In this blog, we will explore how dangerous plutonium is for you and your family. We will also explore what happened at Fukushima, in relation to plutonium nano particle releases, since this is NOT being covered in the mass media.
LINK TV, Oct. 21 — Dr. Helen Caldicott appeared on theLINK TV program Earth Focus to discuss the Fukushimacrisis and other nuclear issues. Her expertise is listed below.http://www.linktv.org/video/6986/dr-helen-caldicott-on-fukushima-and-the-perils-of-nuclear-power
Dr. Helen Caldicott MD received her medical degree fromthe University of Adelaide Medical School. In 1977 she joined the staff of theChildren’s Hospital Medical Center in Boston,and taught pediatrics at the Harvard Medical School from 1977 to 1978. Sheworked to establish the group International Physicians for the Prevention of NuclearWar which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985. –http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/If_You_Love_This_Planet
[Rough Transcript of Video Above By Dr. Caldicott]
The problem with plutonium studies is that they did notseem to focus on ANY children. According to Dr Caldicott, children are 20 TIMESmore sensitive to radiation than adults. This makes all of the studies onadults worthless, because none of the adult studies can be applied to childrenor babies, much less a fetus.
According to Dr. Caldicott, in a normal fetus a tinyparticle of plutonium can lodge in the brain while it is developing. In afetus, plutonium can and WILL destroy the genetic material that will developinto the right brain for example.
Plutonium has extreme teratogenasis, meaning it hassevere and negative effects on eggs, sperm and developing fetuses.
For this reason, pro nuclear industry supporters willNEVER show or do studies around how plutonium affects a human fetus, babies orchildren, because it would be too bad for their public relations campaign andthey KNOW what results they would get if they somehow could get permission tolet infants or babies inhale plutonium dust. I doubt very much that such astudy could even be carried out, because the results around animals indicate100% mortality.
According to Dr Caldicott MD, plutonium has an affinityfor the testicles in men, and lodges next to the sperm production area of themale reproductive system, destroying or damaging the genetic structure of thesperm, which then produces defective human babies. Plutonium is mutagenetic.
She reports it can take up to twenty generations forrecessive genetic tendencies to express themselves, so the danger of plutoniumis not just focused on this present generation which is exposed to this deadlysubstance.
We also have to ask at what dose will plutonium breathedin or lodged into a place where it is either next to or inside of a human eggor sperm, where it can and will cause the genetic damage of a sperm or egg. One.5 microgram amount of plutonium is small enough to fit inside of a cell, or inbetween cells, where it can cause lifelong suffering or death of a fetus, babyor later on in life from some genetic disease (pick one of 2,600). This servesas a quick view into the nano world of plutonium, so now let’s dive in deeperand explore this subject in some detail.
HOW DANGEROUS ARE NANO SIZED ‘HOT” PARTICLES OFPLUTONIUM?
So how much plutonium does it take to cause a cancer? “In1944, J. Robert Oppenheimer concluded: Interpretation of Dr. Hamilton’s data onrats in terms of humans indicates that 50-100 micrograms of plutonium [3.3-6.6uCi Pu-239] in the skeletal system is the lethal dose. Calculations of thedangerous dose of plutonium in lung tissue leads to answers between 0.5-5.0micrograms [.033-.33 uCi of Pu-239] depending on the assumptions which havebeen made. [Oppenheimer to Hempelman, August 16, 1944]http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet7/brief7/tab_g/br7g
However, Robley Evans had concluded by 1944 that dataextrapolated from rats to humans was unreliable because rats could toleratehigher rates of radium than humans. (R. Evans, Amer J Roentgen and Rad TherLII, October 1944) Evans subsequently focused on retrospective studies ofradium dial painters.”
So if the fatal doses for humans from plutonium are lowerthan what has been discussed between researchers above, how much lower are theythan .5 micrograms?
Let us start with .5 MICROGRAMS dose and explore that abit. How can we visualize .5 of a Microgram, which is MUCH smaller than aMILLIGRAM, and MUCH, MUCH smaller than a Gram? Let’s start down the scale ofmeasurements to get some idea of how small a Microgram is.
