Spent Fuel Pool Risks At Nuclear Power Plants and Dry Cask High Burnup Plutonium Fuel Storage Problems


http://youtu.be/X1gXS5hvDtY

In use at nuclear reactors all over the U.S., high burnup nuclear fuel is hotter, more radioactive and more susceptible to damage than fuel initially used in commercial reactors.
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission allowed the nuclear power industry to use higher and higher burnup rates without thinking about long term storage. 

HIGH BURNUP FUEL USE IS ACCELERATING IN NEW AND REBUILT OLD NUCLEAR PLANTS

In use at nuclear reactors and stored in spent fuel pools all over the U.S., the use of high burnup (plutonium) fuel is accelerating. High burnup nuclear fuel is hotter, more radioactive and more susceptible to damage than fuel initially used in commercial reactors. Most or all reactors are being switched to use plutonium fuel, with no studies about safety, security, risks, or what happens after fuel is done being used.

WHAT IS HIGH BURNUP FUEL?

Plutonium remaining in the spent fuel is mixed with uranium and highly radioactive fission products and is inaccessible because of this radiation barrier—as well as the size, weight, and high temperature of the spent fuel assemblies in which it is contained. Such residual pluto- nium is also somewhat degraded in quality (i.e., the pro- portion of the fissile isotopes Pu239 and Pu241 to total plutonium, which also includes such non-fissile isotopes as Pu238 and Pu240), making it comparatively unattractive for use in sophisticated weapons 
This high burnup fuel is so hot, so toxic, so dangerous, so volatile, there is no approved way to transfer it to dry cask storage, EVER. It takes 15 years to even cool off enough to think about doing anything with it, compared to 5 years for the normal average uranium spent fuel.

SIGN PETITION TO STOP PURCHASE OF INFERIOR CASKS

Via Gene Stone “Please sign the petition “Stop California from wasting $400 million on inferior nuclear waste storage canisters” and wanted to ask if you could add your name, too. The California Public Utilities Commission will make a decision soon regarding funding San Onofre’s dry storage canisters and we need to make sure it’s the right decision. The more support we can get behind stopping the purchase of inferior canisters, the better chance we have of succeeding. You can read more and sign the petition here:https://www.credomobilize.com/petitions/stop-california-from-wasting-400-million-on-substandard-nuclear-waste-storage-canisters

NRC HAS NOT APPROVED A STORAGE PLAN FOR HIGH BURNUP FUEL, BUT ALLOWS USE OF IT ANYWAY

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has allowed the nuclear power industry to use higher and higher burnup rates without thinking or even approving any long term storage for this type of radioactive fuel. 
Dr. Arjun Makhijani is an expert on Hardened On Site Storage of nuclear waste and long-term high-level waste management issues, and President of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research. He discussed high burnup fuel at the October 19, 2013 San Clemente, California community symposium on the decommissioning of the San Onofre nuclear plant. via http://www.SanOnofreSafety.org

SPENT FUEL POOLS RUNNING OUT OF ROOM FOR NUCLEAR WASTE AT ALL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Wikipedia says: “Spent fuel pools (SFP) are storage pools for spent fuel from nuclear reactors. They are typically 40 or more feet (12 m) deep, with the bottom 14 feet (4.3 m) equipped with storage racks designed to hold fuel assemblies removed from the reactor. 
A reactor’s pool is specially designed for the reactor in which the fuel was used and situated at the reactor site. In many countries, the fuel assemblies, after being in the reactor for 3 to 6 years, are stored underwater for 10 to 20 years before being sent for reprocessing or dry cask storage. The water cools the fuel and provides shielding from radiation
While only about 8 feet (2.4 m) of water is needed to keep radiation levels below acceptable levels, the extra depth provides a safety margin and allows fuel assemblies to be manipulated without special shielding to protect the operators. 
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission estimates that many of the nuclear power plants in the United States will be out of room in their spent fuel pools by 2015, most likely requiring the use of temporary storage of some kind.[1]

Operation

SPENT FUEL POOL

About a quarter to a third of the total fuel load of a reactor is removed from the core every 12 to 18 months and replaced with fresh fuel. Spent fuel rods generate intense heat and dangerous radiation that must be contained. 
Fuel is moved from the reactor and manipulated in the pool generally by automated handling systems, although some manual systems are still in use. The fuel bundles fresh from the core are normally segregated for several months for initial cooling before being sorted into other parts of the pool to wait for final disposal. 
Metal racks keep the fuel in controlled positions for physical protection and for ease of tracking and rearrangement. High-density racks also incorporate boron-10 or other neutron-absorbing material to ensure subcriticality. Water quality is tightly controlled to prevent the fuel or its cladding from degrading. Current regulations in the United States permit re-arranging of the spent rods so that maximum efficiency of storage can be achieved.[2]


Worker examines a pond for storing spent fuel rods at the Leningrad nuclear power plant in Sosnovy Bor. 

ALL SPENT FUEL POOLS NEED CONSTANT COOLING OR THEY MELT DOWN AND CATCH ON FIRE

The maximum temperature of the spent fuel bundles decreases significantly between 2 and 4 years, and less from 4 to 6 years. The fuel pool water is continuously cooled to remove the heat produced by the spent fuel assemblies. 
Pumps circulate water from the spent fuel pool to heat exchangers, then back to the spent fuel pool. The water temperature in normal operating conditions is held below 50°C (120°F)[1]
Radiolysis, the dissociation of molecules by radiation, is of particular concern in wet storage, as water may be split by residual radiation and hydrogen gas may accumulate increasing the risk of explosions. For this reason the air in the room of the pools, as well as the water, must be continually monitored and treated. 

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH OPEN TOPPED SPENT FUEL POOLS

If there is a prolonged interruption of cooling due to emergency situations, the water in the spent fuel pools may boil off, possibly resulting in radioactive elements being released into the atmosphere.[5]
In the magnitude 9 earthquake which struck the Fukushima nuclear plants in March 2011, three of the spent fuel pools were in buildings that lost the roof and were seen to be emitting water vapor. The US NRC wrongly stated that the pool at reactor 4 had boiled dry[6] — this was denied at the time by the Japanese and found to be incorrect in subsequent inspection and data examination.[7]
(NRC and TEPCO are still lying and covering up the truth; click on links for proof) 
AGreenRoad – TEPCO/Fukushima Lies Exposed Around Building #4, SFP, Core. Equipment Pool, Melt Out; via @AGreenRoad
Spent Fuel Pool #4 Allegedly Being ‘Unloaded’ By TEPCO Nov. 2013, The Coverup Continues; via @AGreenRoad
Arnie Gunderson, Fairewinds Associates; Fuel Pool Failures at Fukushima Confirmed; via @AGreenRoad
According to nuclear plant safety specialists, the chances of criticality in a spent fuel pool are very small, usually avoided by the dispersal of the fuel assemblies, inclusion of a neutron absorber in the storage racks and overall by the fact that the spent fuel has a too low enrichment level to self-sustain a fission reaction. They also state that if the water covering the spent fuel evaporates, there is no element to enable a chain reaction by moderating neutrons.[8][9][10]

TERRORIST ATTACKS ON VULNERABLE SPENT FUELS POOLS COULD BE CATASTROPHIC

According to Dr. Kevin Crowley of the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board, “successful terrorist attacks on spent fuel pools, though difficult, are possible. If an attack leads to a propagating zirconium cladding fire, it could result in the release of large amounts of radioactive material.”[11]
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission after the September 11, 2001 attacks required American nuclear plants “to protect with high assurance” against specific threats involving certain numbers and capabilities of assailants. Plants were also required to “enhance the number of security officers” and to improve “access controls to the facilities”.[12]” 
Source; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spent_fuel_pool

SPENT FUEL POOLS ARE VERY VULNERABLE TO TERRORIST ATTACK

What we learned after the mega disaster at Fukushima is that spent fuel pools are extremely vulnerable and unprotected in MANY ways. 

If a leak were to occur in one of the pools, and the rods were exposed to air, it would take at least 10 hours for the fuel to heat up to 900 degrees Celsius, a temperature at which a fire could occur, the NRC report says.
First, a terrorist plane loaded with explosives or just jet fuel can crash through the roof and explode a spent fuel pool with no problem at all. A tank busting projectile can put a large hole into a wall of a spent fuel pool, causing it to melt down, explode or catch on fire, spreading huge amounts of radioactive plumes downwind. 
Second, all spent fuel pools require power to stay intact and not melt down, because they crammed so much fuel into them, that passive cooling is no longer possible. Not only does it take power to cool them, but they also have to add chemicals just to control the heat. As we learned from Fukushima, without power, it only takes a couple days and the pools start burning and melting down, or just 10 hours for them to catch on fire, if water drains out suddenly. 
Multiple spent fuel pools and/or equipment pools at Fukushima melted down, caught on fire and melted out at Fukushima (see links above for picture evidence of this) releasing massive quantities of plutonium high into the air.

ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS AND SPENT FUEL POOLS ARE VULNERABLE TO LONG TERM POWER OUTAGE, EMP PULSE

Third, all spent fuel pools are vulnerable to the Carrington Event, as are the nuclear reactors. Without power, all 400+ nuclear reactors and spent fuel pools will melt down, blow up and catch on fire all around the world. Humanity cannot live through that. 
Super Solar Storm To Hit Earth – ‘Carrington Effect’; 400 Nuke Plants Will Melt Down/Explode; via @AGreenRoad
Fourth, reactors all across the world are now being filled with MOX plutonium fuel, which is 2 million times more dangerous than uranium. This high burnup fuel also creates more problems in the spent fuel pool. The NRC does not even have any studies around this fuel and what to do with it after it has gone through a reactor, but they are dumping this very hot, highly toxic and dangerous plutonium fuel into already stuffed spent fuel pools, which is a recipe for global disaster.

HIGH BURN UP MOX FUEL IS MUCH MORE VOLATILE AND DANGEROUS THAN URANIUM FUEL

Reactor #3 blew up in large part because of the plutonium fuel inside. 

What Really Happened At Fukushima Reactor And Spent Fuel Pool #3? via A Green Road 
Fifth, we also have the problem of what do with the spent fuel waste after it is done cooling off in the spent fuel pools. High burn up fuel studies have not been done around dry cask storage. No one even knows if this is possible.

Multiple Fukushima Spent Fuel Pools Burned And Vaporized, Plutonium MOX Fuel Vaporized And Traveled All Around The World On Jet Stream

DRY CASKS ARE NOT THE ANSWER FOR LONG TERM NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE

Dry casks are still just a ‘temporary’ storage solution. There is no longer term answer. Even if the dry casks last for 100 years, they must then be replaced, and who is going to pay for that, every 100 years, for 1 MILLION years? 
Dry Cask Long Term High Level Nuclear Waste Storage Problems And Issues; via A Green Road
Sixth, there is no long term storage or disposal solution for nuclear waste that must be guarded for ONE MILLION YEARS Is everyone really willing to pay for 30 years of (high cost) and toxic steam, and then sign up infinite future generations for the mandatory, forced cost of guarding this radioactive garbage that poses severe terrorist risks and global disaster potential, while giving them nothing positive in return? What right do we have to pass on this very disastrous legacy to infinite future generations?
93 Long life Radiation Contaminants, A Problem For Billions Of Years; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/93-long-lived-nuclear-elements.html

20 DEFECTIVE NUCLEAR REACTORS JUST LIKE FUKUSHIMA OPERATING IN THE US

Seventh, there are more than 20 faulty, badly engineered nuclear reactors that are the exact copies of the Fukushima reactors in the USA. The odds of a disaster like Fukushima are increasing exponentially in the USA, with every passing year. To find out more, click on the following link…
What Is The Statistical Probability Of A Major Nuclear Accident Like Fukushima In The USA? via @AGreenRoad
Bottom line, nuclear power is toxic, deadly, dangerous, too expensive and is immoral, when it comes to forcing countless future generations to the legacy of radioactive accidents, spills, contaminated food, water, air and the costs of protecting the radioactive garbage. We have no right to do this to future generations, and they would NOT give permission if they were asked. The risks are growing exponentially due to the use of plutonium MOX or high burnup fuel in the next generation of reactors, and/or rebuilt old and worn out one that are not originally designed for this fuel. 

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Spent Fuel Pool Risks At Nuclear Power Plants and Dry Cask High Burnup Plutonium Fuel Storage Problems; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/spent-fuel-pool-risks-at-nuclear-power.html

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EPA Dismantling Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERLs) Can Detect Radiation In Air, On Beaches, Animals, In Food

Mobile sample preparation trailers and mobile laboratories are used by EPA to determine whether low-level contamination exists in samples taken from the environment around a site. RERT has two Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratories (MERLs), which can arrive at any site in the United States within two to four days.
In other words, they could have used these mobile radiation detection labs to measure the worst of the plumes coming over from Fukushima, despite their normal RADNET monitors being broken under the worst of the plumes, at the worst times. The fact is, they did not measure the worst of the radiation plume from Fukushima, either with the regular monitoring network, or with these mobile units. 
Why not? Who made that decision?




EPA’s scanner van is one of many pieces of specialized equipment that can be used to detect radiation. It can be driven around a large area to identify “hotspots” where radiological contamination or other threats may exist.


