to half of the 55,000 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases that were occurring each year. And there is the likelihood that there was an importing and spreading of the AIDS virus in the same manner, as revealed in the video.

At first no one could fathom how the virus had been transmitted into the human population, but this shocking video proves that it was deliberately added to the vaccine by Dr. Maurice Hilleman, which was “good science” at that time.

Just Who is Dr. Maurice Hilleman?

Now, for those of you who may think Dr. Hilleman was just another crackpot (he passed away in 2005), think again. He was, and still is, the leading vaccine pioneer in the history of vaccines. He developed more than three dozen vaccines—more than any other scientist in history—and was the developer of Merck’s vaccine program. 

He was a member of the U.S. National Academy of Science, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society, and received a special lifetime achievement award from the World Health Organization. 

When he was chief of the Department of Respiratory Diseases with what’s now the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, he discovered the genetic changes that occur when the influenza virus mutates, known as shift and drift. 

He was also one of the early vaccine pioneers to warn about the possibility that simian viruses might contaminate vaccines. So Dr. Hilleman knew what he was talking about. Source: Video description above.

According to Wikipedia; “SV40 is an abbreviation for Simian vacuolating virus 40 or Simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. Like other polyomaviruses, SV40 is a DNA virus that has the potential to causetumors, but most often persists as a latent infection.


SV40 became a highly controversial subject after it was revealed that millions were exposed to the virus after receiving a contaminated polio vaccine.[1]

History

The virus was first identified in 1960 in cultures of rhesus monkey kidney cells that were being used to produce polio vaccine. It was named for the effect it produced on infected green monkey cells, which developed an unusual number of vacuoles


The complete viral genome was sequenced by Walter Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent (Belgium) in 1978.[2] The virus is dormant and is asymptomatic in Rhesus monkeys. The virus has been found in many macaque populations in the wild, where it rarely causes disease. 


However, in monkeys that are immunodeficient—due to, for example, infection with Simian immunodeficiency virus—SV40 acts much like the human JC and BK polyomaviruses, producing kidney disease and sometimes a demyelinating disease similar to PML.

In other species, particularly hamsters, SV40 causes a variety of tumors, generally sarcomas. In rats, the oncogenic SV40 Large T-antigen was used to establish a brain tumor model for PNETs and medulloblastomas.[3]
The molecular mechanisms by which the virus reproduces and alters cell function were previously unknown, and research into SV40 vastly increased biologists’ understanding of gene expression and the regulation of cell growth.
[edit]Virology
SV40 consists of an unenveloped icosahedral virion with a closed circular dsDNA genome of 5kb. The virion adheres to cell surface receptors of MHC class 1 by the virion glycoprotein VP1. Penetration into the cell is through a caveolin vesicle. Inside the cell nucleus, the cellular RNA polymerase II acts to promote early gene expression. This results in an mRNA that is spliced into two segments.

The small and large T antigens result from this. The large T antigen has two functions: 5% will go to the plasma membrane of the cell and 95% will return to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus the large T antigen binds three viral DNA sites, I, II, and III. Binding of sites I, and II autoregulates early RNA synthesis. Binding to site II takes place in each cell cycle. Binding site I initiates DNA replication at the origin of replication.

Early transcription gives two spliced RNAs that are both 19s. Late transcription gives both a longer 16s, which synthesizes the major viral capsid protein VP1; and the smaller 19s, which gives VP2, and VP3 through leaky scanning. All of the proteins, besides the 5% of large T, return to the nucleus because assembly of the viral particle happens in the nucleus. Eventual release of the viral particles is cytolytic and results in cell death.

Transcription
The early promoter for SV40 contains three elements. The TATA box is located approximately 20 base-pairs upstream from the transcriptional start site. The 21 base-pair repeats contain six GC boxes and are the site that determines the direction of transcription.

Also, the 72 base-pair repeats are transcriptional enhancers. When the SP1 protein interacts with the 21 bp repeats it binds either the first or the last three GC boxes. Binding of the first three initiates early expression and binding of the last three initiates late expression. The function of the 72 bp repeats is to enhance the amount of stable RNA and increase the rate of synthesis. This is done by binding (dimerization) with the AP1 (activator protein 1) to give a primary transcript that is 3′ polyadenylated and 5′ capped.

Theorized role in human disease
The hypothesis that SV40 might cause cancer in humans has been a particularly controversial area of research.[4] Several different methods have been used to detect SV40 in a variety of human cancers, although how reliable these detection methods are, and whether SV40 has any role in causing these tumors, remains unclear.[5]

As a result of these uncertainties, academic opinion remains divided, with some arguing that this hypothesis is not supported by the data,[6] and others arguing that some cancers may involve SV40.[7][8]

However, the United States National Cancer Institute announced in 2004 that although SV40 does cause cancer in some animal models, “substantial epidemiological evidence has accumulated to indicate that SV40 likely does not cause cancer in humans”.[9] This announcement is based on two recent studies.[10][11]

Damage and carcinogenicity
SV40 is believed to suppress the transcriptional properties of the tumor-suppressing p53 in humans through the SV40 Large T-antigen and SV40 Small T-antigen. p53 is responsible for initiating regulated cell death (“apoptosis“), or cell cycle arrest when a cell is damaged. A mutated p53 gene may contribute to uncontrolled cellular proliferation, leading to a tumor.
SV40 may act as a co-carcinogen with crocidolite asbestos to cause both Peritoneal and Pleural Mesothelioma [12] (review [13]).
When SV40 infects nonpermissive cells, such as 3T3 mouse cells, the dsDNA of SV40 becomes covalently integrated. In nonpermissive cells only the early gene expression occurs and this leads to transformation, or oncogenesis. The nonpermissive host needs the Large T-antigen and the Small t-antigen in order to function. The Small T-antigen interacts with and integrates with the cellular phosphatase pp2A. This causes the cell to lose the ability to initiate transcription.

Polio vaccine contamination
Soon after its discovery, SV40 was identified in the injected form of the polio vaccine produced between 1955 and 1961. This is believed to be due to kidney cells from infected monkeys having been used to grow the vaccine virus during production.

Both the Sabin vaccine (oral, live virus) and the Salk vaccine (injectable, killed virus) were affected; the technique used to inactivate the polio virus in the Salk vaccine, by means of formaldehyde, did not reliably kill SV40.

It was difficult to detect small quantities of virus until the advent of PCR; since then, stored samples of vaccine made after 1962 have tested negative for SV40, but no samples prior to 1962 could initially be found. Then, in 1997, Herbert Ratner of Oak Park, Illinois, gave some vials of 1955 Salk vaccine to researcher Michele Carbone.

Dr. Ratner, the Health Commissioner of Oak Park at the time the Salk vaccine was introduced, had kept these vials of vaccine in a refrigerator for over forty years.,[14][15] Upon testing this vaccine, Dr. Carbone discovered that it contained not only the SV40 strain already known to have been in the Salk vaccine (containing two 72-bp enhancers) but also the same slow-growing SV40 strain currently being found in some malignant tumors and lymphomas (containing one 72-bp enhancers).[16]

It is unknown how widespread the virus was among humans before the 1950s, though one study found that 12% of a sample of German medical students in 1952 had SV40 antibodies. Although horizontal transmission between people has been proposed,[17] it is not clear if this actually happens and if it does, how frequently it occurs.

An analysis presented at the Vaccine Cell Substrate Conference in 2004[18] suggested that vaccines used in the former Soviet bloc countries, China, Japan, and Africa, could have been contaminated up to 1980, meaning that hundreds of millions more could have been exposed to the virus unknowingly.

Treatment in the popular press
Claims have been made detailing the controversy surrounding SV40 research.[19][20][21] One book by a pair of investigative journalists contains statements indicating that researchers were penalized for reporting the findings of a potential cause and effect relationship between the early polio vaccine, SV40 and cancer.[22]The book further alleges falsification of research due to financial conflicts of interest.[23]




In the short 2 minute video above, the author reports that Polio vaccines are STILL contaminated with these SV40 cancer causing viruses. The consequence will be HUGE. We will continue to see growing cancer rates in the future. The FDA is NOT protecting you or your children. Sorry…



Dr. Maurice Hilleman Admits Vaccines Contaminated; Viral Cancer, Leukemia, AIDS, Etc
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/dr-maurice-hilleman-admits-vaccines.html

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DRUGS – MEDICINE
Sicko; Michael Moore Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/sicko-michael-moore.html
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
Robert Kennedy Jr. Explains Dangers Of Vaccines; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Russell Blaylock MD Discusses Vaccine Dangers; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/dr-russell-blaylock-md-discusses.html
Dr. Maurice Hilleman Admits Vaccines Contaminated; Viral Cancer, Leukemia, AIDS, Etc

Dr. Russell Blaylock MD Discusses Vaccine Dangers

Dr. Russell Blaylock MD is a neurologist and a brain surgeon. In the following video, he discusses the dangers of vaccines, and why they are so toxic to the human body, in the following video. He says that physicians do not research the scientific and medical literature, and know almost nothing about neuroscience, as Dr. Blaylock MD is.