1 teaspoon is 5 grams and it is also 500milligrams
500mg equals .10 of a teaspoon
500 Micrograms = .5 milligram
100 micrograms = 0.1 milligrams
.5 micrograms = 0.0005 milligrams
1 microgram also = 0.000000035 ounce, and it also equalsI MICRON
1 mi·cro·gram =a unit of mass or weight equal to one millionth of a gram.This measurement unit is used chiefly in microchemistry. TheSymbol: ?g stands for 1 microgram, or 1 micron .(This term is oftenused in nanotechnology, in air pollution laws/rules, as well as in researchabout radioactive dusts and gases released from nuclear accidents. )
So now that we know that this size of nano particle isvery small, let’s find out just how dangerous nano particles are, withoutplutonium being involved in this at all.
“The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), many healthprofessionals, and, of course, the Hamilton County Department of EnvironmentalServices are all very concerned about particulate pollution. In fact, theconcern about particulates is related to their very small size.
Since the late 1970’s, we only monitored particulatematter pollution that was 10 microns in diameter or less, called PM 10. A micron(or 1 micrometer) is a millionth of a meter. To give you an idea of how smallPM 10 is, the dot above the letter “i” in a typical newspapermeasures about 400microns! http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
PM 10 particles are small enough to be inhaled andaccumulate in the respiratory system. In the last decade, health studiesindicated that particles even smaller than PM 10 can cause even more healthproblems! Now, in addition to monitoring PM 10, scientists and techniciansmonitor fine particles called PM 2.5, these particles measure 2.5 microns indiameter or smaller, or about 1/10,000 of an inch. These tiny particles areabout 30 times smaller than the width of a hair on your head! These tinyparticles are small enough to get inhaled past our defensive nose hairs andinto our lungs. But it doesn’t stop there! PM 2.5 can pass from our lungs intoour blood supply and be carried throughout our bodies.”http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
This is an important point… A .5 micron size dustparticle is also equal to a .5 micrometer dust particle of plutonium. The EPAsaid that this size of particle is dangerous, because it is small enough to getinto the lungs, and then go directly into the bloodstream from there, bypassingthe filters in the nose and sinuses and avoiding the mucus that normallyprotects us from larger dust particles.
“As you have just found out in the section above, sometiny pieces of particulate matter, PM 2.5, are small enough to pass from ourlungs to our bloodstream”, such as the .5 micron size particle of plutonium.http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
A small particle (we are not even talking about plutoniumor other radioactive substance) inhaled into the lungs with normal breathingeither inside or outside the house, “canalter the body’s defense systems against foreign materials, damage lungtissues, aggravate existing respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and canlead to cancer. In some cases, PM exposure can even lead to premature death.Adverse health effects have been associated with exposures to PM over bothshort periods (such as a day) and longer periods (a year or more). The peoplewho are most at risk are people with asthma, influenza, lung, heart, orcardiovascular disease, the elderly, and children.”http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
WHY ARE NANO PARTICLES SO DANGEROUS?
“The human immune system developed in a time andenvironment where dust was made of large particles. Humans have developed a meansof protecting themselves against these large particles. Particles larger than10 microns generally get caught in the nose and throat, never making it as faras the lungs. Unfortunately, more recent human activity has created manyparticles that are much smaller, which can make it past our natural defenses,and can enter our systems.
This is why particles smaller than 10 microns are oftencalled “inhaleable particulates” and are regulated by the USEPA.Particles that are smaller than 5 microns can get into the bronchial tubes andthe top of the lungs. Particles smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter can getinto the deepest portion of the lungs where the gas exchange occurs between theair and blood stream. These are the dangerous particles because the body has noefficient mechanisms for removing them. (You can also imagine what happens ifeven .5 of one micron sized nano particle of toxic and radioactive plutoniumgets down into this region, can’t you?)
New studies have shown that there is an 18% increase indeaths from heart disease among people with long term exposure to particulatematter. “It’s very different from what we thought previously,” saidprofessor and epidemiologist Arden Pope of Brigham Young University, who ledthe study. While exposure clearly impacts the lungs, “long-term, chronicexposure to air pollution seems to manifest more in cardiovascular disease thanit does in respiratory disease.”