These vehicles contain the latest radiation survey and communications equipment and are maintained in a constant state of readiness for deployment at a moment’s notice. 
24 Hour Environmental Emergencies 1-800-300-2193 
For Region 9 only
Contact Us;
Submit Comments/Email Us 
Radiation Protection Program For Region 9 (California)
Shelly Rosenblum
Radiation Indoor Environments Teams
U.S. EPA / AIR-6
75 Hawthorne St.
San Francisco, CA 94105
415-947-4193 fax: 3583
rosenblum.shelly at epa.gov

Tell EPA to keep mobile radiation monitoring lab for nuclear accidents in western U.S.

VIA NIRS: June 15, 2015
Dear friends,
We’ve got a busy week–and summer–coming up. Below is our first action for you to take: to reverse a decision by EPA to shut down one of its only two mobile radiation monitoring labs in the country. It’s a stupid decision that would save very little money but would leave the entire western U.S. unnecessarily vulnerable to nuclear accidents of all kinds. Let’s tell the EPA to reverse that decision now–before it’s implemented.
And watch your e-mail tomorrow: we’ll be announcing a major new international campaign on nuclear power and climate. You’ll want to be part of it. Later in the week watch for a new action on radiation issues.
The U.S. EPA has made a dangerous decision to eliminate its Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory based in Las Vegas, which is designed to respond quickly to a radiological release from a nuclear terrorist event, nuclear power plant accident, or transport incident. This would leave much of the U.S. without basic radiation information and unprotected in case of an intentional or accidental radiological release.
The van is one of only two in the country with high tech, state-of-the-art detection instruments that can quickly and completely assess the amounts and kinds of radioactivity released. When not in use for emergencies, it can be useful for quicker sampling results at contaminated cleanup sites. EPA could move and dismantle this valuable resource any day now unless we take action to stop it. 
For more information, watch this NBC story
Call EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy’s office right now at 202-564-4700 and leave a message demanding that she reverse the decision.
And also send McCarthy an e-mail with the same demand. We’ve made it easy here. As always, feel free to edit the sample text to reflect your own concerns.
Thanks for all you do–and be sure to check your e-mail tomorrow for the announcement of the new international campaign on nukes and climate!
Michael Mariotte
President
Nuclear Information and Resource Service
End 
EPA Dismantling Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERLs) Can Detect Radiation In Air, On Beaches, Animals, In Food; via @AGreenRoad

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Jet Stream Live Streaming Animated Map; Track Rain, Storms And Radiation Flows In Upper Atmosphere


To check out the latest jet stream, and figure out where the high level radiation is going, click on the following link, which provides a live view of global jet streams.

http://earth.nullschool.net/#current/wind/isobaric/850hPa/equirectangular

Another version you can double check, but both the one above and the one below should be the same…. we like the nice colored one above 🙂

http://squall.sfsu.edu/crws/jetstream.html

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Jet Stream Live Streaming Animated Map; Track Rain, Storms And Radiation Flows In Upper Atmosphere; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/jet-stream-live-streaming-animate-map.html



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What Is A Scintillation Counter And How Does It Work?

Which is better and more accurate, a Geiger Counter, or a Scintillator? 

Geiger counters are an indispensable tool for any scientist, professional or amateur (like me). The Geiger counter can detect radiation quickly and effectively. They are also relatively cheap, ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars (most are under $1,000). 

Geiger counters have varying abilities and detect different particles and energy levels of those particles with differing levels of efficiency. By far, beta radiation is detected the best with many tubes detecting 2 to 4 out of ten particles which hit them. 

Alpha radiation is a bit lower, with many tubes totally blind to them and those which are not only detecting 5 to 10 particles per every 100. Gamma and X-ray radiation is the lowest for Geiger counters, where often between 1 and 3 photons are detected per 100.

A pancake style Geiger Counter is more sensitive than a tube type. A small tube Geiger Counter is less sensitive than a Geiger Counter with one or even two large tubes. If your interest is in detecting radiation down to the level of food contamination, you must purchase a pancake style detector, because the tube types are just not sensitive enough to pick up anything. 

Pros — Cheap, easy to use, portable, can detect alpha, beta, gamma, and x-ray. 

Cons — Cannot determine isotope (fact), cannot determine energies, very low gamma and x-ray efficiency.

Scintillation counters are the tools of the professional nuclear scientist. Scintillation counters exist for gamma, x-ray, beta, and alpha radiation (a specific unit for each). When used with a multi channel spectrum analyzer, the counter can identify isotopes by their energies. 

Some Gamma spectrometers can even be used for complex gamma recoil analysis (mossbaur spectroscopy) which aid in determining the molecular bonds of various atoms, such as iron. 

Crystal scintillators may cost a few hundred to a few thousand dollars, while a multi channel spectrum analyzer to attach to one is at least a few thousand more. This means an entry level lab-grade unit (like mine) will set you back about $5000. 

Very powerful soil state units, like those used at universities, can be well beyond $10,000 and even as much as a million dollars. A good High Purity Germanium (HPGe) is at least $10k. These detectors may be used without a multi channel spectrum analyzer, but they only count at that point. Hobbyists have created multi channel spectrum analyzer’s for under $1,000 dollars.

Pros — Can identify isotopes, measures energies, very sensitive to gamma rays (for gamma sicntillators), can probe hyperfine molecular bonds.

Cons — Expensive ($1000 and up), complex, requires extensive skill (physics), portable units are often very expensive. Thanks to http://Anti-Proton.com

Wikipedia; “A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation.
It consists of a scintillator which generates photons of light in response to incident radiation, a sensitivephotomultiplier tube which converts the light to an electrical signal, and the necessary electronics to process the photomultiplier tube output.
Scintillation counters are widely used because they can be made inexpensively yet with good quantum efficiency and can measure both the intensity and the energy of incident radiation.

Operation

animation of radiation scintillation counter

When a charged particle strikes the scintillator, its atoms are excited and photons are emitted. These are directed at the photomultiplier tube’s photocathode, which emits electrons by the photoelectric effect. These electrons are electrostatically accelerated and focused by an electrical potential so that they strike the first dynode of the tube. The impact of a single electron on the dynode releases a number of secondary electrons which are in turn accelerated to strike the second dynode. Each subsequent dynode impact releases further electrons, and so there is a current amplifying effect at each dynode stage. Each stage is at a higher potential than the previous to provide the accelerating field. The resultant output signal at the anode is in the form of a measurable pulse for each photon detected at the photocathode, and is passed to the processing electronics. The pulse carries information about the energy of the original incident radiation on the scintillator. Thus both intensity and energy of the radiation can be measured.
The scintillator must be in complete darkness so that visible light photons do not swamp the individual photon events caused by incident ionising radiation. To achieve this a thin opaque foil, such as aluminised mylar, is often used, though it must have a low enough mass to prevent undue attenuation of the incident radiation being measured.
The article on the photomultiplier tube carries a detailed description of the tube’s operation.

Detection materials

The scintillator consists of a transparent crystal, usually a phosphor, plastic (usually containing anthracene) or organic liquid (see liquid scintillation counting) that fluoresces when struck by ionizing radiation.
Cesium iodide (CsI) in crystalline form is used as the scintillator for the detection of protons and alpha particles. sodium iodide (NaI) containing a small amount of thallium is used as a scintillator for the detection of gamma waves and Zinc Sulphide is widely used as a detector of alpha particles.

Detector efficiencies

Schematic of a scintillating crystal combined with a photomultiplier.

Gamma

The quantum efficiency of a gamma-ray detector (per unit volume) depends upon the density of electrons in the detector, and certain scintillating materials, such as sodium iodide and bismuth germanate, achieve high electron densities as a result of the high atomic numbers of some of the elements of which they are composed. However, detectors based on semiconductors, notably hyperpure germanium, have better intrinsic energy resolution than scintillators, and are preferred where feasible for gamma-ray spectrometry.

Neutron

In the case of neutron detectors, high efficiency is gained through the use of scintillating materials rich in hydrogen that scatter neutrons efficiently.Liquid scintillation counters are an efficient and practical means of quantifying beta radiation.

Applications

Scintillation counters are used to measure radiation in a variety of applications.
Several products have been introduced in the market utilising scintillation counters for detection of potentially dangerous gamma-emitting materials during transport. These include scintillation counters designed for freight terminals, border security, ports, weigh bridge applications, scrap metal yards and contamination monitoring of nuclear waste. There are variants of scintillation counters mounted on pick-up trucks and helicopters for rapid response in case of a security situation due to dirty bombs or radioactive waste.[1][2] Hand-held units are also commonly used.[3]

Guidance on application use

In the United Kingdom the HSE has issued a user guidance note on selecting the correct radiation measurement instrument for the application concerned [1]. This covers all radiation instrument technologies, and is a useful comparative guide to the use of scintillation detectors.

Alpha and Beta contamination detection

Hand-held large area alpha scintillation probe under calibration

Industrial radioactive contamination monitors, either hand-held or installed require a large detection area to ensure efficient and rapid coverage of monitored surfaces. For this the scintillation counter with a large area scintillator window and integrated photomultiplier tube is ideally suited and finds wide application in the field of radioactive contamination monitoring of personnel and the environment. Detectors are designed to have one or two scintillation materials, depending on the application. “Single phosphor” detectors are used for either alpha or beta, and “Dual phosphor” detectors are used to detect both.
A scintillator such as zinc sulphide is used for alpha particle detection, whilst plastic scintillators are used for beta detection. The resultant scintillation energies can be discriminated so that alpha and beta counts can be measured separately with the same detector. This technique is used in both hand-held and fixed monitoring equipment, and such instruments are relatively inexpensive compared with the gas proportional detector.

Scintillation counter as a spectrometer

The experimental setup for determination of γ-radiation spectrum with a scintillation counter. A high voltage power supply is connected to the scintillation counter. The scintillation counter is connected to the Multichannel Analyser which sends information to the computer.

Scintillators often convert a single photon of high energy radiation into high number of lower-energy photons, where the number of photons per megaelectronvolt of input energy is fairly constant. By measuring the intensity of the flash (the number of the photons produced by the x-ray or gamma photon) it is therefore possible to discern the original photon’s energy.
The spectrometer consists of a suitable scintillator crystal, a photomultiplier tube, and a circuit for measuring the height of the pulses produced by the photomultiplier. The pulses are counted and sorted by their height, producing a x-y plot of scintillator flash brightness vs number of the flashes, which approximates the energy spectrum of the incident radiation, with some additional artifacts. A monochromatic gamma radiation produces a photopeak at its energy. The detector also shows response at the lower energies, caused by Compton scattering, two smaller escape peaks at energies 0.511 and 1.022 MeV below the photopeak for the creation of electron-positron pairs when one or both annihilation photons escape, and a backscatter peak. Higher energies can be measured when two or more photons strike the detector almost simultaneously (pile-up, within the time resolution of the data acquisition chain), appearing as sum peaks with energies up to the value of two or more photopeaks added.[4]

History

The modern electronic scintillation counter was invented in 1944 by Sir Samuel Curran[5][6] whilst he was working on the Manhattan Project at the University of California at Berkeley, and it is based on the work of earlier researchers reaching back to Antoine Henri Becquerel, who is generally credited with discovering radioactivity, whilst working on thephosphorescence of certain uranium salts (in 1896). The Spinthariscope was an early method of detecting the scintillation events by eye.”
END
What Is A Scintillation Counter And How Does It Work? via @AGreenRoad 
For more articles and videos like this; 

Low Level Nuclear Radiation In Food And Water, Geiger Counters, Dosimeters And Other Radiation Detection Devices
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A GREEN ROAD PROJECT INDEX 

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Uranium Mining and Enrichment – Nuclear Bomb -Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/uranium-mining-and-enrichment.html

Low Level Nuclear Radiation In Food And Water, Geiger Counters
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/low-level-nuclear-radiation-in-food-and.html

Long Term Storage Of Nuclear Fuel, Nuclear Waste
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/recycling-or-long-term-storage-of.html

What is Needed? Top Down Champions Of Sustainability With $; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/06/what-is-needed-top-down-champions-of.html

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What Is A Gamma-Ray Spectrometer?

What Is A Gamma-Ray Spectrometer?


http://youtu.be/kpphHHnmh0g

Wikipedia: “A Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, or (GRS), is an instrument for measuring the distribution (orspectrum—see figure) of the intensity of gamma radiation versus the energy of each photon.Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation at the short-wavelength, or high-frequency, end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, which ranges from gamma rays (short) to radio (long). 