Yet, medical doctors somehow claim that all vaccines are safe, and cannot possibly cause harm. Doctors also used to say smoking was safe and had no negative effect on health. Doctors used to say that MSG caused no health effects, and did not cross the brain blood barrier, but now research has shown the opposite to be true. MSG can cause migraines and other effects, and MSG DOES cross the brain/blood barrier. 

The number of vaccines has increased exponentially in the last 30 years, from several to hundreds. A typical person can receive HUNDREDS of vaccinations during a typical lifetime. 

Vaccines have been linked conclusively to diabetes, asthma, neurogical diseases, and more. Where vaccines have been outlawed, diabetes rates have plummeted dramatically. 

The problem is that these vaccine companies donate to all medical schools. They wine and dine residents and interns. They advertise on all of the media. There is no way to get the danger message out due to the overwhelming influence (of the Big Pharma monopoly.)

Virtually every vaccine is contaminated, and those can cause neurological pathogens, which can be passed on to your offspring. 

To grow these vaccines, you have to use living tissue. they started with monkey tissue, but now use a wide variety of other living tissues. Contaminations range from 30-60% of all vaccines.

Kidney cells are contamined with THOUSANDS of viruses, and unless you are looking for them, you will not find them. 


A recent discovery is a stealth virus, which cannot be detected without special tests. Stealth viruses can cause Cancer, decades after the vaccine is taken. There are conferences about this all the time, but they are closed and no information is discussed in the media. 

DNA fragments from vaccines can insert themselves into your genes, which can be passed on to your children. If you inject a micoplasma as a contaminant of a vaccine, it can cause infections and cancers. 

More Information;

“Vaccine may be more dangerous than swine flu” (Dr. Russell Blaylock, Newsmax magazine)
http://www.newsmax.com/health/vaccine_swine_flu/2009/07/07/232717.html

“Gulf War toxins found in swine flu vaccine” (Daily Express)
http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/122228

“Does virus vaccine increase the risk of cancer?” (BILD)
http://www.bild.de/BILD/news/bild-english/world-news/2009/08/07/swine-flu-hea…

“Infectious disease risk in swine flu jabs” (The Age, Australia)
http://www.theage.com.au/national/infectious-disease-risk-in-swine-flu-jabs-2…

“Nano Particles used in untested H1N1 swine flu vaccine” (Global Research)
http://www.infowars.com/nano-particles-used-in-untested-h1n1-swine-flu-vaccines/

Very complete essay on vaccine adjuvants (squalene, aluminum ), with references

http://www.whale.to/vaccine/west_edda.html

“Fast-tracked swine flu vaccine under fire” (Institute of Science in Society)
http://www.i-sis.org.uk/fastTrackSwineFluVaccineUnderFire.php

“Vaccinations: Deadly Immunity” (RFK article on mercury-induced autism and brain damage)
http://www.infowars.com/vaccinations-deadly-immunity/

http://www.russellblaylockmd.com/

Dr. Russell Blaylock MD Discusses Vaccine Dangers; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/dr-russell-blaylock-md-discusses.html

  
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The following links can be saved on your computer and used to ‘debate’ even the experts. Just copy and paste the following links into the comments sections below articles online.

A Green Road Bloghttp://agreenroadblog.com
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Using the links below will make you the ‘expert’. Feel free to copy and use.
.………………………………………………………………………………
DRUGS – MEDICINE
Sicko; Michael Moore Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/sicko-michael-moore.html
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
Robert Kennedy Jr. Explains Dangers Of Vaccines; via A Green Road Blog
Dr. Russell Blaylock MD Discusses Vaccine Dangers; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/dr-russell-blaylock-md-discusses.html
GMO FOODS – ORGANISMS
Medical Insanity: Frankenfoods, BPA, Drugs, GMO’s? via A Green Road Blog
GMO alert: top 10 genetically modified foods to avoid eating; via A Green Road Blog
Mother Beats Monsanto in Court; Indian Farmers Committing Suicide By Drinking Product; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mother-beats-monsanto-in-court-proves.html
How To Identify GMO Foods; Found Even At Health Food Stores; via A Green Road Blog
What Monsanto Doesn’t Want You To Know -The Genetic Conspiracy; via A Green Road Blog


Robert Kennedy Jr. Explains Dangers Of Vaccines

In the following video, Robert Kennedy Jr. illustrates how the coverup of vaccine dangers happened, and why it continues today. He explains that today, one in 166 kids have autism related issues, and 1 in 6 kids have others issues that may be linked to vaccines, such as hyperactivity, ADD, and other neurological problems. As Robert explains, when mass vaccines were started, kids started having problems in massive numbers. 

“In June 2000, a group of top government scientists and health officials gathered for a meeting at the isolated Simpsonwood conference center in Norcross, Georgia. Convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the meeting was held at this Methodist retreat center, nestled in wooded farmland next to the Chattahoochee River, to ensure complete secrecy. The agency had issued no public announcement of the session — only private invitations to fifty-two attendees. 


There were high-level officials from the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration, the top vaccine specialist from the World Health Organization in Geneva and representatives of every major vaccine manufacturer, including GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Wyeth and Aventis Pasteur. All of the scientific data under discussion, CDC officials repeatedly reminded the participants, was strictly “embargoed.” There would be no making photocopies of documents, no taking papers with them when they left.

The federal officials and industry representatives had assembled to discuss a disturbing new study that raised alarming questions about the safety of a host of common childhood vaccines administered to infants and young children. 
According to a CDC epidemiologist named Tom Verstraeten, who had analyzed the agency’s massive database containing the medical records of 100,000 children, a mercury-based preservative in the vaccines — thimerosal — appeared to be responsible for a dramatic increase in autism and a host of other neurological disorders among children. 

“I was actually stunned by what I saw,” Verstraeten told those assembled at Simpsonwood, citing the staggering number of earlier studies that indicate a link between thimerosal and speech delays, attention-deficit disorder, hyperactivity and autism.

Since 1991, when the CDC and the FDA had recommended that three additional vaccines laced with the preservative be given to extremely young infants — in one case, within hours of birth — the estimated number of cases of autism had increased fifteenfold, from one in every 2,500 children to one in 166 children.

Here is some shocking testimony from parents and kids affected by vaccines…

THE TRUTH BEHIND THE VACCINE COVER-UP

http://vaers.hhs.gov/index

http://www.hrsa.gov/vaccinecompensation/

http://www.ageofautism.com/

http://www.generationrescue.org/

http://vactruth.com/

http://www.fluscam.com/

http://www.medicalvoices.org/

http://www.whale.to/vaccines.html

http://www.goodnewsaboutgod.com/studies/medical/swine_flu.htm

http://www.safeminds.org/

http://www.putchildrenfirst.org/index2.html

http://drtenpenny.com/default.aspx

http://www.nccn.net/~wwithin/flu.htm

THE GOVERNMENT AND VACCINE MANUFACTURES KNOW VACCINES ARE CAUSING DAMAGE TO THOUSANDS.
Vaccine Exemption Information
Source of above; video post explanation. 
Speaking of dangerous science, a “bombshell” vaccine study has revealed what we knew all along: When monkeys are given the same vaccines that human babies are routinely given, they develop symptoms of autism!

BREAKING: BMJ caught in highly politicized scientific fraud – Dr Wakefield demands retraction from BMJ.  http://www.naturalnews.com/031117_BMJ_Dr_Andrew_Wakefield.html

Robert Kennedy Jr. Explains Dangers Of Vaccines; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/robert-kennedy-jr-explains-dangers-of.html

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Share the blog post title and link above, (or the links below) by copying and pasting it into email, Facebook and Twitter. Or click on the share buttons below. Thanks for doing your part. Keep shining your light and sharing this information with friends, co-workers, politicians, doctors, professors, and other leaders! As the Dalai Lama says; “Never give up, never.” 

The following links can be saved on your computer and used to ‘debate’ even the experts. Just copy and paste the following links into the comments sections below articles online.