This study shows the biological mechanism by whichlong-term exposure to tiny-particle pollution can actually lead to ischemicheart disease, which causes heart attacks, as well as irregular heart rhythms,heart failure and cardiac arrest. The key is inflammation, Pope said. Whilestrong bouts of pollution can make breathing hard and increase respiratoryproblems, they also provoke low-grade pulmonary inflammation, accelerating thedevelopment of atherosclerosis – a leading cause of heart disease – andaltering heart function.” http://www.hcdoes.org/airquality/monitoring/pm.htm
So what have we learned so far? We have learned thatsmall nano sized particles of human made pollution are hazardous to health, andcan cause serious illnesses and death without even talking about radiation orheavy metal toxins such as plutonium or uranium for example.
So let us explore, again without even getting intoradioactive substances released from reactor accidents, what effect small nanoparticles have when they are concentrated in one place…
AIR QUALITY INDEX
The Air Quality Index (AQI) for particulate matterprovides information on the health effects of different levels of particulatein the air.
Air Quality Index (AQI): Particulate Matter (PM)
This is what you will see on the nightly news.. the reporter will talk about these numbers and tell you to stay inside or that it is OK to come outside and work/play.
101 – 150
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly,and children should limit prolonged exertion.
People with respiratory disease, such as asthma, shouldlimit outdoor exertion.
151 – 200
People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly,and children should avoid prolonged exertion; everyone else should limitprolonged exertion.
People with respiratory disease, such as asthma, shouldavoid outdoor exertion; everyone else, especially the elderly and children,should limit prolonged outdoor exertion.
201 – 300
People with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly,and children should avoid any outdoor activity; everyone else should avoidprolonged exertion.
People with respiratory disease, such as asthma, shouldavoid any outdoor activity; everyone else, especially the elderly and children,should limit outdoor exertion.
301 – 500
Everyone should avoid any outdoor exertion; people withrespiratory or heart disease, the elderly, and children should remain indoors.
Everyone should avoid any outdoor exertion; people withrespiratory disease, such as asthma, should remain indoors.
* PM has two sets of cautionary statements, whichcorrespond to the two sizes of PM that are measured:
• Particles up to 2.5 micrometers in diameter(PM2.5)
• Particles up to 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10)
• An AQI of 100 for PM2.5 corresponds to aPM2.5 level of 40 micrograms per cubic meter (averaged over 24 hours).
• An AQI of 100 for PM10 corresponds to aPM10 level of 150 micrograms per cubic meter (averaged over 24hours).
According to yahoo answers; “Total Inhalable Dust: Thisis the fraction of airborne particles which enters the nose and mouth duringnormal breathing. It is made up of particles of 100 microns diameter and less.This dust fraction is required to be measured in many European jurisdictions.
Thoracic Dust: This is the fraction approximately 10microns diameter and less. This is also referred to as the PM10 in the USA.This fraction will pass through the nose and throat, and reach into the lungs.
Respirable Dust: This fraction is the particlesapproximately 5 microns and less. It certainly penetrates into the gas exchangeregion of the lungs, and is therefore the most hazardous particulate size. Thisfraction is required to be measured in many European jurisdictions.
DUST IN THE WORKPLACE: For many nuisance type dusts theoccupational limits are around 10mg/m3 for total dusts and 5 mg/m3 forrespirable or PM10 dusts. These are normally measured with small air samplingpumps running for a number of hours, or a quick measure of relative dust levelscan be obtained by using a light scattering dust meter.”http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090507152840AA8dl1N
So what have we learned from this section? We havelearned that scientists have found a DIRECT link between more diseases andhigher death rates when the particulate levels go up. These researchers havecome up with a graph that illustrates this relationship. Again we are talkingabout just ordinary particulates, not radioactive and toxic heavy metalparticulates and gases.
But now we can also start to see how and why thescientific evidence for the harm caused by nano radioactive particles such ascesium iodine, plutonium and uranium, plus 900 other ones, all released after anuclear accident, in a massive INSIVIBLE cloud of particulates, may apply andbe real, rather than imagined, as the nuclear apologists claim.