The study and analysis of gamma-ray spectra for scientific and technical use is called gamma spectroscopy, and gamma-ray spectrometers are the instruments which observe and collect such data. Because the energy of each photon of EM radiation is proportional to its frequency, gamma rays have sufficient energy that they are typically observed by counting individual photons.
Gamma-ray spectroscopy
Atomic nuclei have an energy-level structure somewhat analogous to the energy levels of atoms, so that they may emit (or absorb) photons of particular energies, much as atoms do, but at energies that are thousands to millions of times higher than those typically studied in optical spectroscopy. 
(Note that the short-wavelength high-energy end, of the atomic spectroscopy energy range (few eV to few hundred keV), generally termed X rays, overlaps somewhat with the low end of the nuclear gamma-ray range (~10 MeV to ~10 keV) so that the terminology used to distinguish X rays from gamma rays can be arbitrary or ambiguous in the overlap region.) 
As with atoms, the particular energy levels of nuclei are characteristic of each species, so that the photon energies of the gamma rays emitted, which correspond to the energy differences of the nuclei, can be used to identify particular elements and isotopes. 
Distinguishing between gamma-rays of slightly different energy is an important consideration in the analysis of complex spectra, and the ability of a GRS to do so is characterized by the instrument’s spectral resolution, or the accuracy with which the energy of each photon is measured. 
Semi-conductor detectors, based on cooled germanium or silicon detecting elements, have been invaluable for such applications. Because the energy level spectrum of nuclei typically dies out above about 10 MeV, gamma-ray instruments looking to still higher energies generally observe only continuum spectra, so that the moderate spectral resolution of scintillation (often sodium iodide (NaI) or caesium iodide, (CsI) spectrometers), often suffices for such applications.
Astronomical spectrometers
A number of investigations have been performed to observe the gamma-ray spectra of the Sun and other astronomical sources, both galactic and extra-galactic. The Hard X-ray/Low-Energy Gamma-ray experiment (A-4) on HEAO 1, the Burst and Transient Spectrometry Experiment (BATSE) and the OSSI (Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment) on CGRO, the C1 germanium (Ge) gamma-ray instrument on HEAO 3, and the Ge gamma-ray spectrometer (SPI) on the ESA INTEGRAL mission are examples of cosmic spectrometers, while the GRS on the SMM and the imaging Ge spectrometer on the RHESSI satellite have been devoted to solar observations.
Planetary gamma-ray spectrometers
Source of image data: Los Alamos National Laboratory
Gamma-ray spectrometers have been widely used for the elemental and isotopic analysis of airless bodies in the Solar System, especially the Moon and Mars. These surfaces are subjected to a continual bombardment of high-energy cosmic rays, which excite nuclei in them to emit characteristic gamma-rays which can be detected from orbit. 
Thus an orbiting instrument can in principle map the surface distribution of the elements for an entire planet. Examples include the mapping of 20 elements observed in the exploration of Mars, the Eros asteroid and the Moon.[1] 
They are usually associated with neutron detectors that can look for water and ice in the soil by measuring neutrons. They are able to measure the abundance and distribution of about 20 primary elements of the periodic table, including silicon, oxygen,iron, magnesium, potassium, aluminum, calcium, sulfur, and carbon
Knowing what elements are at or near the surface will give detailed information about how planetary bodies have changed over time. To determine the elemental makeup of the Martian surface, the Mars experiment used a gamma ray spectrometer and two neutron detectors.
GRS instruments supply data on the distribution and abundance of chemical elements, much as the Lunar Prospector mission did on the moon. In this case, the chemical element thorium was mapped, with higher concentrations shown in yellow/orange/red in the left-hand side image shown on the right.
How a GRS works[edit]
Some constructions of scintillation counters can be used as gamma ray spectrometers. The gamma photon energy is discerned from the intensity of the flash of the scintillator, a number of low-energy photons produced by the single high-energy one. 
Another approach relies on using Germanium detectors – a crystal of hyperpure germanium that produces pulses proportional to the captured photon energy; while more sensitive, it has to be cooled to a low temperature, requiring a bulky cryogenic apparatus. 
Handheld and many laboratory gamma spectrometers are therefore the scintillator kind, mostly with thalliumdoped sodium iodide, thallium-doped caesium iodide, or, more recently, cerium doped lanthanum bromide. Spectrometers for space missions conversely tend to be of the germanium kind.
When exposed to cosmic rays (charged particles in space that come from the stars, including our sun), chemical elements in soils and rocks emit uniquely identifiable signatures of energy in the form of gamma rays. The gamma ray spectrometer looks at these signatures, or energies, coming from the elements present in the target soil.
By measuring gamma rays coming from the target body, it is possible to calculate the abundance of various elements and how they are distributed around the planet’s surface. Gamma rays, emitted from the nuclei of atoms, show up as sharp emission lines on the instrument’s spectrum output. 
While the energy represented in these emissions determines which elements are present, the intensity of the spectrum reveals the elements concentrations. Spectrometers are expected to add significantly to the growing understanding of the origin and evolution of planets like Mars and the processes shaping them today and in the past.
How are gamma rays and neutrons produced by cosmic rays? Incoming cosmic rays–some of the highest-energy particles—collide with the nucleus of atoms in the soil. When nuclei are hit with such energy, neutrons are released, which scatter and collide with other nuclei. 
The nuclei get “excited” in the process, and emit gamma rays to release the extra energy so they can return to their normal rest state. Some elements like potassium, uranium, and thorium are naturally radioactive and give off gamma rays as they decay, but all elements can be excited by collisions with cosmic rays to produce gamma rays. The HEND and Neutron Spectrometers on GRS directly detect scattered neutrons, and the gamma sensor detects the gamma rays.
Water detection
By measuring neutrons, it is possible to calculate the abundance of hydrogen, thus inferring the presence of water. The neutron detectors are sensitive to concentrations of hydrogen in the upper meter of the surface. When cosmic rays hit the surface of Mars, neutrons and gamma-rays come out of the soil. The GRS measured their energies.[2] 
Certain energies are produced by hydrogen. Since hydrogen is most likely present in the form of water ice, the spectrometer will be able to measure directly the amount of permanent ground ice and how it changes with the seasons. Like a virtual shovel “digging into” the surface, the spectrometer will allow scientists to peer into this shallow subsurface of Mars and measure the existence of hydrogen.
GRS will supply data similar to that of the successful Lunar Prospector mission, which told us how much hydrogen, and thus water, is likely on the Moon.
The gamma ray spectrometer used on the Odyssey spacecraft consists of four main components: the gamma sensor head, the neutron spectrometer, the high energy neutron detector, and the central electronics assembly. 
The sensor head is separated from the rest of the spacecraft by a 6.2 meter (20 ft) boom, which was extended after Odyssey entered the mapping orbit at Mars. This maneuver is done to minimize interference from any gamma rays coming from the spacecraft itself. The initial spectrometer activity, lasting between 15 and 40 days, performed an instrument calibration before the boom was deployed. 
After about 100 days of the mapping mission, the boom was deployed and remained in this position for the duration of the mission. The two neutron detectors-the neutron spectrometer and the high-energy neutron detector-are mounted on the main spacecraft structure and operated continuously throughout the mapping mission.
In July 2003, at a conference in California, the discovery of huge amounts of water in vast areas of Mars was announced. Mars has enough ice just beneath the surface to fill Lake Michigan twice.[3] 
In both hemispheres, from 55 degrees latitude to the poles, Mars has a high density of ice just under the surface. One pound of soil contains a half of a pound of water ice. Close to the equator, there is only 2 to 10% of water in the soil.[4]Scientists believe that much of this water is locked up in the chemical structure of minerals. 
Clay and sulfates contain water in their structure. Previous studies with infrared spectroscopes have provided evidence of small amounts of chemically or physically bound water. The Viking landers detected low levels of chemically bound water in the Martian soil. It is believed that although the upper surface only contains a percent or so of water, ice may lie just a few feet deeper. 
Some areas, Arabia Terra, Amazonis quadrangle, and Elysium quadrangle contained large amounts of water.[4][5] Analysis of the data suggest that the southern hemisphere may have a layered structure.[6] Both of the poles showed buried ice, but the north pole had none close to it because it was covered over by seasonal carbon dioxide (dry ice). 
When the measurements were gathered, it was winter at the north pole.[3] The instruments aboard the Mars Odyssey are only able to study the top meter or so of soil. Still, the amount of water discovered by this mission is huge. Estimates of the total amount of water that may be buried in the soil range up to a global layer 0.5 to 1.5 km deep.[7]
The Phoenix lander confirmed the earlier findings of the Mars Odyssey by finding ice a few inches below the surface and the ice is at least 8 inches deep. When the ice is exposed to the Martian atmosphere it slowly sublimates. In fact, some of the ice was exposed by the landing rockets of the craft.[8]
Needless to say, Mars Odyssey’s discovery of so much widespread water on Mars raises the hopes the discovery of past or present life forms. Also, future colonists can now be assured that they can find sufficient quantities of water to set up a civilization.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_ray_spectrometer
END

What Is A Gamma-Ray Spectrometer? via @AGreenRoad

http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/what-is-gamma-ray-spectrometer.html

For more articles like this;
Low Level Nuclear Radiation In Food And Water, Geiger Counters, Dosimeters
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/low-level-nuclear-radiation-in-food-and.html

List Of European Countries With Radioactively Contaminated Food, Map Of Radiation Contaminated Regions

The average nuclear plant meltdown contaminates between 15,000 to 25,000 square kilometers of land with a variety of man made radioactive elements. This radiation contamination lasts for a million years. But reprocessing plants launch as much radioactive contamination into the air and water per YEAR, as the Three Mile nuclear plant meltdown did in total. Due to an average accident/spill/meltdown rate of 1 per year, this is why the average background radiation levels are rising all around the world. In turn, this is why children’s rates of cancers, birth deformities, and genetic diseases are rising. Food with 10 Bq/kg of radiation contamination can cause health problems, so the following food radiation surveys should shock you.

European Continent

Countries that have a higher than average risk of radiation food contamination issues…..

Belarus

Ukraine
Poland
Lithuania
Romania
Ireland
Turkey
Greece
Yugoslavia
Hungary
Sweden
Denmark

(this is not a complete list; see radioactive contamination map above. Small hot spots may exist in many other countries, which are too small to be measured on a large map.)
In many European countries levels of I-131, Cs-134/137, Sr-90, and other radionuclides in milk, dairy products, vegetables, grains, meat, and fish increased drastically (sometimes as much as 1,000-fold) immediately after a nuclear catastrophe. 

United States

Up until 1991 the United States imported food products with measurable amounts of Chernobyl radioactive contamination, mostly from Turkey, Italy, Austria, West Germany, Greece, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Sweden, and Denmark. These products included juices, cheeses, pasta, mushrooms, hazelnuts, sage, figs, tea, thyme, juniper, caraway seeds, and apricots. 
In Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest provinces in Belarus 7-8% of milk and 13-16% of other food products from small farms exceeded permissible levels of Cs-137, even as recently as 2005-2007. As of 2000, up to 90% of the wild berries and mushrooms exceeded permissible levels of Cs-137 in Rovno and Zhytomir provinces, Ukraine.
According to elementshealthspace; “Mushrooms are popular in France. Last year, the DGCCRF reported that the country imported a total of 178 metric tonnes (196 US Tons) of approved or legal mushrooms from Eastern Europe alone. Once in a while, however, crates of Eastern European mushrooms – from the Ukraine, from Belarus and from Russia — enter illegally, reaching consumers through a complicated black market system. These mushrooms are generally harvested from radioactive exclusion zones around Chernobyl [1].
It seems, however, that these regulations and guidelines are not followed by all EU countries. In 1998, the BBC reported that the European Commission received 19 complaints from Austria, Germany and France about radioactive contaminated mushrooms from Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Romania. The Commission decided to establish a list of specific entry points for mushroom imports (Airports, Ports and Custom Offices) in order to make screening easier. 
It also urged Central and Eastern European countries to carry out rigorous controls, or risk severe restrictions on their mushroom exports [3]. The Commission also set the maximum permitted concentration of radioactive cesium-137 to 600 Bq/kg (becquerel per kilogram – a becquerel is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second). This action was taken because some mushroom shipments had contamination levels of several thousand becquerel per kilogram, far above a safe limit [4].

Finland

In Finland, one of the countries strongly affected by Chernobyl fallout, STUK or the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, did their own research on local, wild mushrooms. Their results indicated contamination with cesium-137 in their own exclusion zone, but also showed that radioactive readings were not uniform; growing conditions, uneven fallout and even the species of wild mushrooms affected how well radionuclides were absorbed [5].
After reading these references, I still do not really know what to tell people who may want to eat wild mushrooms while traveling in Europe. If, however, you definitely want to eat wild mushrooms and you suspect the possibility of contamination, there are some precautions you may take. The Finish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has published a very valuable leaflet which provides pertinent information about what to do if you suspect your mushrooms are contaminated with cesium.

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This well illustrated pamphlet entitled Guidelines for Handling of Mushrooms, Reduction of Radioactive Cesium provides several options depending upon the state and species of mushroom – for example you can boil fresh or salted mushrooms in large quantities of water and then rinse thoroughly, or you can heat mushrooms in order for them to release their own liquid which is then discarded, or you may soak fresh or dried mushrooms, also discarding the water afterwards. Just follow the steps and you can achieve 70% to 90% reduction of cesium [6]. This pamphlet is a ‘must-have’ for health officers and an excellent reference for travelers. In fact, I highly recommend this leaflet to everyone.”
END
List Of European Countries With Radioactively Contaminated Food, Map Of Radiation Contaminated Regions; via @AGreenRoad
For more articles and videos like this; 
Low Level Nuclear Radiation In Food And Water, Geiger Counters, Dosimeters

Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump, 47,800 Barrels Of Radioactive Waste Dumped West Of San Francisco Between 1946 To 1970

http://youtu.be/oUYJFlObhtA

A new documentary that examines the nuclear waste disposal problem in just one location. We have these sites across the globe, all over our oceans. There are even instances where pipes have been setup in the sea, so the waste can be disposed off even easier and unseen.