A Green Road Bloghttp://agreenroadblog.com
A Green Road Website – http://www.agreenroad.com
A Green Road Twitter Micro Blog – http://www.twitter.com/agreenroad
A Green Road Discussion Group – http://www.care2.com/c2c/group/agreenroad
IGoogle Gadget: Tryout the A Green Road Blog -gadget on your iGoogle homepage »
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FeedBurner makes it easy to receive content updates in My Yahoo!, Newsgator, Bloglines, and other news readers. Click on link above to learn more.
Using the links below will make you the ‘expert’. Feel free to copy and use.
.………………………………………………………………………………


GMO FOODS – ORGANISMS


Medical Insanity: Frankenfoods, BPA, Drugs, GMO’s? via A Green Road Blog
GMO alert: top 10 genetically modified foods to avoid eating; via A Green Road Blog
Mother Beats Monsanto in Court; Indian Farmers Committing Suicide By Drinking Product; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mother-beats-monsanto-in-court-proves.html
How To Identify GMO Foods; Found Even At Health Food Stores; via A Green Road Blog
What Monsanto Doesn’t Want You To Know -The Genetic Conspiracy; via A Green Road Blog
DRUGS – MEDICINE
Sicko; Michael Moore Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/sicko-michael-moore.html
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
Robert Kennedy Jr. Explains Dangers Of Vaccines; via A Green Road Blog
HOLISTIC LIVING AND NATURAL HEALTH MODALIES
7 medicinal herbs and spices that help lower blood pressure; via A Green Road
All about berries and ginger; healing foods and herbs; via A Green Road Blog
The top 5 foods to avoid if you have gluten intolerance and wheat allergies. via A Green Road Blog 
12 surprising reasons to eat more blueberries via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2010/08/12-surprising-reasons-to-eat-more.html
Natural Green Living And Health News; Kidneys, Honey, Vaccines, Permaculture, Water, Homeopathics
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/germany-world-leader-in-solar-wind-and.html 

  

Supersize Me; Morgan Spurlock

According to Wiki; Super Size Me is a 2004 American documentary film directed by and starring Morgan Spurlock, an American independent filmmaker. Spurlock’s film follows a 30-day period from February 1 to March 2, 2003 during which he ate onlyMcDonald’s food. The film documents this lifestyle’s drastic effect on Spurlock’s physical and psychological well-being, and explores the fast food industry’s corporate influence, including how it encourages poor nutrition for its own profit.
Spurlock dined at McDonald’s restaurants three times per day, eating every item on the chain’s menu at least once. Spurlock consumed an average of 20.92 megajoules or 5,000kcal (the equivalent of 9.26 Big Macs) per day during the experiment.
As a result, the then-32-year-old Spurlock gained 24½ lbs. (11.1 kg), a 13% body mass increase, a cholesterol level of 230, and experienced mood swingssexual dysfunction, and fat accumulation in his liver. It took Spurlock fourteen months to lose the weight gained from his experiment using a vegandiet supervised by his future wife, a chef who specializes in gourmet vegan dishes.
The reason for Spurlock’s investigation was the increasing spread of obesity throughout U.S. society, which the Surgeon General has declared “epidemic,” and the correspondinglawsuit brought against McDonald’s on behalf of two overweight girls, who, it was alleged, became obese as a result of eating McDonald’s food [Pelman v. McDonald’s Corp., 237 F. Supp. 2d 512].[3] Spurlock points out that although the lawsuit against McDonald’s failed (and subsequently many state legislatures have legislated against product liability actions against producers and distributors of “fast food”), much of the same criticism leveled against thetobacco companies applies to fast food franchises whose product is both physiologically addictive and physically harmful.[4][5]
The documentary was nominated for an Academy Award for Documentary Feature.[6]
A comic book related to the movie has been made with Dark Horse as the publisher. It contains stories about various cases of fast food health scares.[7]

Content

As the film begins, Spurlock is in physically above average shape according to his personal trainer. He is seen by three doctors (a cardiologist, a gastroenterologist, and a general practitioner), as well as anutritionist and a personal trainer. All of the health professionals predict the “McDiet” will have unwelcome effects on his body, but none expected anything too drastic, one citing the human body as being “extremely adaptable.” Prior to the experiment, Spurlock ate a varied diet but always had vegan evening meals to appease his then-girlfriend (now ex-wife), Alexandra, a vegan chef. At the beginning of the experiment, Spurlock, who stood 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm) tall, had a body weight of 185.5 lbs (84 kg).

[edit]Experiment

Spurlock has specific rules governing his eating habits:
  • He must fully eat three McDonald’s meals per day: breakfastlunch, and dinner.
  • He must consume every item on the McDonald’s menu at least once over the course of the 30 days (he managed this in nine days).
  • He must only ingest items that are offered on the McDonald’s menu, including bottled water. All outside consumption of food is prohibited.
  • He must Super Size the meal when offered, but only when offered (i.e., he is not able to Super Size by his own accord).
  • He will attempt to walk about as much as a typical U.S citizen, based on a suggested figure of 5,000 standardized distance steps per day,[8] but he did not closely adhere to this, as he walked more while in New York than Houston.
On February 1, Spurlock starts the month with breakfast near his home in Manhattan, where there is an average of four McDonald’s locations (and 66,950 residents, with twice as many commuters) per square mile (2.6 km²). He aims to keep the distances he walks in line with the 5,000 steps (approximately two miles) walked per day by the average American.
Day 2 brings Spurlock’s first (of nine) Super Size meal, at the McDonald’s on 34th Street and Tenth Avenue, which happens to be a meal made of a Double Quarter Pounder with Cheese, Super Size French fries, and a 42 ounce Coke, which takes 22 minutes to eat. He experiences steadily increasing stomach discomfort during the process, and promptly vomits in the McDonald’s parking lot.
After five days Spurlock has gained 9.5 pounds (4.5 kg) (from 185.5 to about 195 pounds). It is not long before he finds himself experiencing depression, and he claims that his bouts of depression, lethargy, andheadaches could be relieved by eating a McDonald’s meal. His general practitioner describes him as being “addicted”. At his second weigh-in, he had gained another 8 pounds (3.5 kg), putting his weight at 203.5 lb (92 kg). By the end of the month he weighs about 210 pounds (95.5 kg), an increase of about 24.5 pounds (about 11 kg). Because he could only eat McDonald’s food for a month, Spurlock refused to take any medication at all. At one weigh-in Morgan lost 1 lb. from the previous weigh-in, and a nutritionist hypothesized that he had lost muscle mass, which weighs more than an identical volume of fat. At another weigh-in, a nutritionist said that he gained 17 pounds (8.5 kg) in 12 days.
Spurlock’s girlfriend, Alexandra Jamieson, attests to the fact that Spurlock lost much of his energy and sex drive during his experiment. It was not clear at the time whether or not Spurlock would be able to complete the full month of the high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, and family and friends began to express concern.
On Day 21, Spurlock has heart palpitations. His internist, Dr. Daryl Isaacs, advises him to stop what he is doing immediately to avoid any serious health problems. He compares Spurlock with the protagonist played by Nicolas Cage in the movie Leaving Las Vegas, who intentionally drinks himself to death in a matter of weeks. Despite this warning, Spurlock decides to continue the experiment.
On March 2, Spurlock makes it to day 30 and achieves his goal. In thirty days, he “Supersized” his meals nine times along the way (five of which were in Texas, three in New York City). His doctors are surprised at the degree of deterioration in Spurlock’s health. He notes that he has eaten as many McDonald’s meals as most nutritionists say the ordinary person should eat in 8 years (he ate 90 meals, which is close to the amount of meals consumed once a month in an 8-year period).

[edit]Findings

An end text states that it took Spurlock 5 months to lose 20.1 pounds (9 kg) and another 9 months to lose the last 4.5 pounds (2 kg). His girlfriend Alexandra, now his wife, began supervising his recovery with her “detox diet,” which became the basis for her book, The Great American Detox Diet.[9]
The movie ends with a rhetorical question, “Who do you want to see go first, you or them?” This is accompanied by a cartoon tombstone, which reads “Ronald McDonald (1954-2012)”, which originally appeared in The Economist in an article addressing the ethics of marketing to children.[10]
A short epilogue was added to the film. Although it showed that the salads can contain even more calories than burgers, if the customer adds liberal amounts of cheese and dressing prior to consumption, it also described McDonald’s discontinuation of the Super Size option six weeks after the movie’s premiere, as well as its recent emphasis on healthier menu items such as salads, and the release of the new adult Happy Meal. However, McDonald’s claimed that these changes had nothing to do with the film.

[edit]Reaction

Super Size Me first premiered at the 2004 Sundance Film Festival, where Morgan Spurlock won the Grand Jury Prize for directing the film.[11] The film opened in the U.S. on May 7, 2004, and grossed a total of $20,641,054 worldwide, making it the 12th highest-grossing documentary film of all time.[12] It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary but lost to the film Born into Brothels. Super Size Me received two thumbs up on At the Movies with Ebert and Roeper. The film overall received positive reviews from other critics, as well as movie-goers, and holds a 93% “Certified Fresh” rating on the film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes.