EXTREME DANGERS OF SPECIFIC NANO PARTICLES
In a typical puff of a cigarette in the UK,it contains about “1.5 Micrograms of nitrogen monoxide”. The nitrogen monoxidecannot be seen, tasted, smelled or felt. This nitrogen dioxide amount inhaled with EVERY BREATH of a cigarette isthree times more than the amount we are talking about which is fatal if inhaledin a human lung when it comes to a plutonium nano particle, coming from areactor fire or melt down/ melt through. http://books.google.com/books?id=LFBHAX6yzMoC&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=.5+micrograms+equals+how+many+microns&source=bl&ots=zVlAkVc7kI&sig=GzAHEaxDopmnMAwXo73czWRvik0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WhlIT_ThIY2NigK4lIHbDQ&ved=0CG0Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=.5%20micrograms%20equals%20how%20many%20microns&f=false
According to the EPA, 200 micrograms of mercury would fiton the head of the sharp end of a pin. Now that is pretty small in terms ofspace. But examples exist of how a substance can be dangerous in very smallamounts, and here is one example: “Two years ago, the Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention conducted a study, which showed that three-month-oldbabies exposed to just 63 micrograms of mercury — less than half of theaforementioned pin top — were two-and-a-half times more likely to developautism. The study is stamped “Confidential” and “Do Not Copy orRelease”. Siegel says it was never made public because it was just adraft.” http://www.halexandria.org/dward052.htm
Another way of looking at this sharp end of a pin is touse an electron microscope, which can look at the atomic structure of asubstance. An electron microscope is used for nanotechnology, such as in thefollowing example where Tom Newman took “the information on the page of a bookand put it on an area 1/25,000 smaller in linear scale in such a manner that itcan be read by an electron microscope,” (roughly the scale at which the entireEncyclopedia Britannica could squeeze onto the sharp end of a pin). http://www.halexandria.org/dward052.htm
So if it only takes 65 micrograms of thimerisol to causeautism, and it only takes some invisible small nano particles of man made dustto cause heart disease, heart attacks, and all kinds of other diseasesincluding cancer. It now becomes much easier to see how something that may bemuch more toxic to human life could do the same thing in a dose that isapproximately 100 times smaller than this… at .5 of a microgram of plutonium, and possibly even less.
If it is possible to see that three times as much amountof nitrogen monoxide (1.5 Micrograms) is inhaled in the form of particles in atypical cigarette inhale, it is easier to understand how a .5 Micograms of afloating nano particle sized dust mote of plutonium can also be inhaled easily.After all, we cannot see plutonium nano particles. We cannot hear them, smellthem, taste them or even see them. There is no warning that the body gives us,if we are about to inhale a nano particle of radioactive plutonium, coming allthe way from Fukushima, or any other nuclear accident for that matter.
Anytime a nuclear reactor has an accident, plutonium aswell as hundreds of other radioactive nano particles are released in massiverivers of invisible radioactive gases and dust. So now let’s explore how thatworks and interview an expert on this subject, shall we?
HOT PLUTONIUM NANO PARTICLES
Arnie Gunderson isa nuclear expert that I will be ‘interviewing’ in this material via a CNNvideo. He will be talking about plutonium and other nano particles. Here is asmall introduction about him.
Arnie Gunderson MS
Expertise; Bachelors and Masters Degree In NuclearEngineering
Senior VP in nuclear industry
Has license to operate a nuclear plant
Holds a nuclear patent
First reactor he worked on was a Mark I reactor, laterworked on Mark II and Mark III reactors.
Has had 300 people under him and has been in about 70nuclear power plants in his career.
Gunderson talks about ‘hot’ particles in this video,where he explains the concept of nano particles further. In a CNN interview,Arnie talks about how dangerous ‘hot’ nano particles are that come out ofnuclear reactor meltdowns.
Have you ever wondered why those workers and visitors atthe plant are wearing full facemasks with very special, very fine airfilters? These air filter masks are notjust ordinary painting type filters. These filters are special air filtrationsystems designed to filter out these very small nano particles. They fit verytightly on the face, so as not to allow ANY air leaks, as the air around aleaking reactor complex like Fukushima is highly radioactive and full offloating nano particles, or radioactive ‘fuel fleas’.
Gunderson, in his CNN interview, says that the radiationafter a nuclear accident initially comes out as a big cloud of (Noble) gasesand radiation. But then what comes out of the reactor after that is somethinghe calls radioactive ‘fuel fleas’. The term ‘fuel flea’ is the same thing as aa NANO PARTICLE of plutonium, cesium, iodine, or one of hundreds of otherradioactive particles. They are too small to be picked up on a Geiger Counter,but they are there.