USGS REPORT ABOUT 47,000 NUCLEAR WASTE FILLED DRUMS DUMPED IN 300 FEET OF OCEAN, OFF OF CALIFORNIA COASTLINE

According to USGS: “More than 47,800 drums and other containers of low-level radioactive waste were dumped onto the ocean floor west of San Francisco between 1946 and 1970; many of these are in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary.

Questions

  • Where are the drums?
  • Is it appropriate and safe to dispose of radioactive waste in the marine environment?

Some Answers

Although the drums were to be dumped at three specific sites, there are no drums at the exact location of the site covered by this study.

Preliminary maps show the location of many drums, but only 15 percent of the radioactive waste dump area has been mapped.

This information can be used to sample around the drums to determine if the radioactive material is leaking or otherwise affecting the environment.

Source: http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/farallon/radwasteimg.html

Summary

Between 1946 and 1970, approximately 47,800 large barrels and other containers of radioactive waste were dumped in the ocean west of San Francisco. The containers were to be dumped at three designated sites, but they a litter sea floor area of at least 1,400 km2 known as the Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump.
The exact location of the containers and the potential hazard the containers pose to the environment are unknown. (AGRP: No one has studied it)
The USGS developed computer techniques and contracted with private industry to enhance sidescan- sonar data–collected in cooperation with the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary–to detect objects as small as 55-gallon steel barrels while conducting regional sidescan-sonar surveys. Locations of probable 55-gallon containers derived from the enhanced sidescan sonar images were plotted on a map covering a 125-km2 area.
The U.S. Navy, the USGS, and the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary pooled their expertise and resources to verify the new computer enhancement techniques developed for detecting targets on sidescan sonar images the size of 55-gallon barrels.The acoustic intepretations were verified using the USN DSV (Deep Submergence Vehicle) Sea Cliff and the unmanned Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV).
Barrels and other physical features were found without fail where image enhancement had indicated they would be found.
Without maps as guides to probable barrel sites, previous attempts to locate the barrels using submersibles were like trying to find a needle in a haystack. In contrast, using the new acoustic maps to drive from one barrel site to the next, each Sea Cliff and ATV dive verified the predicted absence or presence of barrels.
The interagency cooperation among the USN, USGS, and Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary has provided the technological, scientific, and practical expertise to develop a cost-effective and time-efficient method to locate the barrels of radioactive waste. This method can be used to locate containers of hazardous waste over a regional scale in other ocean areas such as Boston Harbor and the Kara Sea in the Arctic.”

Nuclear waste dump

In the above map the approximate locations of two major nuclear waste dumping sites, according to a 1980 United States Environmental Protection Agency report, are indicated.
Wikipedia: “From 1946 to 1970, the sea around the Farallones was used as a nuclear dumping site for radioactive waste under the authority of the Atomic Energy Commission at a site known as the Farallon Island Nuclear Waste Dump. Most of the dumping took place before 1960, and all dumping of radioactive wastes by the United States was terminated in 1970. By then, 47,500 55 gallon steel drum containers had been dumped in the vicinity, with a total estimated radioactive activity of 14,500 Ci
44,000 containers were dumped at 37°37′N 123°17′W, and another 3,500 at 37°38′N 123°08′W.[26]
The exact location of the containers and the potential hazard the containers pose to the environment are unknown.[27] Attempts to remove the barrels would likely produce greater risk than leaving them undisturbed.[26]
Waste containers were shipped to Hunters Point Shipyard, then loaded onto barges for transportation to the Farallones. Containers were weighted with concrete. Those that floated were sometimes shot with rifles to sink them.[28]

USS INDEPENDENCE WAS SUNK IN THIS AREA, DUE TO EXCESSIVE RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION FROM BIKINI ISLAND ATOMIC BOMB TEST

In January 1951, the highly radioactive hull of USS Independence was scuttled in the area.”
According to some people, the carrier was loaded to the gills with high level nuclear waste, and it was highly radioactive. That leads to the question, why isn’t the USS Ronald Reagan also highly radioactive, since it was close to and downwind of Fukushima for quite awhile? Is it really possible to ‘decontaminate’ a ship that has been totally soaked in a plume of radiation and neutron/gamma skyshine? 

USS Ronald Reagan Sailors/Crew Exposed To High Doses Of Fukushima Radiation, File Lawsuit; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/12/uss-ronald-reagan-sailorscrew-exposed.html

The nuclear industry claims that only ‘low level’ radioactive waste was dumped in the ocean. Of course, there is no way to check this assertion without spending a lot of money, but the odds of this being the truth are miniscule, based on the past history of the nuclear industry and what it claims.

NO ANSWERS ON HOW TO DEAL WITH DUMPED NUCLEAR WASTE AS BARRELS ROT AWAY AND EXPOSE RADIOACTIVE CONTENTS TO OCEAN AND ALL LIVING THINGS LIVING IN IT

Nuclear Waste Sits on Ocean Floor U.S. Has Few Answers on How to Handle Atomic Waste It Dumped in the Sea 
The agency that authorized and talked about this dumping got dissolved and abolished due to corruption and lies, which should tell us something. There is no plan for what to do with this nuclear waste sitting on the ocean bottom. There is no plan to monitor the radiation in the water or to monitor the condition of the drums. There is no plan on monitoring fish or other sea life for radiation levels.

300,000 VETERANS WERE FORCIBLY EXPOSED TO RADIATION AS HUMAN GUINEA PIGS

What happened to the 300,000 veterans who were exposed to radiation from all of this open air testing of nuclear weapons? 

300,000 Atomic Veterans Forcibly Exposed To Nuclear Radiation, Made Into Radioactive Lab Rats; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/02/300000-atomic-veterans-forcibly-exposed.html

A FEW STUDIES SHOW RADIATION CONTAMINATED FISH AND OTHER CREATURES ARE PRESENT IN THE AREA

In the few ‘studies’ that were done in the 1990’s researchers became appalled the more they found out about it. One researcher said that eating a pound a week of contaminated fish from this area would result in a significant radiation exposure. Plutonium is also one of the most lethal poisons on the planet. 
Wall St. Journal: Plutonium levels 1,000 times normal on seafloor 50 miles from San Francisco — Expert Appalled: Major nuclear dump offshore is a threat to health — Around 50,000 containers of radioactive waste in ‘globally significant ecosystem’ 
The California coast is famous for ‘upwelling’ currents coming from the deep cold depths of the ocean, then rising up to the surface. Wouldn’t it seem reasonable that any radioactivity from the ocean bottoms would also rise to the surface along with these currents? 
Contrary to the nuclear industry claims that only low level radiation was dumped there (plutonium is NOT low level waste), the following IAEA document shows a large variety of radioactive elements dumped in both liquid and solid form. 
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1105_prn.pdf

STUDY FINDS RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN FISH AND MUSSELS IN AREA OF DUMP

Wouldn’t it make sense that currents, storms, bottom dwelling fish and sea creatures like crabs could carry this radiation into other areas? Wouldn’t it makes sense that shellfish near this location could concentrate even low levels of plutonium or other radioactive elements leaking from this site? 
Despite the fact that 1000 times the ‘normal levels’ of plutonium was found on the ocean bottom in the areas, the US government, nuclear industry and agencies involved do not care enough to monitor anything, and they certainly do not seem to want to do anything about it either. 

Health Phys. 1996 Aug;71(2):167-78.
Radionuclides in fishes and mussels from the Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste Dump Site, California.
Suchanek TH1, Lagunas-Solar MC, Raabe OG, Helm RC, Gielow F, Peek N, Carvacho O.
Author information

Abstract

The Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste Dump Site (FINWDS), approximately 30 miles west of San Francisco, California, received at least 500 TBq encapsulated in more than 47,500 containers from approximately 1945 to 1970. During several seasons in 1986/87 deep-sea bottom feeding fishes (Dover sole = Microstomus pacificus; sablefish = Anoplopoma fimbria; thornyheads = Sebastolobus spp.) and intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus) were collected from the vicinity of the FINWDS and from comparable depths at a reference site near Point Arena, CA. Tissues were analyzed for several radionuclides (137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am). Radionuclide concentrations for fish mussel tissue ranged from non-detectable to 4,340 mBq kg(-1) wet weight, with the following means for Farallon fishes: 137Cs = 1,110 mBq kg(-1); 238Pu = 390 mBq kg(-1); 239+240Pu = 130 mBq kg(-1); and 241Am = 1,350 mBq kg(-1)…..

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8690599

Plutonium is entirely a man made radioactive element which did not exist before the scientists created it. Humans have no defense against it. Since none existed before the atomic age, normal levels of plutonium should be ZERO. Any plutonium found in any location is entirely man made, and put there by the nuclear industry, the military industrial complex or both of them working together. Now we know who to hold accountable, but where is the outrage?

NUCLEAR WASTE DUMPING IN OCEAN OFF COAST OF EUROPE

This is a report about the nuclear waste that was dumped into the sea around Europe between 1967 and 1982. All 114,726 tons are still there – thousands of barrels, corroding or even rosted through by now.  For informations about Schacht Asse, have a look at wikipedia:

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A Green Road Project; Teaching the Science of Sustainable Health. Keep asking – what works for 7 future generations without causing harm?

SUMMARY

Humanity is sitting on numerous nuclear time bombs. There are the thousands of TONS of nuclear waste that were dumped into the worlds oceans. Those barrels are all dissolving in the salty ocean water and releasing their deadly contents into prime fishing grounds. 


There are the tens of thousands of tons of spent nuclear fuel that are accumulating in all of the nuclear plants globally. Every spent fuel pool at every one of the nuclear reactors is a nuclear waste time bomb, waiting to go off, with the same radiation as 9,000 nuclear bombs. 

There are thousands of tons of nuclear waste stored at numerous labs and other facilities all around the world. These are also nuclear waste time bombs waiting to go off. 

There is no answer for all of this nuclear high level waste, and there is no plan on how to get rid of it. All of it needs to be guarded for 1 million years or longer. Who is going to pay to safely guard and/or dispose of all of this nuclear garbage for 1 million years? We cannot even remember what happened 2,000 years ago. No one even knows why or how the pyramids were built. For all we know, they were built to house nuclear waste. We bumbled around and tore things up in these old structures, but still have very little idea what they are for. 

How are nuclear waste dumps going to remain secure and safe with distant future civilizations that are digging around trying to find traces of our present day civilization, which is working really hard on developing many ways to go extinct, and taking all living things with it on the way out. Over 130 species a day are going extinct, largely due to human activities and consequences. Humans seem to be paying no attention and are accelerating the pace of extinction through greed, denial, ignorance and blind stupidity.  


End 
Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump, 47,800 Barrels Of Radioactive Waste Dumped West Of San Francisco Between 1946 To 1970; via @AGreenRoad
For more articles and videos about this subject, see; 
Long Term Storage Of Nuclear Fuel, Nuclear Waste Problems/Issues 
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/recycling-or-long-term-storage-of.html

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http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/effects-of-internal-low-level-nuclear.html

Radiation In Food/Water/Products, Geiger Counters, Dosimeters, Test Labs, Radiation Readings, Conversions
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/low-level-nuclear-radiation-in-food-and.html

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A Green Road is where heart and paradigm shift happens. Featuring sustainable green living news, movies, articles and videos from cutting edge minds and hearts, AGRP asks the question; what will benefit seven future generations without causing harm? AGRP teaches the Science of Sustainable Health, through articles, videos and books. 
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Testing Many Types Of Pacific Ocean Fish With Inspector Radiation Detector on Sept. 17th, 2013



Sep 17, 2013

“EnviroReporter took a road trip to the Central Coast of California that included visiting a fisherman and his wife, Will and Robin, at their beautiful Santa Barbara home to test an assortment of fish and sea creatures for radiation. Will offered us an excellent opportunity to test yellowtail, bluefin tuna, rockfish, bluefin tuna “collar,” mussels, squid, albacore tuna and yellowtail collar. All the fish was caught locally by Will and measured at background. This is probably because the Sea of Fuku Goo hasn’t made it down to Southern California yet. The results, while hopeful for the time being, do not change EnviroReporter’s admonition not to eat or consume anything from the Pacific unless you can verify yourself it is radiation-free. That includes seaweed and its derivative carrageenan which is widely used in the food industry and toothpaste for its gelling, thickening and stabilizing properties. But at least for the time being, these anecdotal tests show that at least some of Southern California’s fish are still not hot.”

Source; description under video
It would have been nice to do timed 10 minute tests on each of these fish samples, rather than what he did in this video, but if there is radiation in the fish it is more than likely at a low level. 
If the background radiation is 50, a 15% error on the high side would be a high reading of 57, but several of the fish came in at 70, which to us means there may be something there. Not that much, but something. The difference between 57 and 70 is 13.. Of course there is no way to know for sure, unless you do a timed test both on the background radiation and on the food sample. This is the ONLY way to figure out radiation levels in food that are less than screaming hot. 
Now if we assume the 13 counts per minute indicates that there is some radiation in at least one of these fish samples, how would we find out what that means more specifically? It would mean taking this fish to a location where more sophisticated radiation testing equipment is available, such as a lead lined container and a device that can ‘read’ individual isotopes, as well as the radiation measurement in bq/kg specifically. Ideally, your local grocery store will have one of these installed soon, thanks to you suggesting it to them, right?