[edit]Criticism and statistical notes

Critics of the film, including McDonald’s, argue that the author intentionally consumed an average of 5,000 calories per day and did not exercise, and that the results would have been the same regardless of the source of overeating.[13] One reviewer pointed out “he’s telling us something everyone already knows: Fast food is bad for you.”[14] Robert Davis of Paste implied the film is an example of “how the ignorance of, or willful distortion of, basic scientific methods is used to manipulate public opinion.”[15]
In the comedic documentary reply Fat Head, Tom Naughton “suggests that Spurlock’s calorie and fat counts don’t add up” and criticizes Spurlock’s refusal to publish the Super Size Me food log; The Houston Chronicle reports: “Unlike Spurlock, Naughton has a page on his Web site that lists every item (including nutritional information) he ate during his fast-food month.”[16] The film addresses such objections by highlighting that a part of the reason for Spurlock’s deteriorating health was not just the high calorie intake but also the high quantity of sugar relative to vitamins and minerals in the McDonald’s menu, which is similar in that regard to the nutritional content of the menus of most other U.S. fast-food chains.
About 1/3 of Spurlock’s calories came from sugar. His nutritionist, Bridget Bennett RD, cited him about his excess intake of sugar from “milkshakes and cokes”. It is revealed toward the end of the movie that over the course of the diet, he consumed “over 30 pounds of sugar, and over 12 lbs. of fat from their food.”[17]
Soso Whaley, an independent film producer, made a YouTube movie reply titled Me and Mickey D’s, in which she also ate all meals at McDonald’s, yet lost weight—20 pounds over 60 days; 30 pounds in 90 days. Whaley’s results were quite different because of the reduced calorie diet, and inclusion of exercise. Some of Whaley’s requirements for her meals were the same as Spurlock’s (had to eat everything on the menu over the course of the experiment, etc.); but some were different (she didn’t have to clean the plate—Spurlock required himself to do so). 
Whaley also documented her meals by saving the receipts. Whaley’s film has been criticized by Sourcewatch,[18] as before the project began the teaser asked, “Will Eat at McDonald’s for 30 Days and Lose Weight?”, although the advertising by Spurlock’s film said the same thing, but only reversed.[19]
Fitness advocate Chazz Weaver also created a documentary video of his own 30-day McDonald’s diet in response to Spurlock’s film.[20] Weaver’s thesis was that without exercise, the fat-laden diet he ate at McDonald’s would have resulted in a weight gain. His result was weight loss (222 lbs. down to 214 lbs.), as well as improved blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides.[21]
Spurlock said he was trying to imitate what an average diet for a regular eater at McDonald’s—a person who would get little to no exercise—would do to them. Spurlock’s intake of 5,000 calories per day was well over twice the recommended daily intake for a sedentary adult male, which would amount to only about 2,300 calories.[22] A typical man consuming as many calories as Spurlock did would gain nearly a pound a day (which is roughly how much Spurlock gained), a rate of weight gain that could not be sustained for long periods. 
Additionally, Spurlock did not demonstrate or claim that anyone, let alone a substantial number of people, eats at McDonald’s three times per day. In fact McDonald’s is mentioned during the movie to have two classes of users of their restaurants: There are the “Heavy Users” (about 72% of customers, who eat at their restaurants once or twice a week), and the “SUPER Heavy Users” (about 22% of customers, who eat McDonald’s three or more times a week).

[edit]Impact

In the United Kingdom, McDonald’s placed a brief ad in the trailers of showings of the film, pointing to the website http://www.supersizeme-thedebate.co.uk.[23] The ads stated, “See what we disagree with. See what we agree with.”
The film was the inspiration for the BBC television series The Supersizers… in which the presenters dine on historical meals and take medical tests to ascertain the impact on their health.[24]

[edit]See also

[edit]Media and publications

Supersize Me; By Morgan Spurlock; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/supersize-me-morgan-spurlock.html

END
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The following links can be saved on your computer and used to ‘debate’ even the experts. Just copy and paste the following links into the comments sections below articles online.

A Green Road Bloghttp://agreenroadblog.com
A Green Road Website – http://www.agreenroad.com
A Green Road Twitter Micro Blog – http://www.twitter.com/agreenroad
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Using the links below will make you the ‘expert’. Feel free to copy and use.
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DRUGS – MEDICINE
Sicko; Michael Moore Movie; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/sicko-michael-moore.html
What Hospitals Won’t Tell You – Vital Strategies that Could Save Your Life; via A Green Road Blog
Raw US Milk Farmer Tortured? via A Green Road Blog
Medical Fraud; How Big Is It? via A Green Road Blog
Sleeping Pills Increase Risk Of Cancer; Caused 500,00 Deaths; via A Green Road Blog
TSA Nude Body Scanners; Useless, Worthless, Dangerous – via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/tsa-nude-body-scanners-useless.html
Prescription Drug Overdoses Kill More Than Car Crashes; via A Green Road Blog
HOLISTIC LIVING AND NATURAL HEALTH MODALIES
7 medicinal herbs and spices that help lower blood pressure; via A Green Road
All about berries and ginger; healing foods and herbs; via A Green Road Blog
The top 5 foods to avoid if you have gluten intolerance and wheat allergies. via A Green Road Blog 
12 surprising reasons to eat more blueberries via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2010/08/12-surprising-reasons-to-eat-more.html
Natural Green Living And Health News; Kidneys, Honey, Vaccines, Permaculture, Water, Homeopathics
Germany– a World Leader in Solar, Wind and Health; via A Green Road Blog
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/germany-world-leader-in-solar-wind-and.html 

Why The Drug War Is A HUGE Failure

In the following video, a retired anti-drug war cop  explains why he is fighting failed drug war laws.

On June 17, 1971 President Richard Nixon launched the modern-day drug war, an effort perpetuated by every one of his successors.

As the reform group Law Enforcement Against Prohibition (LEAP) documents in a new comprehensive study, the drug war has destroyed lives and property, shredded the constitution, and distorted American education, health care, and even foreign policy. That’s why, notes LEAP, fully 75 percent of Americans and 69 percent of police chiefs agree that the drug war has failed.


Reason’s Nick Gillespie talked with LEAP’s Executive Director Neill Franklin, a retired major in the Maryland State Police. As Franklin explains, he was one of the most bellicose drug warriors around until a comrade was killed during an undercover operation. The best way, argues Franklin, we can pay tribute to his fallen friend – and all the other people whose lives have been laid waste by a war on drugs that has caused far more bad than good – is to turn away from prohibition and embrace regulation and control similar to that used for alcohol.
Shot by Jim Epstein and Joshua Swain, who also edited.
For more videos and information about drug policy, go tohttp://reason.com/archives/2011/06/15/the-price-of-prohibition
For more information on LEAP and to read “Ending the Drug War: A Dream Deferred,” go to http://www.leap.cc/40years/

How the failed war on drugs creates more problems, not less. 

John Stossel – The War On Drugs 1 Of 6
John Stossel – The War On Drugs 2 Of 6
John Stossel – The War On Drugs 3 Of 6
John Stossel – The War On Drugs 4 Of 6
John Stossel – The War On Drugs 5 Of 6
John Stossel – The War On Drugs 6 Of 6




Why The Drug War Is A HUGE Failure; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/drug-war-is-huge-failure.html

END
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The following links can be saved on your computer and used to ‘debate’ even the experts. Just copy and paste the following links into the comments sections below articles online.

A Green Road Bloghttp://agreenroadblog.com
A Green Road Website – http://www.agreenroad.com
A Green Road Twitter Micro Blog – http://www.twitter.com/agreenroad
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IGoogle Gadget: Tryout the A Green Road Blog -gadget on your iGoogle homepage »
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FeedBurner makes it easy to receive content updates in My Yahoo!, Newsgator, Bloglines, and other news readers. Click on link above to learn more.
Using the links below will make you the ‘expert’. Feel free to copy and use.
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JUSTICE/PRISONS
What Are Universal Human Rights? via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/what-are-universal-human-rights.html
US ranks 5th in Executions; With Iraq, China, Russia; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/us-ranks-5th-in-executions-ahead-of.html
Trayvon Martin; Brutal Murder, or Justified Defense of Life? via A Green Road Blog  
Prison Mistakes, Prison Reform; via A Green Road Blog
Secret Jury Rights And Ignored Constitutional Duty
Hillary Clinton: Women Deserve The Right To Choose; via A Green Road Blog 
Every Person Has Needs; From Survival To Transcendence; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/every-person-has-set-of-needs.html
GMO FOODS – ORGANISMS
Medical Insanity: Frankenfoods, BPA, Drugs, GMO’s? via A Green Road Blog
GMO alert: top 10 genetically modified foods to avoid eating; via A Green Road Blog
Mother Beats Monsanto in Court; Indian Farmers Committing Suicide By Drinking Product; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mother-beats-monsanto-in-court-proves.html
How To Identify GMO Foods; Found Even At Health Food Stores; via A Green Road Blog
What Monsanto Doesn’t Want You To Know -The Genetic Conspiracy; via A Green Road Blog

Bill Maher, George Carlin; Mass Delusion and Need For More Interfaith Communications

(Warning; Adult language via humor.) In this article and video we will explore interfaith communications and differences between religions via atheism as a starting point. 

Atheism can talk about all religions, because in most cases, people who believe this way do not believe in a Deity or a Trinity, or Holy People, or even Holy Books. This discussion is worth having, just because it is so rarely aired and given attention. Even if one does have a faith and a belief system, as well as dogma, is it not a healthy thing to listen to other points of view, including atheism?   