As long as these reactors are not covered in concrete andsealed from the air and as long as the spent fuel pools are open to the air atFukushima, these toxic, radioactive nano particles of plutonium, uranium,cesium and other isotopes will be released into the global river of air. Sincethe Japanese do not seem to be concerned about covering these reactors and sealingthem off, this river of radioactive ‘fuel fleas’ will continue to be pumped outpotentially for hundreds of years.
Once they leak out of the broken reactors and spent fuelpools, these radioactive and toxic heavy metal particles ride the jet stream.They can then settle back down all around the globe, where we breathe themin.
Gunderson says that the average person breathes about 10cubic meters of air in a day. These nano particles or fuel fleas are in theair, all around the globe. In the US,Gunderson reports that the average person breaths in about 5-10 of these nanoradioactive particles per day, and in Japan,they breathe in about 100 or more of these nano particles a day. Watch himtalk about this specifically in his CNN interview here..http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G23Ik5Xf1bk
Some people will argue that nano particles of plutoniumwill not hurt anyone, period…But what we have already learned is that smallnano sized particles are classified by the EPA as hazardous to health, evenWITHOUT radiation. So this argument makes the person who claims this lookignorant and illiterate.
So now lets add the fact that plutonium is a heavy metal,which is a poison all by itself, like mercury, only WORSE. Now we also have toadd the radiation to it. If a plutonium nano particle gets into yourbloodstream, or bone marrow, or liver, or testicles, or breast, it kills ordamages the genes in the cells next to it, unlike mercury, which is just plaintoxic and poisonous. This damage is what starts the cancer process in whateverpart of the body it is in. If someone argues against this method of cancerinitiation, send them to a cancer doctor, who will teach them all about thewide variety of methods of cancer promotion and initiation, including radioactivesubstances.
How can we logically think that this is NOT even moredangerous to health than just the average danger of small dust motes of lead, which are extremelyhazardous in even very small quantities. …
According to the EPA; “Human exposure to lead occursthrough a combination of inhalation and oral exposure, with inhalationgenerally contributing a greater proportion of the dose for occupationallyexposed groups…. The NAAQS safety/action level for lead in the air is 0.15µg/m3.” In other words, there cannot be more than one .15 micron sized nanoparticle per cubic meter of air, or it is considered a toxic place that needsto be cleaned up because it is hazardous to health. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/lead.html
Remember that 1 micron is one-millionth of a meter, whichalso equals 1 micrometer, and we are talking about how .5 of one micronparticle is enough to be fatal to a human being.. So what size are theparticles coming out of a radioactive accident or nuclear bomb blast? According to the Engineering Toolbox;
NANO PARTICLE – Size – Microns/Micrometers/uM
(all arethe same or equivalent)
Radioactive Fallout 0.1 – 10
Atmospheric Dust 0.001 – 40
Lead Dust 2
Anthrax 1 – 5
For more examples, go to;
In this section, we have learned that Nano particles aredangerous, and the EPA as well as local county health authorities and airpollution boards have specific rules and warnings for particles in the air,separate from nuclear power accidents, which release large quantities of theseradioactive nano particles.
According to experts like Gunderson, these radioactivenano particles go around the world, and everyone breathes them in. Rememberthat the fatal dose of plutonium can be .5 microns/micrometer/uM , and thatamount is so small, it cannot be seen.
Further, we all breathe many particles in like this everyday from Fukushima, some peoplemore than others, depending on where the wind blows and how fine your airfilter is, in your house or vehicle.
HOW FAR CAN THESE NANO PARTICLES TRAVEL?
To repeat; Gunderson says that the average personbreathes about 10 cubic meters of air in a day. These nano particles or fuelfleas are in the air, all around the globe. In the US,Gunderson reports that the average person breathes in about 5-10 particles perday, and in Japan,they breathe in about 100 or more of these nano particles a day. Watch hisinterview here if you have not already watched it…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G23Ik5Xf1bk
All sizes of particles are thrown up into the air after anuclear ‘accident’.
Larger particles are things like radioactive fallout,soot, sand, sea spray, hail and snow. They are larger than 100Microns/Micrometers/uM in diameter. They fall out of the air quickly and innuclear accidents, these larger radioactive particles of cesium, iodine,strontium, uranium, and plutonium are what contaminate large areas with highlevels of radioactivity, as these large particles fall out close to the source.