Geiger counters are NOT designed to detect radiation in food, bottom line. Here we have evidence of why it is so hard to use a radiation detector in that way, unless the food item is screaming hot..
At best, a pancake detector is a first, very rough, screening tool to figure out if something is screaming hot or not.. Anything more, and one needs a much more precise and sensitive radiation testing machine. Especially with kids, it pays to keep the food as clean as possible, with radiation levels below 5 bq/kg. A geiger counter cannot tell you about foods with this low of a radiation level.
That is why a two prong radiation detection strategy is important. First, work with a local group or community group and convince a local grocery store or other public facility to install an official $15,000 food radiation detecting machine. 
Then buy a pancake style radiation detector to protect the kids and family everywhere else. Between those two things, that is about as much as you can do in the way of detecting dangerous levels of radiation. Why is this strategy so important for families to implement? 

Reports: “Highly significant quantity” of fission products being flushed into environment by water used on Fukushima molten fuel, including plutonium and curium — Radioactivity to recirculate for many generations in food chain, meat content will increase with time

Fukushima is releasing a Niagara Falls of radiation into the Pacific, starting on 3/11 and continuing until now. 
Our estimation is that the main, concentrated high radiation plume from Fukushima will eventually get to the US coast, sometime between now and 2016.  The airborne radiation already swept over and caused a 98% dead creatures and plankton covering the ocean bottom in 2011. The combination of this one, two punch of radiation will have a major impact on the ocean and all life in it, over time. 
If you and your community get ready now, you will be in the best position possible when the S(#*# hits the fan sometime down the road. Of course, if nothing happens, so much the better, but as the wise man says; it is better to be prepared and prevent, rather than to react with panic after something happens, due to lack of preparation.
END

Testing Many Types Of Pacific Ocean Fish With Inspector Radiation Detector on Sept. 17th, 2013; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/testing-many-types-of-pacific-ocean.html

Nuclear Energy As A Direct Cause Of Global Warming, Acid Rain, Acid Oceans, Extreme Weather, And Super Storms

Nuclear Energy As A Direct Cause Of Global Warming, Acid Rain, Acid Oceans, Extreme Weather, And Super Storms

This article specifically details the MANY and varied ways that the nuclear industry causes global warming and negative climate changes.


Let’s tackle the many ways that nuclear power plants create radioactive pollution, (as seen above) and global warming, one at a time. If you know of a government official that needs to hear this message, pass it on; nuclear power is a dead ender technology. Jeremy Rifkin is an advisor to heads of state, and he states that nuclear energy is the LAST thing that any nation should be doing. He lists five very compelling reasons why nuclear is dead on arrival. These five reasons are added to the rest of this article, but keep them in mind… 

5 Reasons Why Nuclear Energy Is A Dead End Technology, by Jeremy Rifkin – Advisor To Heads Of State Around The World
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/04/5-reasons-why-nuclear-energy-is-dead.html

Not only is nuclear energy pumping radioactive poisonous heavy metals into the air and water, it is also dangerous, global warming and toxic, even more so after decommissioning. Did you know that every nuclear plant is producing radioactive carbon, and that all nuclear plants have a huge carbon footprint as well?

Nuclear Power Is EXPENSIVE, Dirty, Dangerous, Global Warming And Toxic, Even More So AFTER Decommissioning; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/10/nuclear-power-expensive-dirty-dangerous.html

OXYGEN PRODUCING PLANKTON, PLANTS AND TREES ARE BEING DAMAGED AND/OR KILLED BY RADIATION FROM NUCLEAR PLANTS

Second, now let’s focus more on the direct radiation effects on the world, and how that affects global warming. It is established scientific fact that trees and plankton in the ocean create most of the oxygen in the world, and soak up a massive amount of CO2, but not nearly enough to make up for what humanity is releasing due to carbon burning, to the tune of 1 cubic mile of oil per year. 
What is worrying is that plankton are declining in number over time and the health of forests is declining with more and more trees getting sick and/or dying earlier and more often. What is the reason for this? What effect does this have on humanity? 
According to Nuclearreader; “plankton in parts of the Antarctic Ocean had already declined by up to 12 percent when S. Weiler testified to the Senate Commerce Committee in November of 1991. http://www.nuclearreader.info/chapter1.html 
But it gets worse from there. Fukushima killed an enormous amount of the algae, plankton and microscopic living matter that makes up both the oxygen producing system of the ocean but also the bottom step of the food chain. 
98% of the ocean floor 150 miles off of the coast was covered with dead microscopic sea creatures shortly after the Fukushima mega nuclear disaster. This one study of one area could be extended to cover the Pacific ocean and any area where the radioactive plume from Fukushima went. 
http://enenews.com/study-dead-sea-creatures-covered-98-of-seafloor-last-year-150-miles-off-california-coast-had-been-less-than-1-previously

CataclysmicDecember 10, 2014 “These plankton concentrate mineral elements from the water, and it has been found that radioactivity may be concentrated (Page 60) in this manner by as much as a thousand fold. Thus, for example, one gram of plankton could contain a thousand times as much radioactivity as a gram of water adjacent to it. The radioactivity from these plankton which form a portion of fish diet tends to concentrate in the liver of the fish, and, if sufficiently high levels of contamination are encountered, could have a marked effect upon the ecology of an ocean area.
Radiation In Plankton Report

NUCLEAR PLANTS EMIT RADIOACTIVE CARBON 14, A GLOBAL WARMING AND MAN MADE ARTIFICIAL PLANT KILLING ELEMENT

Carbon is used by all plants and humans as almost all life on Earth is based on the carbon cycle. Since all nuclear reactors and nuclear reprocessing as well as other facilities emit massive amounts of carbon 14, this man made artificial element has a negative effect on all living things. 
Wikipedia; “The most notable routes for radioactive Carbon 14 is production by thermal neutron irradiation of targets (e.g., in a nuclear reactor). The above-ground nuclear tests that occurred in several countries between 1955 and 1980 (see nuclear test list) dramatically increased the amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere and subsequently in the biosphere; after the tests ended, the atmospheric concentration of the isotope began to decrease. One side-effect of the change in atmospheric carbon-14 is that this has enabled some options (e.g. bomb-pulse dating[19]) for determining the birth year of an individual, in particular, the amount of carbon-14 in tooth enamel,[20][21] or the carbon-14 concentration in the lens of the eye.[22] (This proves Carbon 14 is absorbed by humans and plants)
Carbon-14 atoms react rapidly to form… 14CO (radioactive carbon monoxide), which subsequently oxidizes at a slower rate to form 14CO2, radioactive carbon dioxide 14. The gas mixes rapidly and becomes evenly distributed throughout the atmosphere (the mixing timescale in the order of weeks). Radioactive carbon dioxide also dissolves in water and thus permeates the oceans, but at a slower rate.[10] The atmospheric half-life for removal of 14CO2 has been estimated to be roughly 12 to 16 years in the northern hemisphere.”


In the above section, we can see that the Carbon 14 emitted by all nuclear facilities is fairly quickly turned into radioactive CO2 14, which has a global warming effect, but it also is deadly radioactive. The carbon 14 emitted by all nuclear plants is NOT counted when the pro nuclear advocates calculate how much CO2 a nuclear plant generates, and this is cheating, wouldn’t you agree?
The carbon content of woody matter (stem, branches and roots) and that of leaves is approximately 50% of their biomass. Multiplying the total biomass by the proportion of that biomass which is carbon gives an estimate of the total amount of carbon stored in the tree…. Each tonne of carbon equals approximately 3.67 tonnes of CO2.
Trees, plants and humans absorb radioactive carbon-14 and radioactive CO2 14 in place of stable forms of carbon, in the same way that humans absorb radioactive iodine in place of regular iodine. The radiation from C14 gradually weakens, kills and/or makes trees, plants and humans more susceptible to diseases or stress of any kind. Imagine a machine gun firing on a cellular level, going off 24 hours a day 365 days year, in all directions, and you start getting the idea of the carnage that is caused on a DNA level by low dose radiation, even to bacteria and viruses.

Plants and tree are then killed much more easily by pests, diseases, or from storm damage. Their growth rate is slowed and they can take up less oxygen as a result, which is also a global warming effect, not disclosed by the pro nuclear apologists. Hmmm, here we have more cheating and covering up the real facts, wouldn’t you agree? To get the real dirty and down low facts as well as scientific evidence of just how REALLY bad and how mega global warming nuclear power is, click on the following link. Carbon 14 deserved an article all by itself, it is THAT BAD. 

Radioactive Carbon 14 From Nuclear Power Plants Causing Deforestation, Disease And Death Of Plants and Trees Globally; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/05/carbon-14-emitted-by-nuclear-power.html

All living carbon based creatures are either harmed or killed by radiation, just as trees and other plants are. So the reduction in plankton and trees is a direct consequence of nuclear power laying waste to the green oasis that is our planet, by reducing the amount of CO2 that the trees and plankton can soak up, as well as by directly poisoning them with low dose radiation of all kinds. 
This loss of both trees and ocean plankton due to the damaging or killing effects of low level radiation can be laid directly at the feet of nuclear power plants and other facilities. Radiation in a very direct way, accelerates global warming by killing or harming all green living things, including those green living things that create oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide. 
For more on this subject, click on the following link…
Low Dose Radiation Causes Oxygen Depletion Globally, Kills Trees, Corals, Fish, Algae; via @AGreenRoad 
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/07/low-dose-radiation-causes-oxygen.html

Source/credit

RADIATION DECOMPOSES CALCIUM CARBONATE IN SHELLS AND CORAL, SAME AS ACID RAIN, ACID OCEAN

There is a patented method of decomposing calcium carbonate; what do you think it is? Got radiation?
 Method of decomposing calcium carbonate:
It turns out that high doses of radiation will decompose calcium carbonate fairly quickly. Isn’t it likely that low doses of man made radiation will do the same thing, over a longer period of time. Maybe acid oceans and acid rain are not the only things that affect living creatures in the oceans. 

MAN MADE RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS CAN BE DETECTED IN PAINTINGS COMPLETED AFTER THE ATOMIC AGE BEGAN

Man made radioactive elements such as cesium, strontium, plutonium and tritium did not exist in Nature prior to the atomic age in amounts sufficient to be able to even measure them or find them.
Via Jebus October 18, 2014 “Actnides like cesium-137 and strontium-90 were not present in nature before 1945. Prior to the first nuclear bomb detonation in July of 1945, isotopes such as strontium-90 and cesium-137 simply did not exist in nature. They were created by the massive neutron bombardments that occur during a thermonuclear explosion. Since those isotopes didn’t exist in nature prior to 1945, paintings created prior to 1945 could not contain them originally.
550 nuclear bombs were detonated from 1945 to 1963, when most nations agreed not to test nuclear weapons any longer. The isotopes created during this period bind with the types of crops that are used to produce oil based paints. Therefore, oil paintings created after 1945 will contain trace amounts of these new isotopes.
Some pro nuclear apologists like to claim that all radiation is ‘natural’, so none of the man made radiation can harm anyone, since everyone has been exposed to it since life began. But that bald faced deceptive claim is not true, and any scientist can repeat the above experiment to prove this truth. Meanwhile, on the other side, the pro nuclear apologists point to Oklo and thorium deposits as ‘proof’ of their claim, but refuse to test paintings for man made radioactive elements, isotopes and actinides, comparing before the atomic age to after it. 
Yes, carbon 14, radon and uranium existed in Nature before the atomic age. But adding man made radioactive heavy metal poisons and gases to this natural background radiation only served to radically increase the numbers of birth defects, cancers, diseases and deaths. 
It was due to this horrible genocide that was happening globally, that open air nuclear bomb testing was stopped, not because someone wanted to save money on open air nuclear bomb testing. It was the medical epidemiologist doctors who saw all of this increase in disease and death, and they led the charge to stop the testing, not the nuclear scientists, who fought tooth and nail to continue on with it. 

NUCLEAR PLANTS EMIT RADIOACTIVE KRYPTON, A GLOBAL WARMING GAS

Now the third point. Radiation is made up of not only radioactive solid elements, but also noble gases, such as Krypton. This sounds harmless, since these gases are all invisible, tasteless, odorless and not apparent to any of the senses. However, they have a sinister and deadly affect not just on human health, but also on the weather, through what is known as the ionization effect.

Krypton gas is released legally by every nuclear reactor and other types of facilities in massive quantities. If it were just one nuclear plant doing this, the effect would probably not be noticed. But we have 400 of these nuclear plants globally, and each one of them is releasing a massive amount of Krypton gas, enough to be measured by scientists. 
Krypton 85 – 1,800,000 Bq Radioactive Gases Released From Each Nuclear Reactor Vent Stack Each Second; via @AGreenRoad
Krypton gas is only coming from nuclear reactors as a man made radioactive gas element, so now the next step can be taken, and it can be shown how Krypton affects the weather in negative ways. For more details about how Krypton gas affects the weather, click on the following link…
Could Krypton 85 Gas And Open Air Fission Be Generating Massive Typhoons, One A Week Basis? via @AGreenRoad 
In summary, studies show that as well as causing negative health risks and diseases directly from inhaling radioactive Kryton 85 gas, which is emitted from all active nuclear reactors, this radioactive ionizing gas is also are having a negative effect on the weather, atmospheric electrical systems and water balances of the Earth.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_krypton

Via pinksailmatt November 21, 2014  “There were essential changes in the ionic, aerosol, and gas structure of the surface air in the catastrophe zone. A year later, within a 7-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP, the electroconductivity of the air, at ground level, was 240–570 times higher than in the less contaminated territories, several hundred kilometers away (Smirnov, 1992).
Rense discusses the effect of ionizing radiation on the global weather patterns at; 

NUCLEAR PLANTS EMIT ACID CREATING CARBON DIOXIDE, ALSO CAUSING GLOBAL WARMING 

Besides releasing massive quantities of radioactive Carbon 14, radioactive CO2 14, and radioactive Krypton, (none of which are included in the calculations below) all nuclear plants are responsible for emitting a large amount of regular carbon dioxide, during the whole fuel cycle and all the through to the storage of the spent fuel and nuclear garbage produced.