To get into this further, you can see the movie Religulous, by Bill Haher. You can also discuss atheism and/or interfaith subjects with others who have this same interfaith interest, by clicking on this link; 
http://www.care2.com/c2c/groups/disc.html?gpp=21164&pst=1450928

Here is George Carlin’s version, delivered via humor… 

According to Wikipedia; “Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.[1] In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities.[2][3] Most inclusively, atheism is simply the absence of belief that any deities exist.[3][4][5] Atheism is contrasted with theism,[6][7] which in its most general form is the belief that at least one deity exists.[7][8]
The term atheism originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning “without god”, used as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshipped by the larger society. With the spread of freethoughtskeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope. The first individuals to identify themselves using the word “atheist” lived in the 18th century.[9]
Atheists tend to be skeptical of supernatural claims, citing a lack ofempirical evidence for deities.[10] Rationales for not believing in any deity include the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, and the argument from nonbelief. Other arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to the social to the historical. Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies,[11][12]there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere.[13] Many atheists hold that atheism is a more parsimoniousworldview than theism, and therefore the burden of proof lies not on the atheist to disprove the existence of God, but on the theist to provide a rationale for theism.[14]
Atheism is accepted within some religious and spiritual belief systems, including JainismBuddhismHinduismNeopaganmovements[15] such as Wicca,[16] and nontheistic religions.Jainism and some forms of Buddhism do not advocate belief in gods,[17] whereas Hinduism holds atheism to be valid, but difficult to follow spiritually.[18]
Since conceptions of atheism vary, determining how many atheists exist in the world today is difficult.[19] According to one estimate, about 2.3% of the world’s population are atheists, while a further 11.9% are nonreligious.[20] According to another, rates of self-reported atheism are among the highest in Western nations, again to varying degrees: United States (4%), Italy (7%), Spain (11%), Great Britain (17%), Germany (20%), and France (32%).[21]

[edit]
Definitions and distinctions

A diagram showing the relationship between the definitions of weak/strong andimplicit/explicit atheism. Explicit strong/positive/hard atheists (inpurple on the right) assert that “at least one deity exists” is a false statement. Explicit weak/negative/soft atheists (inblue on the right) reject or eschew belief that any deities exist without actually asserting that “at least one deity exists” is a false statement. Implicit weak/negative atheists (in blue on the left) would include people (such as young children and some agnostics) who do not believe in a deity, but have not explicitly rejected such belief. (Sizes in the diagram are not meant to indicate relative sizes within a population.)

Writers disagree how best to define and classify atheism,[22] contesting what supernatural entities it applies to, whether it is an assertion in its own right or merely the absence of one, and whether it requires a conscious, explicit rejection. However, it is generally contrasted withagnosticism.[23] A variety of categories have been proposed to try to distinguish the different forms of atheism.

[edit]Range

Some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheismarises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity and god. The plurality of wildly different conceptions of god and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheism’s applicability. The ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities. Gradually, this view fell into disfavor as theism came to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity.[24]
With respect to the range of phenomena being rejected, atheism may counter anything from the existence of a deity, to the existence of anyspiritualsupernatural, or transcendental concepts, such as those ofBuddhismHinduismJainism and Taoism.[25]

[edit]Implicit vs. explicit

Definitions of atheism also vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist. Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief that any deities exist. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas. As far back as 1772, Baron d’Holbach said that “All children are born Atheists; they have no idea of God.”[26] Similarly,George H. Smith (1979) suggested that: “The man who is unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god. This category would also include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved, but who is still unaware of those issues. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist.”[27] Smith coined the term implicit atheism to refer to “the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it” and explicit atheism to refer to the more common definition of conscious disbelief. Ernest Nagel contradicts Smith’s definition of atheism as merely “absence of theism”, acknowledging only explicit atheism as true “atheism”.[28]

[edit]Positive vs. negative

Philosophers such as Antony Flew[29] and Michael Martin[24] have contrasted positive (strong/hard) atheism with negative (weak/soft) atheism. Positive atheism is the explicit affirmation that gods do not exist. Negative atheism includes all other forms of non-theism. According to this categorization, anyone who is not a theist is either a negative or a positive atheist. The terms weak and strong are relatively recent, while the termsnegative and positive atheism are of older origin, having been used (in slightly different ways) in the philosophical literature[29] and in Catholic apologetics.[30] Under this demarcation of atheism, most agnostics qualify as negative atheists.
While Martin, for example, asserts that agnosticism entails negative atheism,[24] most agnostics see their view as distinct from atheism, which they may consider no more justified than theism or requiring an equal conviction.[31] The assertion of unattainability of knowledge for or against the existence of gods is sometimes seen as indication that atheism requires a leap of faith.[32] Common atheist responses to this argument include that unproven religious propositions deserve as much disbelief as all other unproven propositions,[33] and that the unprovability of a god’s existence does not imply equal probability of either possibility.[34] Scottish philosopher J. J. C. Smart even argues that “sometimes a person who is really an atheist may describe herself, even passionately, as an agnostic because of unreasonable generalisedphilosophical skepticism which would preclude us from saying that we know anything whatever, except perhaps the truths of mathematics and formal logic.”[35] Consequently, some atheist authors such asRichard Dawkins prefer distinguishing theist, agnostic and atheist positions along a spectrum of theistic probability—the likelihood that each assigns to the statement “God exists”.[36]

[edit]Definition as impossible or impermanent

Before the 18th century, the existence of God was so universally accepted in the western world that even the possibility of true atheism was questioned. This is called theistic innatism—the notion that all people believe in God from birth; within this view was the connotation that atheists are simply in denial.[37]
There is also a position claiming that atheists are quick to believe in God in times of crisis, that atheists makedeathbed conversions, or that “there are no atheists in foxholes.”[38] There have however been examples to the contrary, among them examples of literal “atheists in foxholes.”[39]
Some atheists have doubted the very need for the term “atheism”. In his book Letter to a Christian Nation,Sam Harris wrote:
In fact, “atheism” is a term that should not even exist. No one ever needs to identify himself as a “non-astrologer” or a “non-alchemist.” We do not have words for people who doubt that Elvis is still alive or that aliens have traversed the galaxy only to molest ranchers and their cattle. Atheism is nothing more than the noises reasonable people make in the presence of unjustified religious beliefs.[40]

[edit]Concepts

Paul Henri Thiry, Baron d’Holbach, an 18th century advocate of atheism.

The source of man’s unhappiness is his ignorance of Nature. The pertinacity with which he clings to blind opinions imbibed in his infancy, which interweave themselves with his existence, the consequent prejudice that warps his mind, that prevents its expansion, that renders him the slave of fiction, appears to doom him to continual error.
—d’Holbach, The System of Nature[41]
The broadest demarcation of atheistic rationale is between practical and theoretical atheism.

[edit]Practical atheism

In practical or pragmatic atheism, also known as apatheism, individuals live as if there are no gods and explain natural phenomena without resorting to the divine. The existence of gods is not rejected, but may be designated unnecessary or useless; gods neither provide purpose to life, nor influence everyday life, according to this view.[42] A form of practical atheism with implications for the scientific community is methodological naturalism—the “tacit adoption or assumption of philosophical naturalism within scientific method with or without fully accepting or believing it.”[43]
Practical atheism can take various forms:
  • Absence of religious motivation—belief in gods does not motivate moral action, religious action, or any other form of action;
  • Active exclusion of the problem of gods and religion from intellectual pursuit and practical action;
  • Indifference—the absence of any interest in the problems of gods and religion; or
  • Unawareness of the concept of a deity.[44]

[edit]Theoretical atheism

[edit]Ontological arguments

Theoretical (or theoric) atheism explicitly posits arguments against the existence of gods, responding to common theistic arguments such as theargument from design or Pascal’s Wager. Theoretical atheism is mainly an ontology, precisely a physical ontology.

[edit]Epistemological arguments

Epistemological atheism argues that people cannot know a God or determine the existence of a God. The foundation of epistemological atheism is agnosticism, which takes a variety of forms. In the philosophy ofimmanence, divinity is inseparable from the world itself, including a person’s mind, and each person’sconsciousness is locked in the subject. According to this form of agnosticism, this limitation in perspective prevents any objective inference from belief in a god to assertions of its existence. The rationalisticagnosticism of Kant and the Enlightenment only accepts knowledge deduced with human rationality; this form of atheism holds that gods are not discernible as a matter of principle, and therefore cannot be known to exist. Skepticism, based on the ideas of Hume, asserts that certainty about anything is impossible, so one can never know for sure whether or not a god exists. The allocation of agnosticism to atheism is disputed; it can also be regarded as an independent, basic worldview.[42]
Other arguments for atheism that can be classified as epistemological or ontological, including logical positivism and ignosticism, assert the meaninglessness or unintelligibility of basic terms such as “God” and statements such as “God is all-powerful.” Theological noncognitivism holds that the statement “God exists” does not express a proposition, but is nonsensical or cognitively meaningless. It has been argued both ways as to whether such individuals can be classified into some form of atheism or agnosticism. Philosophers A. J. Ayer and Theodore M. Drange reject both categories, stating that both camps accept “God exists” as a proposition; they instead place noncognitivism in its own category.[45][46]

[edit]Metaphysical arguments

One author writes:
“Metaphysical atheism… includes all doctrines that hold to metaphysical monism (the homogeneity of reality). Metaphysical atheism may be either: a) absolute — an explicit denial of God’s existence associated with materialistic monism (all materialistic trends, both in ancient and modern times); b) relative — the implicit denial of God in all philosophies that, while they accept the existence of an absolute, conceive of the absolute as not possessing any of the attributes proper to God: transcendence, a personal character or unity. Relative atheism is associated with idealistic monism (pantheism, panentheism, deism).”[47]

Epicurus is credited with first expounding the problem of evil.David Hume in his Dialogues concerning Natural Religion(1779) cited Epicurus in stating the argument as a series of questions:[48] “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is impotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God?”