HAZARDOUS MEDIUM SIZED NANO PARTICLES
Medium particles are hazardous, because they bypass thenormal filtering mechanism of the body. These Nano particles settle out moreslowly, due to their smaller size and lighter weight. They include such thingsas radioactive nano particles, pollen, larger bacteria, dust, fly ash, coaldust, silt, pollen, and fine ice crystals during very cold weather. They tendto settle out of the air at about .2 meters per second or more. If these particlesare thrown into the stratosphere during a nuclear explosion, one has tocalculate jet stream velocity, versus settling velocity, and these particlescan still travel great distances, given turbulence, jet streams and highaltitude ejection from a nuclear explosion.
Particles under 10 Micron/Micrometer/uM have a special hazard classification and arecalled PM10 because they further down into the lungs than particles larger than100 Micron/Micrometer/uM .
Particles under 5 Micron/Micrometer/uMs are have an evenhigher hazard classification because they go deeper into the lungs, and enterinto the gas exchange area of the lungs.
SUPER HAZARDOUS SMALL NANO PARTICLES
< 1 Micron/Micrometer/uM
Small nano particles are made up of nano sized radioactiveparticles, viruses, small bacteria, fumes, radioactive and other gases, smoke,clay, and more.
Small nano particles are so small and lightweight, thatthey can take anywhere from forever, to days or years to settle out of theatmosphere. If the air is turbulent, they may never come down. If the air isquiet, they settle slowly out of the atmosphere, towards the ground.
If thrown up into the stratosphere by nuclear explosions,such as during the atomic bomb tests, or after an accident such as Fukushimaor Chernobyl, these smallradioactive nano particles may float in the air for MANY years before comingdown inside of rain or snow, which may form around these small particles. Sincethese particles stay up in the upper atmosphere for many generations, anyonewho flies in an airplane is flying through these clouds of radioactive nanoparticles.
The rain and/or snow may concentrate these radioactiveparticles, resulting in high radiation readings ONLY for rain or snow, on theother side of the planet, far away from the original release of radiation.. Anexample of this is a radiation reading take in February 2012, near the US EastCoast. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tJqUaW2E_1w
HOT NANO PARTICLES AND BABIES, INFANTS, FETUSES
The dose of radioactive particles that will kill an adultmale in the prime of life is different from what will cause disabling geneticdamage in an egg, sperm, fetus or baby. A child is much more sensitive to thesame dose of radiation than an adult male for example. Even a female is moresensitive than a male of the same age, given the same exposure to a radioactivesubstance.
To have a full discussion about the dangers of nanoparticle sized plutonium floating around in the air globally, being breathed inby all ages, sexes and health conditions, we need to look at all of these areas, not just the effect of plutoniumon healthy, adult, older males, who are much less affected, both by radiation andby toxins such as plutonium. Ignoring everyone except for adult male nuclearworkers when it comes to plutonium is definitely NOT scientific.
Even the MOST conservative researchers who downplay thedanger and avoid calculating risk for babies, fetuses, children and dangersposed by constant low level exposure as well as the multiple cancer causingroutes (other than lung cancer) admit that “the 2 million fatalities perpound inhaled leaves plutonium dust far from “the most toxic substance knownto man.”
Biological agents, like botulism toxin or anthrax sporesare many hundreds or thousands of times more toxic. Plutonium toxicity issimilar to that of nerve gas, but given the choice of being in a room withequal quantities of plutonium dust and nerve gas, the latter would beinfinitely more dangerous.” Chapter 13 Plutonium and Bombshttp://www.phyast.pitt.edu/~blc/book/chapter13.html
To contrast this rather conservative radiation expert,the official and very scientifically valid CERRIE Majority Report says thatradiation dose is meaningless, and this applies to both cesium andplutonium. According to the report:“there are important concerns with respect to the heterogeneity of dosedelivery within tissues and cells from short-range charged particle emissions,the extent to which current models adequately represent such interactions withbiological targets, and the specification of target cells at risk. Indeed, theactual concepts of absorbed dose become questionable, and sometimesmeaningless, when considering interactions at the cellular and molecularlevels.” (CERRIE Majority Report Chapter 2.1 paragraph 11).http://www.llrc.org/wobblyscience/subtopic/dosemeaningless4.htm#ref1
Again, we have scientists who have looked at allradioactive substances, including those that emit alpha, beta and gammaradiation, and they are telling us via this report that ALL of theseradioactive substances have a negative effect on our health, via the internalexposure mechanism.