The pro nuclear advocates like to claim falsely that nuclear plants emit NO carbon dioxide, but that is only true if one ignores the entire fuel chain, all of the above radioactive elements, and all of the radioactive elements released by hundreds of accidents all around the world, which include massive amounts of global warming radioactive gases. To repeat, the pro nuclear apologists completely ignore and deny the global warming effect of krypton gas, and radioactive carbon 14 gas emitted by all nuclear plants, operating in a normal manner.

Nuclear power plants release up to 9 times more CO2 than Solar, Water, or Wind Power

A combination of 100% carbon free and renewable energy sources such as geothermal power plants can provide an overabundance of power for the foreseeable future. There is no need for dangerous, expensive, global warming, toxic, radioactive, terrorist inviting, radiation leaking, nuclear power plants. 
Pro nuclear apologists claim that nuclear power is ‘carbon free’. However, this claim does not turn out to be true. Besides the numerous ways that nuclear energy causes global warming outlined above, a study showed that; “a life cycle analyses (LCA) carried out by Jan Willem Storm van Leeuwen and Philip Smith came to the following result: Electricity from atomic energy emits 90 to 140 g CO2 per kWh of electricity produced. But this is a best case scenario, because if the uranium ore is less concentrated the CO2 emitted goes up fast and dramatically. 
“The relatively high range of uncertainty is due to the different grade of ores used. It depends on how rich the ores are that are used to obtain the Uranium. For poor ores, the higher value does apply and for rich ores, the lower value does apply. This leads to an interesting issue: The world-wide reserves for Uranium are a very limited resource. It is estimated to last for about 50 to 70 years with the current demand. If additional nuclear reactors are built, the supply will last correspondingly shorter. The higher the demand for Uranium, the more and more poor ores will have to be processed. This however will lead to a CO2 balance for atomic power, which gets worse and worse over time. 
Storm and Smith in the above mentioned life cycle analysis came to the conclusion, that between the years 2050 (if additional nuclear power stations are built) and 2075 (no additional nuclear reactors) the CO2 emissions of electricity from atomic energy will be higher as the same electricity produced by a gas burning plant! So nuclear energy can definitely not be the solution to mitigate the effects of global warming! 
“Let’s compare the CO2 emissions to produce 1 kWh of electricity by different technologies:
Technology grams CO2 per kWh electricity
Solar power, water power and wind power 10 – 40
Nuclear power plants 90 – 140
Combined heat and power in private houses 220 – 250
Gas burning plants 330 – 360
New coal burning plants 1,000 – 1,100

Source: http://timeforchange.org/co2-emission-nuclear-power-stations-electricity

Nuclear Energy Causes Global Warming
AGRP has not seen anyone calculating what amount of radioactive carbon and radioactive CO2 is emitted directly by all nuclear reactors. The nuclear industry does not seem to want anyone to find out either. 
According to the IAEA, all nuclear power plants release carbon dioxide/CO2, “Carbon-14 is principally formed in the moderator system and is released as carbon dioxide.”
www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/TRS407_scr/D407_scr3.pdf

NUCLEAR INDUSTRY RESPONSIBLE FOR MASSIVE GLOBAL WARMING CFC RELEASES, DESTROYS PROTECTIVE OZONE LAYER 

“The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant opened in 1952 to enrich uranium for defense purposes. During the 1960s the plant shifted from its defense focus to enriching uranium for nuclear power plants. The plant is currently the only facility in the U.S. that enriches uranium for use in nuclear power plants.” http://youtu.be/BnXsrt3x2OI
Uranium enrichment is only ONE step in a very polluting, dirty, toxic process that ends up with uranium suitable for use in nuclear power plants.
Pro nuclear apologists keep claiming that these enrichment plants produce no carbon emissions and no pollution at all. They say nuclear energy is “clean, green and safe”.
It is a little known fact that Uranium Enrichment accounts for a VERY large percentage of global warming CFC gases released in the USA. The United States Enrichment Corporation’s sites in both Ohio and Kentucky released 800,000 pounds of CFC-114 in 1999, according to official records. This is around 95% of all CFC’s released in the USA, according the EPA and Dr. Helen Caldicott MD.

PADUCAH URANIUM PROCESSING FACILITY POWERED BY TWO 1,500 MEGAWATT COAL FIRED PLANTS, BUT THESE ARE NOT INCLUDED IN CO2 EMISSIONS CALCULATIONS FOR NUCLEAR POWER



http://youtu.be/DkPJDXjRjy4

This facility uses TWO 1,500 MEGAWATT COAL FIRED PLANTS to produce enough power to help process the uranium into fuel. The CO2 emissions from these coal plants are not figured into the CO2 produced by nuclear plants, are they? 

CFC-114 persists for approximately 300 years in the global atmosphere, and causes 9,800 times more global warming per pound than CO2.


The nuclear industry does not want anyone to know this dark secret that escapes notice by the mass media, because they have no investigative reporters anymore, and report only what the pro nuclear apologists hand to them to read, in the form of positive pro nuclear PR press releases. 

No CFC gas releasing news associated with the nuclear industry will be seen on the mass media news.. 

SPARE POWER PLANTS NEED TO BE KEPT OPERATING ATTACHED TO EVERY NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, WHICH EMITS CARBON POLLUTION

In case power is lost or a nuclear power plant has to shut down due to emergency reasons, enough power has to be available to keep the cooling pumps running at the nuclear plant, along with all of the other equipment and sensors, etc.

A nuclear plant consumes so much power when it is not running, that beyond the backup battery systems and diesel generators, it needs it’s own spare power plant at another location, which is usually fueled with coal, oil or other dirty carbon source, just to have enough power available in case the nuclear plant has to shut down quickly. We all know what can happen when a nuclear plant has no power going to it, and thus no cooling water for it’s reactors; it melts down within minutes, as in the case of Fukushima.

For example, Diablo Canyon keep a nearby dirty fuel power plant operating and running, ‘just in case’ for many years. During refueling or maintenance shutdowns, a nuclear reactor has to be supplied with outside power from ‘dirty’ energy sources.

The calculations used to figure out how clean nuclear is do NOT include these spare dirty power plants that have to be kept ready to provide back up power for nuclear plants, while serving no other purpose. In effect, nuclear plant customers are paying through the nose, to keep nuclear plants operating PLUS the cost of ‘spare’ dirty power plants which have to be kept open and running, polluting the environment, just so a nuclear reactor will stay safe in case of shutdown.

Nuclear power plants are extremely vulnerable to power loss, which they call ‘station blackouts’.

Eleven U.S. reactors are designed to cope with a station blackout lasting eight hours, while 93 are designed for four-hour blackouts.

http://www.pennlive.com/midstate/index.ssf/2011/03/nuclear_power_plants_in_us_vul.html

NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE DUMPS MORE CO2 INTO ATMOSPHERE THAN ANY OTHER ENERGY SOURCE

PraisingTruth April 20, 2015 Nuclear fuel cycle emits more CO2 than any other energy:

Nuclear Is NOT a Low-Carbon Source of Energy
“…Greenpeace points out:

“’When it comes to nuclear power, the industry wants you to think of electricity generation in isolation ….. And yet the production of nuclear fuel is a hugely intensive process. Uranium must be mined, milled, converted, enriched, converted again and then manufactured into fuel. You’ll notice the [the nuclear industry] doesn’t mention the carbon footprint of all steps in the nuclear chain prior to electricity generation. Fossil fuels have to be used and that means CO2 emissions.’
“An International Forum on Globalization report – written by environmental luminaries Ernest Callenback, Gar Smith and Jerry Mander – have slammed nuclear power as catastrophic for the environment:
“’Nuclear energy is not the “clean” energy its backers proclaim. For more than 50 years, nuclear energy has been quietly polluting our air, land, water and bodies—while also contributing to Global Warming through the CO2 emissions from its construction, mining, and manufacturing operations. Every aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle—mining, milling, shipping, processing, power generation, waste disposal and storage—releases greenhouse gases, radioactive particles and toxic materials that poison the air, water and land. Nuclear power plants routinely expel low-level radionuclides into the air in the course of daily operations. While exposure to high levels of radiation can kill…

within a matter of days or weeks, exposure to low levels on a prolonged basis can damage bones and tissue and result in genetic damage, crippling long-term injuries, disease and death.’
“See this excellent photographic depiction of the huge amounts of fossil fuel which goes into building and operating a nuclear power plant….

http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2013/04/nuclear-is-not-a-low-carbon-source-of-energy.html

FUKUSHIMA MEGA NUCLEAR DISASTER CREATED ACID RAIN, ACID OCEAN, AND RADIOACTIVE CHLORINE 

Fukushima Created Radioactive Sulfur, Acid Rain, Acid Ocean And Radioactive Chlorine, Which Reached The USA

DECAY PRODUCTS OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, IODINE AND XENON DESTROY PROTECTIVE OZONE LAYER 

Obvious November 21, 2014  “The problems are so big… article I tweeted yesterday about the Colorado forest SEC event is a huge awakening for those who don’t understand –

“Decay products of uranium, plutonium, including radioactive isotopes of iodine and xenon, have an enormous capability of destroying ozone” 

http://jana-sovereignstate.blogspot.com/2014/08/the-death-of-boulder-cos-trees.html

RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS IONIZE THE AIR, CREATING MORE SEVERE STORMS AND MORE EXTREME WEATHER

Americium is just one of a thousand man made nuclear elements that ionize the air, which then causes direct and negative effects. Americium is used in smoke detectors for this reason, because it ionizes the air around it.
https://youtu.be/xxMn2oZGsaE?t=5m

Radioactive Krypton 85 Gas Generates Massive Storms, Larger Typhoons And More Lightning Due To Increased Conductivity Of The Atmosphere
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/10/could-krypton-85-gas-and-open-air.html

How Nuclear Reactors Act Like Tesla Death Ray Ion Guns, Shooting Plasma Ionizing Gases And Rays Into Upper Atmosphere, Destroying Ion Balance
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/12/how-nuclear-reactors-act-like-tesla.html

Fukushima Daiichi Spider-Webs, Plasma or Artificial Lightning Ionization Events; Are They Real?
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/11/fukushima-daiichi-spider-webs-plasma-or.html

NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS LIKE FUKUSHIMA POISON AND ACIDIFY OCEAN WATER

weeman October 2, 2014 “Cesium when it comes in contact with cold water produces cesium hydroxide,…. and therefore water is acidic?”
http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/cs.htm

Ontological October 3, 2014 “Cs and salt water makes Cs chloride a nasty acidic oxidizer.
http://departments.kings.edu/chemlab/animation/cscl.html

Fukushima Created Radioactive Sulfur, Acid Rain, Acid Ocean And Radioactive Chlorine, Which Reached The USA

NUCLEAR PLANT NITRIC ACID EMISSIONS AND BOMB TESTING CREATES ACID RAIN THAT KILLS OCEAN PLANKTON, TREES AND PLANTS 

Nuclear tests have spread radiation poisons throughout central and eastern United States and Canada, and produced in the stratosphere a layer of radioactive material which encircles the globe. They also cause nitric oxides to form in the atmosphere which then descend on earth as acid rain.

According to nuclear expert Arto Lauri, a 1,000 MW nuclear reactor creates over a billion pounds of nitric acid per year. How?

This pictures shows just one way huge amounts of nitric acid are released via the nuclear industry. The picture above shows massive, large nitric acid train cars heading for Sellafield nuclear plant. Where does all of this acid end up going? Any guesses? 

NITRIC ACID RELEASED BY NUCLEAR TESTING CREATES ACID AIR, ACID RAIN, ACID OCEAN WATER AND ACID SOIL

VanneV September 5, 2014  No Immediate Danger, Prognosis for a Radioactive Earth, by Dr Rosalie Bertell “…The Nevada nuclear tests have spread radiation poisons throughout central and eastern United States and Canada, and produced in the stratosphere a layer of radioactive material which encircles the globe. They also cause nitric oxides to form in the atmosphere which then descend on earth as acid rain….”

http://www.ratical.org/radiation/NRBE/NRBE12.html

A SINGLE 1000 MW NUCLEAR REACTOR PRODUCTS A BILLION POUNDS OF NITRIC ACID PER YEAR

PlowboyGrownUp May 17, 2015  “A 1000 MW nuclear reactor produces a billion pounds/yr. nitric acid” https://youtu.be/_E7awZyAbjY?t=7m52s

NUCLEAR WASTE DUMPING IN OCEANS CREATES ACID WATER

Radioactive chemicals can now be found in the organs, tissues and bones of every individual in the Northern Hemisphere, and the contamination from past nuclear explosions will continue to cause environmental and health problems for hundreds of thousands of years, even if all nuclear activities are stopped today. Siberian tests affect the north polar region….
VanneV September 5, 2014 Acidification “There is a problem, all right, but it is not from CO2. The main cause of increased acidity of sea water is radioactivity from all the nuclear waste dumped into the oceans, nuclear-powered ships passing through the water, and fallout falling into the water from all the things the nuclear industry and armed forces of the nuclear-armed nations are doing, including the use of radioactive ammunition in wars around the world and for target practice at home.
“It has been known since the early 1950s that radioactivity in high concentrations makes water acidic.“For more details, see: 
Yale University features information about how the oceans are becoming more and more acid.