[edit]Logical arguments

Logical atheism holds that the various conceptions of gods, such as thepersonal god of Christianity, are ascribed logically inconsistent qualities. Such atheists present deductive arguments against the existence of God, which assert the incompatibility between certain traits, such as perfection, creator-status, immutabilityomniscienceomnipresence,omnipotenceomnibenevolencetranscendence, personhood (a personal being), nonphysicality, justice, and mercy.[10]
Theodicean atheists believe that the world as they experience it cannot be reconciled with the qualities commonly ascribed to God and gods by theologians. They argue that an omniscientomnipotent, andomnibenevolent God is not compatible with a world where there is eviland suffering, and where divine love is hidden from many people.[49] A similar argument is attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, the founder ofBuddhism.[50]

[edit]Reductionary accounts of religion

Philosophers such as Ludwig Feuerbach[51] and Sigmund Freud argued that God and other religious beliefs are human inventions, created to fulfill various psychological and emotional wants or needs. This is also a view of many Buddhists.[52] Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, influenced by the work of Feuerbach, argued that belief in God and religion are social functions, used by those in power to oppress the working class. According to Mikhail Bakunin, “the idea of God implies the abdication of human reason and justice; it is the most decisive negation of human liberty, and necessarily ends in the enslavement of mankind, in theory and practice.” He reversed Voltaire‘s famous aphorism that if God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him, writing instead that “if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish him.”[53]

[edit]Atheist philosophies

Axiological, or constructive, atheism rejects the existence of gods in favor of a “higher absolute”, such ashumanity. This form of atheism favors humanity as the absolute source of ethics and values, and permits individuals to resolve moral problems without resorting to God. Marx and Freud used this argument to convey messages of liberation, full-development, and unfettered happiness.[42] One of the most commoncriticisms of atheism has been to the contrary—that denying the existence of a god leads to moral relativism, leaving one with no moral or ethical foundation,[54] or renders life meaningless and miserable.[55] Blaise Pascal argued this view in his Pensées.[56]
French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre identified himself as a representative of an “atheist existentialism[57]concerned less with denying the existence of God than with establishing that “man needs … to find himself again and to understand that nothing can save him from himself, not even a valid proof of the existence of God.”[58] Sartre said a corollary of his atheism was that “if God does not exist, there is at least one being in whom existence precedes essence, a being who exists before he can be defined by any concept, and … this being is man.”[57] The practical consequence of this atheism was described by Sartre as meaning that there are no a priori rules or absolute values that can be invoked to govern human conduct, and that humans are “condemned” to invent these for themselves, making “man” absolutely “responsible for everything he does”.[59]

[edit]Atheism, religion, and morality

[edit]Association with world views and social behaviors

Sociologist Phil Zuckerman analyzed previous social science research on secularity and non-belief, and concluded that societal well-being is positively correlated with irreligion. His findings relating specifically to atheism include:[60][61]
  • Compared to religious people, “atheists and secular people” are less nationalistic, prejudiced,antisemiticracist, dogmatic, ethnocentric, close-minded, and authoritarian.
  • In the US, in states with the highest percentages of atheists, the murder rate is lower than average. In the most religious US states, the murder rate is higher than average.

[edit]Atheism and irreligion

Because of its absenceof a creator god,Buddhism is commonly described as nontheistic.

People who self-identify as atheists are often assumed to be irreligious, but some sects within major religions reject the existence of a personal, creator deity.[62] In recent years, certain religious denominations have accumulated a number of openly atheistic followers, such as atheistic or humanistic Judaism[63][64] and Christian atheists.[65][66][67]
The strictest sense of positive atheism does not entail any specific beliefs outside of disbelief in any deity; as such, atheists can hold any number of spiritual beliefs. For the same reason, atheists can hold a wide variety of ethical beliefs, ranging from the moral universalism of humanism, which holds that a moral code should be applied consistently to all humans, to moral nihilism, which holds that morality is meaningless.[68]
Philosophers such as Georges BatailleSlavoj Žižek,[69] Alain de Botton,[70] andAlexander Bard and Jan Söderqvist,[71] have all argued that atheists should reclaim religion as an act of defiance against theism, precisely not to leave religion as an unwarranted monopoly to theists.

[edit]Divine command vs. ethics

Although it is a philosophical truism, encapsulated in Plato’s Euthyphro dilemma, that the role of the gods in determining right from wrong is either unnecessary or arbitrary, the argument that morality must be derived from God and cannot exist without a wise creator has been a persistent feature of political if not so much philosophical debate.[72][73][74] Moral precepts such as “murder is wrong” are seen as divine laws, requiring a divine lawmaker and judge. However, many atheists argue that treating morality legalistically involves afalse analogy, and that morality does not depend on a lawmaker in the same way that laws do.[75] Other atheists, such as Friedrich Nietzsche, have disagreed with this view and have stated that morality “has truth only if God is truth—it stands or falls with faith in God.”[76][77][78]
There exist normative ethical systems that do not require principles and rules to be given by a deity. Some include virtue ethicssocial contractKantian ethicsutilitarianism, and ObjectivismSam Harris has proposed that moral prescription (ethical rule making) is not just an issue to be explored by philosophy, but that we can meaningfully practice a science of morality. Any such scientific system must, nevertheless, respond to the criticism embodied in the naturalistic fallacy.[79]
Philosophers Susan Neiman[80] and Julian Baggini[81] (among others) assert that behaving ethically only because of divine mandate is not true ethical behavior but merely blind obedience. Baggini argues that atheism is a superior basis for ethics, claiming that a moral basis external to religious imperatives is necessary to evaluate the morality of the imperatives themselves—to be able to discern, for example, that “thou shalt steal” is immoral even if one’s religion instructs it—and that atheists, therefore, have the advantage of being more inclined to make such evaluations.[82] The contemporary British political philosopher Martin Cohen has offered the more historically telling example of Biblical injunctions in favour of torture and slavery as evidence of how religious injunctions follow political and social customs, rather than vice versa, but also noted that the same tendency seems to be true of supposedly dispassionate and objective philosophers.[83] Cohen extends this argument in more detail in Political Philosophy from Plato to Mao, where he argues that the Qur’an played a role in perpetuating social codes from the early 7th century despite changes in secular society.[84]

[edit]Dangers of religions

Some prominent atheists—such as Bertrand RussellChristopher HitchensDaniel DennettSam Harris, and Richard Dawkins—have criticized religions, citing harmful aspects of religious practices and doctrines.[85] Atheists have often engaged in debate with religious advocates, and the debates sometimes address the issue of whether religions provide a net benefit to individuals and society.
One argument that religions can be harmful, made by atheists such as Sam Harris, is that Western religions’ reliance on divine authority lends itself to authoritarianism and dogmatism.[86] Atheists have also cited data showing that there is a correlation between religious fundamentalism and extrinsic religion (when religion is held because it serves ulterior interests)[87] and authoritarianism, dogmatism, and prejudice.[88] These arguments—combined with historical events that are argued to demonstrate the dangers of religion, such as the Crusadesinquisitionswitch trials, and terrorist attacks—have been used in response to claims of beneficial effects of belief in religion.[89] Believers counter-argue that some regimes that espouse atheism, such as in Soviet Russia, have also been guilty of mass murder.[90][91]

[edit]Etymology

The Greek word αθεοι (atheoi), as it appears in the Epistle to the Ephesians (2:12) on the early 3rd-century Papyrus 46. It is usually translated into English as “[those who are] without God”.[92]

In early ancient Greek, the adjective atheos (ἄθεος, from the privative ἀ-θεός “god”) meant “godless”. It was first used as a term of censure roughly meaning “ungodly” or “impious”. In the 5th century BCE, the word began to indicate more deliberate and active godlessness in the sense of “severing relations with the gods” or “denying the gods”. The term ἀσεβής (asebēs) then came to be applied against those who impiously denied or disrespected the local gods, even if they believed in other gods. Modern translations of classical texts sometimes renderatheos as “atheistic”. As an abstract noun, there was also ἀθεότης(atheotēs), “atheism”. Cicero transliterated the Greek word into the Latinatheos. The term found frequent use in the debate between early Christians and Hellenists, with each side attributing it, in the pejorative sense, to the other.[93]
The term atheist (from Fr. athée), in the sense of “one who denies or disbelieves the existence of God”,[94]predates atheism in English, being first found as early as 1566,[95] and again in 1571.[96] Atheist as a label of practical godlessness was used at least as early as 1577.[97] The term atheism was derived from theFrench athéisme, and appears in English about 1587.[98] An earlier work, from about 1534, used the termatheonism.[99][100] Related words emerged later: deist in 1621,[101] theist in 1662,[102] deism in 1675,[103]and theism in 1678.[104] At that time “deist” and “deism” already carried their modern meaning. The termtheism came to be contrasted with deism.
Karen Armstrong writes that “During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the word ‘atheist’ was still reserved exclusively for polemic … The term ‘atheist’ was an insult. Nobody would have dreamed of callinghimself an atheist.”[9] In the middle of the seventeenth century it was still assumed that it was impossible not to believe in God;[105] atheist meant not accepting the current conception of the divine.[106]
Atheism was first used to describe a self-avowed belief in late 18th-century Europe, specifically denoting disbelief in the monotheistic Abrahamic god.[107] In the 20th century, globalization contributed to the expansion of the term to refer to disbelief in all deities, though it remains common in Western society to describe atheism as simply “disbelief in God”.[24]

[edit]History

Although the term atheism originated in 16th-century France,[98] ideas that would be recognized today as atheistic are documented from the Vedic period and the classical antiquity.