Internal radiation when it is lodged in the lungs orabsorbed into the blood, plasma, bones, muscles, organs or glands is MUCHdifferent than ANY exposure to external radiation. Internal radiation fromsomething radioactive lodged inside the body is also different from swallowingsomething radioactive which then passes through the gut and is then expelled inmost cases.
To see how nano sized Hot Particles of Radioactivefallout travels around the world, watch the following video;http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBfvkCEr-Is
To summarize; we have learned how dangerous nano sizedparticles are. We have also learned how extra layers of danger are added on byradiation inside the body, compared to outside radiation exposure.
PLUTONIUM IS DANGEROUS FOR 800 MILLION YEARS
There are over 20 radioactive isotopes of Plutonium. Thehalf life of radioactive Plutonium 244 is 80.0 million years, (meaning it willlast over 800 million years before it decays into something else). The otherradioactive plutoniums have half lives of 373,000 years, for a total of 3.7Million years, and plutonium 239, with a half life of 24,110 years, for a totalof 240,000 years. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium
TYPES OF RADIATION COMING OUT OF PLUTONIUM
Depending on the type of radioactive plutonium, it eitheremits Alpha radiation (Plutonium 244), while decaying into Uranium. Plutonium241 emits Beta radiation or electrons as it decays into radioactive Americium.
Can a Geiger Counter detectPlutonium? http://youtu.be/wY5pPkoCgiM
“Plutonium-239,the isotope found in the spent MOX fuel, is much more radioactive than thedepleted Uranium-238 in the spent fuel coming out of nuclear reactors.
Since some forms of plutonium emit alpha radiation, ahighly ionizing form of radiation, it makes plutonium much more dangerous thanother radioactive isotopes that emit beta or gamma radiation. Alpha radiation exposure is not so dangerousbecause this radiation can be stopped by skin. Thus most nuclear apologists ignorealpha emitting isotopes when calculating health risks and death risks.
The danger from isotopes such as plutonium, is that whenalpha-emitters get inside cells, as they do, then the Alpha rays cause10-10,000 times more damage to surrounding chromosomes than a beta or gammaradiation emitting particle. We all know that chromosome damage is what startsthe cancer growing process.
HOW PLUTONIUM ACTS IN THE HUMAN BODY
According to Dr. Helen Caldicott MD, radioactiveplutonium does get out into the environment after an ‘accidental’ release. Itis absorbed by the human body or bypasses the protective mechanisms in thelungs and nose as tiny nano particles that go straight into the bloodstream.
Once in the environment, it then it acts like iron forhuman bodies, which the body then absorbs and tries to use. Radioactive plutonium that the body thinks isiron is stored in the liver. Radioactive plutonium also goes to bone marrow,where iron normally goes to help form bone marrow. Once stored in these places,Dr. Caldicott says that radioactive plutonium causes bone cancer, leukemia,cancers and other genetic diseases. Radioactive plutonium also crosses the plancenta barrier, thus affectingeggs, fetuses and babies.
Bottom line; according to Dr. Caldicott, plutonium is aREALLY dangerous radioactive isotope. Dr. Helen Caldicott appeared on theLINK TV program Earth Focus to discuss the Fukushimacrisis and other nuclear issues.http://www.linktv.org/video/6986/dr-helen-caldicott-on-fukushima-and-the-perils-of-nuclear-power
“According to the Environmental Protection Agency,plutonium enters the bloodstream via the lungs, then moves throughout the bodyand into the bones, liver, and other organs. It generally stays in those placesfor decades, subjecting surrounding organs and tissues to a continualbombardment of alpha radiation and greatly increasing the risk of cancer,especially lung cancer, liver cancer and bone sarcoma.”http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/1222-plutonium-more-dangerous-uranium.html
THE DANGERS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE
Humanity has only been around for 100,000 years total.The Bible is only 2,000 years old. The pyramids are 5,000 years old. We do nothave any good records of how or why the pyramids were built. What if they weredesigned and built to house some deadly diseases? What chance do we have 5,000years later, to know that reason and avoid those pyramids? Can you imagineguarding something and passing this knowledge on about how dangerous somethingis for 800 MILLION YEARS? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_humanity
What is the logic of heating water with plutonium heatingwater and creating steam for 30 years? After that, humans have to guard thisdangerous, toxic and highly radioactive waste for 800 million years. We mortaland mistake prone humans who create FUBARS and wars by the ton, have to keephighly radioactive and toxic plutonium safe from terrorists who might make aweapon that will kill millions or billions of people for 800 MILLION years.What chance is there that NOTHING will go wrong with this radioactive waste for800 million years, and that everything will go perfectly right for that wholetime?