Posted by Joel Carlinsky on 22 Nov 2011
http://e360.yale.edu/feature/northwest_oyster_die-offs_show_ocean_acidification_has_arrived/2466/

PROCESSING OF URANIUM SPREADS ACID WASTE ALL OVER THE ENVIRONMENT, ENDS UP IN OCEAN, MAKING ALL SEAS MORE ACIDIC AND HOSTILE TO ALL SEALIFE

Once the uranium is taken out of the ground, it must be concentrated. This is done by using lots and lots of sulfuric acid. Here is how it is done; “the construction of the sulfuric acid plant in Zhanakorgan region, Kyzylorda oblast has been completed. The construction of the plant is aimed at providing the uranium industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan with sulfuric acid which is the main reagent in the technology of uranium production by ISL method. The plant will supply sulfuric acid to the ISL mines based on the uranium deposits Khorassan-1, Khorassan-2, Northern and Southern Karamurun. Kazakhstan block sulfur will be the raw material for production. The plant’s design capacity is expected to be 500,000 tons of sulfuric acid per year, or 1,500 tons per day. Project’s total cost is reported to be US$ 216 million. (Kazatomprom Dec. 9, 2011)” 
http://www.wise-uranium.org/umopasi.html

Where does all of this acid go, other than out into the rivers, lakes and oceans, plus our global air supply, where it creates acid rain, and acid water?

REPROCESSING PLANTS ALSO USE AND DISPOSE OF HUGE AMOUNTS OF ACID

All commercial reprocessing plants use the well-proven hydrometallurgical PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) process. This involves dissolving the fuel elements in concentrated nitric acid. Chemical separation of uranium and plutonium is then undertaken by solvent extraction steps
Where does all of this sulfuric and nitric acid plus solvent waste go? Does it magically just evaporate and disappear? Or, could we surmise that this acid solvents along with the contaminants that they contain goes into the closest underground water table, stream, river or body of water, via a ‘dilution’ process, just like the radioactive gases and liquids coming out of these facilities? All of this acid waste ends up in the ocean, whether it is emitted up into the air or ‘diluted’ in water, it all ends up making the oceans more acid and poisonous.

What is the take away? Nuclear power plants, reprocessing facilities, mines and recycling facilities all cause global warming, acid rain and more, both directly and indirectly through release of heat, burning carbon fuels to produce uranium, release of Krypton gas, and low level radiation that kills trees and plankton. 

2014 List of 45+ Global Tipping Points, Many Of Them Have Been Reached Or Exceeded, Almost All Are Getting Worse; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/04/2014-list-of-45-global-tipping-points.html

Nuclear Power; EXPENSIVE, Dirty, Dangerous And Toxic; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/10/nuclear-power-expensive-dirty-dangerous.html

And it gets worse from here, as nuclear power is expensive, toxic, dangerous and dirty, with the consequences going on for a million years. (Click on link above.) We humans cannot even remember what happened 2,000 years ago. How are humans going to handle dangerous nuclear wastes for the next million years?

ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS AND FACILITIES ARE A SOURCE OF GLOBAL WARMING THERMAL POLLUTION

Only 30% of the heat generated by a nuclear plant is used. 70% is dumped either into a river, ponds, lake, or ocean. That heat has effects. Multiply that effect with 400 other nuclear plants times 365 days a year, and one can start to see not just micro climate effects, but broader and longer range effects. After all, what is a tipping point, but a small imbalance created?

First, let’s tackle all of that heat released by nuclear reactors; “…once you release all that energy from Uranium, as in a nuclear reactor, it is here forever, except for some fraction that radiates out into outer space as “long-wave radiation.” The rest goes into the air, waterways, glaciers, dirt and rocks as waste heat, also called thermal [heat] pollution, increasing the temperature, thereby bringing about global warming….” There are over 400 nuclear plants, plus another 400 plus spent fuel pools, all of them generating immense quantities of waste heat. Now add recycling facilities, cask storage, and more.. The heat adds up, and it is 24 hours a day. 
http://www.globalresearch.ca/nuclear-energy-causes-global-warming/20231

Via Jebus October 11, 2014 “Any natural climate variations in temperature are being assisted higher by the millions of gallons each day that each and every one of the reactors on this planet heat up to planet killing temperatures and then attempt to cool inadequately, before dumping it in it’s tritium laced, ionized and sterile, higher temperature state back into this planets environment…”
Dick Shenary October 11, 2014 “PWR and BWR reactors have an overall heat/energy efficiency of about 33 percent, so 67 percent of the heat produced is wasted and just goes into the condenser cooling water and ultimately into the environment. Even burning coal is much more energy efficient than nuclear. Of coarse, burning coal has enormous consequences as well. Burning anything, including atoms, to produce energy is not only inefficient but contaminates as well.”
Remember that as the water warms up, it increases evaporation, which produces more storms, rain, rain storms, and floods. As the air warms up, it can hold more moisture, which then creates more rain, more flooding, and more chances of very huge super storm freak weather events, such as 1 month to 1 year’s worth of rain coming down in 1 day. Everyone agrees that the amount of very strange weather like this is increasing globally , correct? 
National Geographic; Global Warmings Terrifying New Math; via @AGreenRoad
Scientists say the strange weather is due to increased moisture in the air and warmer ocean waters.
Bottom line, producing heat that is not used for anything is very wasteful. Part of becoming more green is reducing the amount of wasted heat. Producing steam from radioactive elements, while releasing massive amounts of waste heat and steam is very inefficient and costly way to produce electricity for a few years. The huge amount of toxic and radioactive waste then has to be guarded for 1 million years, at additional costs and risks.

The alternatives are wind, water power and solar, which do not generate the massive amount of ‘waste heat’ as the nuclear and carbon fuel industries do. 

rogerthat April 14, 2015  A 1,000 Mile Stretch Of The Pacific Ocean Has Heated Up Several Degrees And Scientists Don’t Know Why
Time Is Short April 14, 2015  “- some calculations in the comments”
Like this?
“specific heat of water is 4 Joules/gram*C.
water is about 1 gram per cc so 4 Joules/CC*C.
say 600 Mile circle of water one mile deep is 2 C warmer. That’s 3.14*300**2*1 270,000 Cubic Miles of water
or 1EE15 Cubic Meters or 1EE21 CC or 4 EE 21 Joules to warm up. To do that in 6 months, that’s
180 Days, 800 hours, or 2.8 Million seconds. Thats 1.5 EE 15 Watts to achieve. That’s a million Gigawatt
That’s about a Million megatonnes of TNT or about 300 Kilotonnes of nuclear explosions per second for 6 months.”
Even if he’s off by a factor of 1,000,000,000,000, no wonder everything is dying.
Damn bananas!!!

NUCLEAR POWER USE IS DROPPING GLOBALLY, DUE TO ALL OF THE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES, COSTS, DANGERS AND RISKS

Nuclear power was only 5.3% of total global energy use in 2006. Renewable energy use is now 9% and rising. The world does not need and cannot afford nuclear power. (page 264 of IPCC study)
Global nuclear power declines by 7 percent – Global electricity generation from nuclear plants dropped by a historic 7 percent in 2012, adding to the record drop of 4 percent in 2011, just after the unfortunate Fukushima accident in Japan…..The nuclear share in the world’s power generation declined steadily from a historic peak of 17 percent in 1993 to about 10 percent in 2012.

http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/global-nuclear-power-declines-by-7-percent.aspx?pageID=238&nID=50684&NewsCatID=348

Nuclear Energy Use In USA Only 8% And Dropping – Renewable Energy Use at 9% And Rising; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/nuclear-energy-use-in-usa-only-8-and.html

DOUBLING OF NUCLEAR POWER GLOBALLY WOULD REQUIRE BUILDING A YUCCA MOUNTAIN FACILITY EVERY 3 TO 4 YEARS, AT HUGE COST

VanneV December 3, 2014  “…As noted in Part One of this series, doubling the world’s current nuclear energy output would reduce global carbon emissions by just one-seventh of the amount required to avoid the worst impacts of global warming. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology point out that achieving even this inadequate result would require siting a permanent repository the size of Yucca Mountain every three to four years to deal with the additional waste-an enormous and expensive challenge. Given nuclear power’s drawbacks, and the growth and promise of clean, lower cost, less dangerous alternatives, the case for nuclear power wobbles badly. Stripped of the pretext that nuclear power is the answer to climate change, the case essentially collapses.”
http://www.worldwatch.org/node/4106

ACIDIFICATION OF OCEANS LINKS

Acid Test; The Global Challenge Of Ocean Acidification; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/06/acid-test-global-challenge-of-ocean.html

Acid Oceans; Why Should We Care? via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/06/acid-oceans-why-should-we-care.html

NOAA – A Simple Explanation of Ocean Acidification; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/09/noaa-simple-explanation-of-ocean.html

Nuclear Energy As A Direct Cause Of Global Warming, Acid Rain, Acid Oceans And Super Storms; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/nuclear-energy-as-direct-cause-of.html

Fukushima Created Radioactive Sulfur, Acid Rain, Acid Ocean And Radioactive Chlorine, Which Reached The USA

RENEWABLE ENERGY IS FREE, BUT NUCLEAR AND CARBON FUEL MONOPOLIES BLOCK, TACKLE, SUPPRESS THIS INFORMATION AND DENY THAT IT EVEN EXISTS

Meanwhile, the sun is up there, heating up whatever amount of water anyone wants for free. The sun is also available for producing as much electricity directly via solar panels as long as the sun shines, for a million years into the future. The answers are all there, ready and waiting for humanity, when it decides to put away the dangerous, toxic, deadly and life ending nuclear energy toys. 

Environment, Holistic Living, Health, Self-Healing, Zero Point And Renewable Energy
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/green-energy-green-living.html

SUMMARY; ALTERNATIVES ARE AVAILABLE AT LOWER COST, MUCH HIGHER SAFETY AND NO PROBLEMS WITH 1 MILLION YEARS OF TOXIC WASTE

Do what you can to promote laws, regulations, financing, and ways of promoting and putting renewable energies into your community. Work on getting your own home off the nuclear power grid and hooked up to renewable energy. Every person is important. There are many green, sustainable solutions available…. 
Work from the bottom up, and vote only for candidates that do not take corporate money. Change is happening but it needs to accelerate. The nuclear monster has been shot in the head, (via Fukushima, Chernobyl, TMI, Santa Susana) and it is falling, but it does not know it is dead yet. Let’s all help to bury this beast, permanently.

Radioactive Carbon 14 From Nuclear Power Plants Causing Deforestation, Fungus Infections, Disease And Death Of Trees And Plants Globally – Global Warming
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/05/carbon-14-emitted-by-nuclear-power.html

Krypton 85 – 1,800,000 Bq Radioactive Global Warming Gases Released From Each Nuclear Reactor Vent Stack Each Second
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/10/krypton-85-1800000-bq-radioactive-gases.html

Nuclear Energy As A Direct Cause Of Global Warming; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/nuclear-energy-as-direct-cause-of.html

Dr. Ivan Oelrich; Nuclear Spent Fuel Reprocessing Greenwashing via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/06/dr-ivan-oelrich-nuclear-spent-fuel.html

Dr. Helen Caldicott MD – Paducah Kentucky Nuclear Fuel Enrichment Plant Dirty Global Warming Gases Emission Secrets; via @AGreenRoad
Low Dose Radiation Causes Oxygen Depletion Globally, Kills Trees, Corals, Fish, Algae; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/07/low-dose-radiation-causes-oxygen.html

Radioactive Krypton 85 Gas Generates Massive Storms, Larger Typhoons And More Lightning Due To Increased Conductivity Of The Atmosphere
How Nuclear Reactors Act Like Tesla Death Ray Ion Guns, Shooting Plasma Ionizing Gases And Rays Into Upper Atmosphere, Destroying Ion Balance And Modifying Weather
No other organization has this depth and breadth of information about nuclear energy and information about the huge global warming effect it has. Why not support the leader of the pack? AGRP cannot do this without your help..

WHAT IS THE VALUE OF THIS ARTICLE AND AGRP? 

Did this article enlighten, inspire or shift a paradigm? Is it of value, and worth spreading around? AGRP can do more and reach more people, but only with your support and generous donation. Which organization is worth supporting? Remember that what you support grows, and what you pull financial support away from, shrinks. What do you feel led to donate?

DONATE

Your involvement matters a great deal. Thanks for your generous and very appreciated support! 
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A Green Road Project; Teaching the Science of Sustainable Health and Success. Keep asking – what works for 7 future generations without causing harm?