[edit]Early Indic religion

Atheistic schools are found in early Indian thought and have existed from the times of the historical Vedic religion.[108] Among the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, Samkhya, the oldest philosophical school of thought, does not accept God, and the early Mimamsa also rejected the notion of God.[109] The early Mimamsa not only did not accept God but asserted that human action itself was enough to create the necessary circumstances for the enjoyment of its fruits.[110] 
The thoroughly materialistic and anti-theistic philosophical Cārvāka (also called Nastika or Lokaiata) school that originated in India around the 6th century BCE is probably the most explicitly atheistic school of philosophy in India, similar to the Greek Cyrenaic school. This branch of Indian philosophy is classified as heterodox due to its rejection of the authority ofVedas and hence is not considered part of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism, but it is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism.[111] Chatterjee and Datta explain that our understanding of Cārvāka philosophy is fragmentary, based largely on criticism of the ideas by other schools, and that it is not a living tradition:
“Though materialism in some form or other has always been present in India, and occasional references are found in the Vedas, the Buddhistic literature, the Epics, as well as in the later philosophical works we do not find any systematic work on materialism, nor any organized school of followers as the other philosophical schools possess. But almost every work of the other schools states, for refutation, the materialistic views. Our knowledge of Indian materialism is chiefly based on these.”[112]
Other Indian philosophies generally regarded as atheistic include Classical Samkhya and Purva Mimamsa. The rejection of a personal creator God is also seen in Jainism and Buddhism in India.[113]

[edit]Classical antiquity

In Plato‘s Apology,Socrates (pictured) was accused by Meletus of not believing in the gods.

Western atheism has its roots in pre-Socratic Greek philosophy, but did not emerge as a distinct world-view until the late Enlightenment.[114] The 5th-century BCE Greek philosopher Diagoras is known as the “first atheist”,[115] and is cited as such by Cicero in his De Natura Deorum.[116] Critias viewed religion as a human invention used to frighten people into following moral order.[117]Atomists such as Democritus attempted to explain the world in a purelymaterialistic way, without reference to the spiritual or mystical. Other pre-Socratic philosophers who probably had atheistic views included Prodicus andProtagoras. In the 3rd-century BCE the Greek philosophers Theodorus Cyrenaicus[116][118] and Strato of Lampsacus[119] also did not believe gods exist.
Socrates (c. 471–399 BCE), was accused of impiety (see Euthyphro dilemma) on the basis that he inspired questioning of the state gods.[120] Although he disputed the accusation that he was a “complete atheist”,[121] saying that he could not be an atheist as he believed in spirits,[122] he was ultimately sentenced to death. Socrates also prays to various gods in Plato’s dialogue Phaedrus[123] and says “By Zeus” in the dialogue The Republic.[124]
Euhemerus (c. 330–260 BCE) published his view that the gods were only the deified rulers, conquerors and founders of the past, and that their cults and religions were in essence the continuation of vanished kingdoms and earlier political structures.[125] Although not strictly an atheist, Euhemerus was later criticized for having “spread atheism over the whole inhabited earth by obliterating the gods”.[126]
Atomic materialist Epicurus (c. 341–270 BCE) disputed many religious doctrines, including the existence of an afterlife or a personal deity; he considered the soul purely material and mortal. While Epicureanism did not rule out the existence of gods, he believed that if they did exist, they were unconcerned with humanity.[127]
The Roman poet Lucretius (c. 99–55 BCE) agreed that, if there were gods, they were unconcerned with humanity and unable to affect the natural world. For this reason, he believed humanity should have no fear of the supernatural. He expounds his Epicurean views of the cosmos, atoms, the soul, mortality, and religion in De rerum natura (“On the nature of things”),[128] which popularized Epicurus’ philosophy in Rome.[129]
The Roman philosopher Sextus Empiricus held that one should suspend judgment about virtually all beliefs—a form of skepticism known as Pyrrhonism—that nothing was inherently evil, and that ataraxia (“peace of mind”) is attainable by withholding one’s judgment. His relatively large volume of surviving works had a lasting influence on later philosophers.[130]
The meaning of “atheist” changed over the course of classical antiquity. The early Christians were labeled atheists by non-Christians because of their disbelief in pagan gods.[131] During the Roman Empire, Christians were executed for their rejection of the Roman gods in general and Emperor-worship in particular. When Christianity became the state religion of Rome under Theodosius I in 381, heresy became a punishable offense.[132]

[edit]Early Middle Ages to the Renaissance

The espousal of atheistic views was rare in Europe during the Early Middle Ages and Middle Ages (seeMedieval Inquisition); metaphysics, religion and theology were the dominant interests.[133] There were, however, movements within this period that forwarded heterodox conceptions of the Christian God, including differing views of the nature, transcendence, and knowability of God. Individuals and groups such asJohannes Scotus EriugenaDavid of DinantAmalric of Bena, and the Brethren of the Free Spirit maintained Christian viewpoints with pantheistic tendencies. 
Nicholas of Cusa held to a form of fideism he called docta ignorantia (“learned ignorance”), asserting that God is beyond human categorization, and our knowledge of God is limited to conjecture. William of Ockham inspired anti-metaphysical tendencies with his nominalisticlimitation of human knowledge to singular objects, and asserted that the divine essence could not be intuitively or rationally apprehended by human intellect. Followers of Ockham, such as John of Mirecourtand Nicholas of Autrecourt furthered this view. The resulting division between faith and reason influenced later theologians such as John WycliffeJan Hus, and Martin Luther.[133]
The Renaissance did much to expand the scope of freethought and skeptical inquiry. Individuals such asLeonardo da Vinci sought experimentation as a means of explanation, and opposed arguments from religious authority. Other critics of religion and the Church during this time included Niccolò Machiavelli,Bonaventure des Périers, and François Rabelais.[130]

[edit]Early modern period

The Renaissance and Reformation eras witnessed a resurgence in religious fervor, as evidenced by the proliferation of new religious orders, confraternities, and popular devotions in the Catholic world, and the appearance of increasingly austere Protestant sects such as the Calvinists. This era of interconfessional rivalry permitted an even wider scope of theological and philosophical speculation, much of which would later be used to advance a religiously skeptical world-view.
Criticism of Christianity became increasingly frequent in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and England, where there appears to have been a religious malaise, according to contemporary sources. Some Protestant thinkers, such as Thomas Hobbes, espoused a materialist philosophy and skepticism toward supernatural occurrences, while the Jewish-Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza rejected divine providence in favour of a panentheistic naturalism. 
By the late 17th century, deism came to be openly espoused by intellectuals such as John Toland who coined the term “pantheist”. Despite their ridicule of Christianity, many deists held atheism in scorn.[citation needed] The first known explicit atheist was the German critic of religion Matthias Knutzen in his three writings of 1674.[134] He was followed a half century later by another explicit atheist writer, the French priest Jean Meslier.[135]
Knutzen and Meslier were in turn followed by other openly atheistic thinkers, such as Baron d’Holbach andJacques-André Naigeon.[136] The philosopher David Hume developed a skeptical epistemology grounded in empiricism, undermining the metaphysical basis of natural theology.

Ludwig Feuerbach‘sThe Essence of Christianity (1841) would greatly influence philosophers such asEngelsMarxDavid StraussNietzsche, andMax Stirner. He considered God to be a human invention and religious activities to be wish-fulfillment. For this he is considered the founding father of modernanthropology of religion.

The French Revolution took atheism and anti-clerical deism outside the salons and into the public sphere. A major goal of the French revolution was a restructuring and subordination of the clergy with respect to the state through the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Attempts to enforce it led to anti-clerical violence and the expulsion of many clergy from France. The chaotic political events in revolutionary Paris eventually enabled the more radical Jacobins to seize power in 1793, ushering in the Reign of Terror. The Jacobins were deists and introduced the Cult of the Supreme Being as a new French state religion. Some atheists surrounding Jacques Hébert instead sought to establish a Cult of Reason, a form of atheistic pseudo-religion with a goddess personifying reason. Both movements in part contributed to attempts to forcibly de-Christianize France. The Cult of Reason ended after three years when its leadership, including Jacques Hébert was guillotined by the Jacobins. The anti-clerical persecutions ended with the Thermidorian Reaction.
The Napoleonic era institutionalized the secularization of French society, and exported the revolution to northern Italy, in the hopes of creating pliable republics. In the 19th century, atheists contributed to political and social revolution, facilitating the upheavals of 1848, the Risorgimento in Italy, and the growth of an international socialist movement.
In the latter half of the 19th century, atheism rose to prominence under the influence of rationalistic and freethinking philosophers. Many prominent German philosophers of this era denied the existence of deities and were critical of religion, including Ludwig FeuerbachArthur SchopenhauerMax StirnerKarl Marx, and Friedrich Nietzsche.[137]