HOW WE ALL GET EXPOSED TO PLUTONIUM OR OTHER RADIATION
Since clear point made by the film is that whileonly two bombs were dropped on Japan, manyhundreds were exploded in the United States.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_Circle_(film)
The film was approved for PBS nationalbroadcast in 1985, but that decision was rejected a year later. Independentproducers alleged censorship.B.J.Bullert commented that the PBS/KQEDdecision “robbed a national public television audience”. He extrapolates this critical remark to the media across the boardand its failure to focus public attention on the putative biological hazardof nuclear power.
Regardless, the film is available today viaPBS’ POV (“Documentaries with a point of view”), whichsummarizes the film’s thesis as “The Bomb is killing ordinary Americans,even in the absence of a nuclear war.”
See movie online via streaming videohttp://www.pbs.org/pov/darkcircle/
Mycle Schneider MycleSchneider (pronounce Michael, /?ma?k?l/) (born 1959 in Cologne) isa nuclear energy consultant based in Paris, and lead authorof The World Nuclear Industry Status Reports. In 1997 he receivedthe Right Livelihood Award. For more details around his biography,see; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycle_Schneider
Mycle Schneider reports that “Plutonium separation also means the largestradioactive emissions in the overall nuclear fuel chain and has significantcontribution to the collective global dose (of radiation),” Schneidersaid.
In fact, reprocessing plants in Franceand the U.K.have been disposing of radioactive emissions into the ocean. One of theradioactive materials, iodine 129, has been found on the northern Norwegiancoast and the Baltic Sea, according to Riso NationalLaboratory in Denmark.
Some 4 tons of iodine 129 had been discharged by thereprocessing plants by 2004 and the concentration of iodine 129 in the Baltic Sea in 2000 was 1,000 times higher than before nuclear energyexisted. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20081127f1.html
New York Times : USGovt Concedes Plutonium Workers Suffered Illness, Death
“10 trillionbecquerels per hour of radiation currently being released from Fukushimaplant: Researcher (VIDEO) August 18, 2011?
So what is it? 76,000,000,000,000 (76 trillion)so far,or, 240,000,000,000,000 (10 triliion per hour) every day?
NUMBER OF DEATHS PREDICTED FROM PLUTONIUM RELEASED AT FUKUSHIMA
We know for a fact that tens of tons of uranium waslaunched and aerosolized, mostly from reactor 3 explosion. And we know thatreactor 3 used MOX fuel which is uranium mixed with plutonium. And we know thatall used fuel contains plutonium.
We know that at LEAST hundreds of pounds of plutoniumwere launched and aerosolized from Fukushima.
The proof is laid out quite clearly here.
Fukushima had approximately 150x as much fuel on site vs. chernobylunit 4. About 1/3 of the Fuku fuel is very likely to have burned so far . Therest is waiting to burn. Only unit 4 burned at Chernobyl– the other reactors continued to operate after the disaster for many years.
Chernobylunit 4 was a brand new reactor – 3 months old at the time of the accident. Nospent fuel was available to burn. This means, even though the fuel was probablyhotter than much of Fukushima fuel– it didn’t have much fission generated plutonium, either. Additionally a goodpercentage of Chernobyl’s radiationgot contained by the “tomb” built over the reactor in just a fewmonths after the disaster.
To the contrary, Japanhas left Fukushima wide open toleak radiation into the environment. despite huge efforts to keep the fuelcool, they’ve made no effort whatsoever to control the releases of radiation ifthat is insufficient, which it has been.
So we’ve got 150X the fuel, more plutonium and a muchbigger percentage of release – I multiply the fuel quantity by 3.5X for thosefactors to get that 500X figure above. Even if you just go with the 150X numberit’s still a very big release.
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How Dangerous Is 400-600 Pounds Of Plutonium Nano Particle Dust Liberated By Fukushima? Via A Green Road Blog