Please spread this message, as it is being actively covered up, denied, ignored or suppressed by just about everyone. Copy and post the link below into Facebook, Twitter, and other social media. Send it by email to friends, co workers, leaders, etc. 
END
Nuclear Energy As A Direct Cause Of Global Warming, Acid Rain, Acid Oceans, Extreme Weather, And Super Storms
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/nuclear-energy-as-direct-cause-of.html

More articles at;

Environment, Holistic Living, Health, Self Healing, Zero Point, Renewable Energy, Energy Storage

Northern California Beach Reading 412 CPM on 12/20/2013


From Rense; “The above video was taken today with an Inspector Plus Geiger counter by ‘Dave’, giving readings on a Northern California beach due West of San Mateo. The beach is south of Princeton Harbor which in turn is just south of Pillar Point where ‘Mavericks’ big surf comes in. The best description is the San Mateo Coast. Just south again from Princeton Harbor begins the City of Half Moon Bay.

Radiation readings have been taken here for two years, with everything showing normal background radiation levels. Now, all of a sudden, the radiation levels have jumped up. 
http://www.enviroreporter.com/investigations/fukushima/radiation-station-pacifica-california/



As you will see, the normal background radiation above the small bluff at this beach is about 30 CPM (Counts Per Minute). The video is self-explanatory and we are greatly indebted to Dave for making it and sending it in. Today’s readings on the beach were taken standing up…with the Inspector about 5 feet off the ground. 

Last Friday, three days ago on 12-20, Dave went to the same beach in California, but with a plastic bag for his Inspector. He placed it down about 2 inches above the sand and got radioactive readings up to 17 TIMES OVER BACKGROUND… about 500 CPM. ” (412 CPM to be exact)
Source: http://rense.com/general96/radiationoncabch.html

For comparison purposes, the La Push beach, in Washington was measured in June, 2011, and it came out as just normal background radiation. (He used a very good, timed method to figure out what the radiation level was)


What does the 400-500 CPM reading mean? Well, it depends, but here is what this may mean if we are talking about an ‘exterior’ dose, thanks to nukeprofessional:


Remember that this does not apply to plutonium or uranium, as they are not only radioactive, but poisonous as well. Plutonium is 2 million times more poisonous than arsenic. You do not want to get anything radioactive inside of you, bottom line. Radiation getting inside of you is much more hazardous than outside. According to Dr. Goffman MD, even one nano radioactive particle stuck in your lungs can initiate lung cancer, especially something like plutonium, the king of all radioactive killers. 

According to Christine Dillon Strickland, “500 CPM is VERY dangerous radiation zone. Anyone in that area should take every precaution… and MOVE as soon as you can.” Since this is just a localized area with this high radiation reading (at least so far) moving away might be as simple as just staying away from this beach. But her advice is basically, to not stay in area with this high of a radiation reading, because it indicates dangerous gamma and/or beta radiation.

This is not the first report of radiation hitting the coast of California.. Enviroreporter filed a report that showed radiation possibly hitting the coast as early as 2012. 

http://www.enviroreporter.com/investigations/fukushima/a-radioactive-nightmare/

The Turner Radio Network also revealed that the Canadian government knew Fukushima radiation was reaching the west coast, but did not tell anyone. 

“December 23, 2013 — (TRN http://www.TurnerRadioNetwork.com ) — An official government report by Fisheries and Oceans Canada proves that radiation from the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, is hitting the U.S. and Canadian coasts RIGHT NOW. It began striking southwest Alaska in 2012 and arrived at Vancouver Island, BC, six months ago but Fisheries and Oceans Canada did NOT reveal this despite knowing the radiation gets worse by the day. They continued to keep silent even after their own official report proved these facts in October, 2013. We have the official report; now you do too.”
Source; http://www.turnerradionetwork.com/news/131-mjt


US authorities knew about the plume too, but did nothing to warn anyone. They never passed out iodine pills, and neither did the Japanese government, despite knowing that they were needed. 

New model shows U.S. hit by Fukushima cloud that dispersed little over Pacific — Gundersen: Authorities knew about hot particles and didn’t warn the public; Could have worn air masks, instead it’s stuck in their lungs; Helicopters did secret survey along coast
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-4-431-54418-0_13


The above report proves that many people got exposed to VERY high radiation levels. This same plume went over the USA.  It is not a question of when Fukushima radiation will get to the US. Fukushima is here already, in the form of plutonium, iodine, strontium and uranium, just to name a few. Now it is just a question of how much MORE radiation will be released over the next million years, and how many more will die or get sick from it. Fukushima is here!


ABC News reports in the video above about how Fukushima could STILL cause the evacuation of all of Japan and the entire West coast of the USA.  

The Pacific ocean is a mysterious place it seems. Various theories and models have been put forth to show how radiation that is gushing out of Fukushima into the ocean, in a Niagra Falls fashion (at a minimum of 400 and up to 40,000 TONS per day) is going to circulate. The following map may be the best projection of how the radiation will move. Why? This map is based on 28,000 rubber duckies that were lost at sea. The duckies later washed up on shores all around the world. 


Source:

http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/wilderness-resources/stories/what-can-28000-rubber-duckies-lost-at-sea-teach-us-about-


This map predicts that Fukushima ocean water radiation will reach South America, the Arctic ocean, and then go into the Atlantic as well as reaching Australia plus Europe eventually. No part of the globe will be spared from Fukushima. Tons of plutonium was released from Fukushima. That plutonium then showed up in Lithuania where they measured it and concluded it came from Fukushima. 

It is important to understand that the radiation airborne plume went around the world and everyone breathed in some plutonium/iodine/uranium/strontium hot particles. Now we are talking about the ocean radiation plume gushing out from Fukushima. 

Where is this radioactive plume going, and what is the radiation level of the water and sandy beaches in the US? Who is measuring the effects on the ocean food chain where Fukushima radiation bio accumulates? Who is testing the food that US citizens eat, that is imported from Japan, or caught in a radioactive Pacific ocean?  

More expensive equipment can test to see what this radiation is, and break it down into specific radioactive elements. There are some beaches around the world that are radioactive due to thorium or uranium in the sand, such as this one in South America; http://youtu.be/RvgAx1yIKjg  
400-500 CPM from a radioactive element that is either inhaled as a hot particle or held next to your body is a very dangerous thing, especially if it is plutonium, uranium or other toxic heavy metal.  This is a level that people should stay far away from, and wear protective gear if they do go there to test it; mask, gloves, rubber boots, Tyvek suit, etc… For more information, click on the following links; 

Low Dose Radiation Dangers/Symptoms For Children And Adults
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/low-dose-radiation-dangers-for-children.html

Uranium Mining and Enrichment – Nuclear Bomb -Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/uranium-mining-and-enrichment.html

Low Level Nuclear Radiation In Food And Water, Geiger Counters
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/low-level-nuclear-radiation-in-food-and.html

Effects Of Internal Low Level Nuclear Radiation
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/p/effects-of-internal-low-level-nuclear.html


Bottom line, in any area where you test more than 100CPM, do not get this sand, dust, dirt or water on your body, or on your clothing. Take off your shoes outside the car and put them in a plastic bag before putting them in the car. Try not to get any sand in or on you or in or on your vehicle. 

Wash your clothing that you used to go to the beach separately from everything else, and rinse the machine in between it and the next load. Take a shower and wash the hair several times to wash off any hot particles, as much as possible. 

Until we know more, treat the sand at the very least at this beach as a radioactively contaminated ‘hot spot’ area, until you know for sure that it is not, just to be safe. This may be just one small local area that is radioactively ‘hot’, or it may be the whole coastline from Alaska to Mexico.. No one knows at this point, because no one has tested anywhere else on the west coast beaches recently, to our knowledge. Maybe this has something to do with the radioactive waste dumped in the ocean with the permission of the NRC forerunner, the AEC?

47,800 Barrels Of Radioactive Waste Dumped West Of San Francisco Between 1946 To 1970 – Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/47800-barrels-of-radioactive-waste.html

We encourage people who have a Geiger Counter (or something better), to test the beach for radiation on the west coast, everywhere from Alaska to Mexico, especially near the water’s edge, between the high and low tide marks. Take a video of your test, and post videos of your testing result on Youtube, with creative commons license, so they can go viral quickly.

What follows is an example of what citizen scientists with Geiger Meters must start doing in the US, especially with beach sands on the Pacific coast. 

If you do go to a beach that tests ‘hot’ like this, test your shoes, clothing and hair before entering your house or you may radioactively contaminate your car, your home and your whole family just from going to the beach. To be safe, just act as if you just got contaminated with radiation and dispose of everything after coming out of a ‘hot’ zone like this. In any area that tests ‘hot’, keep the dogs at home and off the beach.. Critters are radiation sponges with their fur.. Keep it safe out there.. 🙂
The key to getting more information if you get a high radiation reading is to collect at least one sample  (1/4 cup – 1/2 cup) of sand, seaweed, starfish or etc. in a sealed container or a zip lock freezer bag, but do it safely, in case it is radioactive. Use a plastic glove or spoon, don’t touch the sand, etc, especially if you know it is ‘hot’ like this sample tested above. Then send or bring that sample to someone who has more sophisticated equipment. We can help with this process, if you like. Contact us at agreenroad at gmail dot com 

12/29/2013 Update; We tested two beach sand and seaweed samples today. The first beach sand tested was 1/2 mile south of Cliff House, SF, (right around the corner and south of the Golden Gate Bridge) and the other samples was taken in Marin County, (north of the Golden Gate Bridge) from the tidal mud flats next to some floating homes. All samples were wet, and with a ten minute timed and average pancake detector reading (RM80), all samples tested 5 CPM above average background radiation. Reading taken 12/29/2013.

12/30/2013  Another ‘citizen scientist’ tested Sonoma County beach sand. That sample measured nothing above background radiation. No information on whether this was a timed test or not, nor the exact location as of now.

12/30/2013 A third AGRP citizen scientist measured the sand in BC. “I went to the beach again today, Esquimalt Lagoon in Victoria BC with an average ground reading in seaweed and sand between 30 and 50 cpm.. but got background reading about 1/4 a mile up the road at Fort Rodd Hill Park of 70 cpm.. I don’t feel this is anything to worry about, even though normal background in this area normally reads between 7 and 14 cpm.”  https://www.facebook.com/groups/agreenroad/


1/4/1014; From Geigercounter.com, (a radiation testing lab); “A lot of concern has been expressed about recent reports and videos showing high levels of radiation on a beach in Half Moon Bay, just South of Pillar Point Harbor. It has been attributed to Fukushima. Local officials have been quoted as saying they donʻt know what it is, but donʻt worry about it. See local story.

Here is what we have learned so far: The radioactive areas of the beach seem to be associated with dark sand below the high tide level. (but above low tide) The levels detected are about 5 to 10 times what you would normally expect to find on a beach.

The radionuclides are in the NORM class of radioactive substances, not from Fukushima. NORM stands for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. We put a sample in a Multichannel Analyzer and found Radium 226 and Thorium 232. See the measured spectra via the link…”

In the 2008 paper Radioactivity of sand from several renowned public beaches and assessment of the corresponding environmental risks by Radenkovic, et al, published in the Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, notable concentrations of Ra226, Th232, K40 were found in LA-area beaches (see table 1). Going back even further 1959, Tracing Coastal Sediment Movement By Naturally Radioactive Minerals is a report by Kamel & Johnson, from Berkeley, which states “This radioactive thorium is added naturally at discrete places along the coast where rivers flowing through thorium rich granite out- crops reach the coast or where the thorium rich granite itself outcrops at the sea coast.”
http://geigercounter.com/

What this means is that 412 CPM reading on this beach is definitely a confirmed radiation event. We have received confirmation of the high radiation reading on that specific beach, as well as confirmation of other areas testing ‘normal’.  

This is the first time that citizen scientists have worked together and accomplished a goal across many states; which is REALLY awesome. Good job everyone!

Remember that the EPA is supposedly in charge here. Here is the California region representative. So far, the EPA has not come back with anything, despite sending someone out to test. So much for a government response. But that does not surprise us, as that is what happens every time. 

Shelly Rosenblum
Radiation And Indoor Environments Teams
U.S. EPA / AIR-6
75 Hawthorne St.
San Francisco, CA 94105
415-947-4193 fax: 3583
rosenblum.shelly@epa.gov


The local public health agency went out and tested the sand, and said it posed no danger. 


For those who doubt the veracity of this citizen radiation monitoring network reading, just remember that Safecast and all other citizen radiation detection networks are also all just WRITTEN down, no video exists of anything there. It is not a perfect system, meters do give false readings sometimes. That is why it is important to verify initial high readings with another meter and not freak out just because one person, with one meter got a high reading somewhere.

Anyone can put whatever they want into the written database and fake it all. Disbelieve, believe, do you want you want with this beach sand reading. Some people seem to be having a HUGE problem with it for whatever reason. We trust citizen scientists more than the ones working for the nuclear industry. Fighting each other just allows them to win. Why waste any more time or energy on one citizen fighting another over a Geiger Counter reading?  Fighting about this nano particle sized issue is fruitless, useless and a great waste of energy that could go to move this all forward another step. 

Let’s stay positive, not attack each other, and keep moving forward and see where all of these developing, learning, growing citizen radiation monitoring networks take us. 

Remember that the nuclear industry would love nothing more than for everyone to just walk away from all of this activism and just sit at home, doing nothing, and take their word for it that everything is just hunky dory and leave the radiation detecting work to them. 

End

Northern California Beach Reading 412 CPM on 12/20/2013; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/northern-california-beach-reading-500.html

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