[edit]Since 1900

Atheism in the 20th century, particularly in the form of practical atheism, advanced in many societies. Atheistic thought found recognition in a wide variety of other, broader philosophies, such as existentialism,objectivismsecular humanismnihilismanarchismlogical positivismMarxismfeminism,[138] and the general scientific and rationalist movement.
Logical positivism and scientism paved the way for neopositivismanalytical philosophystructuralism, andnaturalism. Neopositivism and analytical philosophy discarded classical rationalism and metaphysics in favor of strict empiricism and epistemological nominalism. Proponents such as Bertrand Russell emphatically rejected belief in God. In his early work, Ludwig Wittgenstein attempted to separate metaphysical and supernatural language from rational discourse. A. J. Ayer asserted the unverifiability and meaninglessness of religious statements, citing his adherence to the empirical sciences. Relatedly the applied structuralism ofLévi-Strauss sourced religious language to the human subconscious in denying its transcendental meaning.J. N. Findlay and J. J. C. Smart argued that the existence of God is not logically necessary. Naturalists and materialistic monists such as John Dewey considered the natural world to be the basis of everything, denying the existence of God or immortality.[35][139]
The 20th century also saw the political advancement of atheism, spurred on by interpretation of the works ofMarx and Engels. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, religious instruction was banned by the State. While the Soviet Constitution of 1936 guaranteed freedom to hold religious services, the Soviet state under Stalin’s policy of state atheism did not consider education a private matter; it outlawed religious instruction and waged campaigns to persuade people, at times violently, to abandon religion.[140][141][142][143][144] Several other communist states also opposed religion and mandated state atheism,[145] including the former governments of Albania,[146][147][148] and currently, China,[149][150] North Korea,[150][151] and Cuba.[150][152]
Other leaders like E. V. Ramasami Naicker (Periyar), a prominent atheist leader of India, fought againstHinduism and Brahmins for discriminating and dividing people in the name of caste and religion.[153] This was highlighted in 1956 when he arranged for the erection of a statue depicting a Hindu god in a humble representation and made antitheistic statements.[154]
In 1966, Time magazine asked “Is God Dead?”[155] in response to the Death of God theological movement, citing the estimation that nearly half of all people in the world lived under an anti-religious power, and millions more in Africa, Asia, and South America seemed to lack knowledge of the one God.[156]
In 1967, the Albanian government under Enver Hoxha announced the closure of all religious institutions in the country, declaring Albania the world’s first officially atheist state,[157] although religious practice in Albania was restored in 1991. These regimes enhanced the negative associations of atheism, especially where anti-communist sentiment was strong in the United States, despite the fact that prominent atheists were anti-communist.[158]
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the number of actively anti-religious regimes has reduced considerably. In 2006, Timothy Shah of the Pew Forum noted “a worldwide trend across all major religious groups, in which God-based and faith-based movements in general are experiencing increasing confidence and influence vis-à-vis secular movements and ideologies.”[159] However, Gregory S. Paul and Phil Zuckerman consider this a myth and suggest that the actual situation is much more complex and nuanced.[160]
The religiously motivated terrorist events of 9/11 and the partially successful attempts of the Discovery institute to change the American science curriculum to include creationist ideas, together with support for those ideas from George W. Bush in 2005, all triggered the noted atheist authors Sam HarrisDaniel C. DennettRichard DawkinsVictor J. Stenger and Christopher Hitchens to publish books that were best sellers in America and worldwide.[161]
A 2010 survey found that those identifying themselves as atheists or agnostics are on average more knowledgeable about religion than followers of major faiths. Nonbelievers scored better on questions about tenets central to Protestant and Catholic faiths. Only Mormon and Jewish faithful scored as well as atheists and agnostics.[162]

[edit]New Atheism

New Atheism is the name given to a movement among some early-21st-century atheist writers who have advocated the view that “religion should not simply be tolerated but should be countered, criticized, and exposed by rational argument wherever its influence arises.”[163] New atheists argue that recent scientific advancements demand a less accommodating attitude toward religion, superstition, and religious fanaticismthan had traditionally been extended by many secularists.[citation needed] The movement is commonly associated with Richard DawkinsDaniel C. DennettSam HarrisChristopher Hitchens, and Victor J. Stenger.[164][165] Several best-selling books by these authors, published between 2004 and 2007, form the basis for much of the discussion of New Atheism.[166]

[edit]Demographics

Percentage of people in various European countries who said: “I don’t believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force.” (2005)[167]

It is difficult to quantify the number of atheists in the world. Respondents to religious-belief polls may define “atheism” differently or draw different distinctions between atheism, non-religious beliefs, and non-theistic religious and spiritual beliefs.[168] A Hindu atheist would declare oneself as a Hindu, although also being an atheist at the same time.[169] A 2005 survey published in Encyclopædia Britannica found that the non-religious made up about 11.9% of the world’s population, and atheists about 2.3%. This figure did not include those who follow atheistic religions, such as some Buddhists.[20] A broad figure estimates the number of atheists and agnostics on Earth at 1.1 billion.[170]
A November–December 2006 poll published in the Financial Times gives rates for the United States and five European countries. The lowest rates of atheism were in the United States at only 4%, while the rates of atheism in the European countries surveyed were considerably higher: Italy (7%), Spain (11%), Great Britain (17%), Germany (20%), and France (32%).[21][171] The European figures are similar to those of an official European Union survey, which reported that 18% of the EU population do not believe in a god.[172] Other studies have placed the estimated percentage of atheists, agnostics, and other nonbelievers in a personal god as low as single digits in Poland, Romania, Cyprus, and some other European countries,[173] and up to 85% in Sweden, 80% in Denmark, 72% in Norway, and 60% in Finland.[19] According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, 19% of Australians have “no religion”, a category that includes atheists.[171] Between 64% and 65% of Japanese are atheists, agnostics, or do not believe in a god.[19]

Proportion of atheists and agnostics around the world.

An international study has reported positive correlations between levels of education and not believing in a deity,[60] and the EU survey finds a positive correlation between leaving school early and believing in a God.[172] A letter published in Nature in 1998 reported a survey suggesting that belief in a personal god orafterlife was at an all-time low among the members of the U.S. National Academy of Science, 7.0% of whom believed in a personal god as compared with more than 85% of the general U.S. population,[174] although this study has been criticized by Rodney Stark and Roger Finke for its definition of belief in God. The definition was “I believe in a God to whom one may pray in the expectation of receiving an answer”. [175] 
An article published by The University of Chicago Chronicle that discussed the above study, stated that 76% of physicians believe in God, more than the 7% of scientists above, but still less than the 85% of the general population.[176]Another study assessing religiosity among scientists who are members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science found that “just over half of scientists (51%) believe in some form of deity or higher power; specifically, 33% of scientists say they believe in God, while 18% believe in a universal spirit or higher power.”[177] Frank Sulloway of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Michael Shermer of California State University conducted a study which found in their polling sample of “credentialed” U.S. adults (12% had Ph.Ds and 62% were college graduates) 64% believed in God, and there was a correlation indicating that religious conviction diminished with education level.[178] 
An inverse correlation between religiosity and intelligence has been found by 39 out of 43 studies carried out between 1927 and 2002, according to an article in Mensa Magazine.[179] These findings broadly agree with a 1958 statistical meta-analysis by Professor Michael Argyle of the University of Oxford. He analyzed seven research studies that had investigated correlation between attitude to religion and measured intelligence among school and college students from the U.S. Although a clear negative correlation was found, the analysis did not identify causality but noted that factors such as authoritarian family background and social class may also have played a part.[180] Sociologist Philip Schwadel found that higher levels of education correlate with greater tolerance for atheists’ public opposition to religion, greater skepticism of religious leaders, and a reconsideration of “the role of religion in secular society”.[181]“”



Bill Maher, George Carlin; Mass Delusion and Need For More Interfaith Communications; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/bill-maher-mass-delusion-and-need-for.html

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SPIRITUAL/INTERFAITH
Movie; I AM, Exploring The Meaning Of Life, Liberty And Happiness; via A Green Road Blog
Take 1 Giant Leap Into Happiness; Via A Green Road Blog; via A Green Road Blog  
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/1-giant-leap-happiness.html
Wayne Dyer; The Power Of Intention Program; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/wayne-dyer-power-of-intention-program.html
Raj Yoga; A Connection with Soul, God And Consciousness; via A Green Road Blog
Fibonacci Secrets Revealed; via A Green Road
Mysteries And Theories: Is The Earth Growing? via a Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/mystery-is-earth-growing.html
Inspirational: All Good Things Are Coming To You Today; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/04/inspirational-all-good-things-are.html 
Greg Braden; The Science Behind Miracles And Heart Based Living; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/greg-braden-science-behind-miracles-and.html
John Hagelin, Ph.D; Consciousness Superstring Unified Field Theory; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/john-hagelin-phd-on-consciousness.html
The Universal Golden Rule; Moving Towards A Global Ethic; via A Green Road Blog
From Survival To Transcendence, Every Person Has Needs; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/every-person-has-set-of-needs.html
The Force And Power Of Love; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/force-and-power-of-love.html
Here Comes Trouble; Michael Moore
Bill Maher, George Carlin; Mass Delusion and Need For More Interfaith Communications; via A Green Road Blog http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/05/bill-maher-mass-delusion-and-need-for.html

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