(Everyone has a guardian angel.)
WHAT IS AN ANGEL?
An angel is a primarily spiritual being
found in various religions
. In Abrahamic religions
, angels are often depicted as benevolent celestial beings who act as intermediaries between God
, or as guardian spirits
or a guiding influence.
Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, and carrying out God’s tasks.
The term “angel” has also been diversed to various notions of spirits or figures found in many other religious traditions. The theological study of angels is known as “angelology”.
The ángelos is the default Septuagint’s translation of theBiblical Hebrew
denoting simply “messenger” without specifying its nature. In the Latin Vulgate, however, the meaning becomes bifurcated: when mal’ākh or ángelos is supposed to denote a human messenger, words like nuntius or legatus are applied. If the word refers to some supernatural being, the word angelus appears. Such differentiation has been taken over by later vernacular translations of the Bible, early Christian and Jewish exegetes and eventually modern scholars.
uses the (Hebrew) terms מלאך אלהים (mal’āk̠ ‘ĕlōhîm; messenger of God), מלאך יהוה (mal’āk̠ YHWH
; messenger of the Lord), בני אלהים (bənē ‘ĕlōhîm
; sons of God
) and הקודשים (haqqôd̠əšîm; the holy ones) to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angels. Later texts use other terms, such as העליונים (hā’elyônîm; the upper ones).
The term מלאך (mal’āk̠) is also used in other books of the Tanakh
. Depending on the context, the Hebrew word may refer to a human messenger or to a supernatural messenger. A human messenger might be a prophet or priest, such as Malachi
, “my messenger”; the Greek superscription in the Septuagint
translation states the Book of Malachi
was written “by the hand of his messenger” ἀγγέλου angélu. Examples of a supernatural messenger
are the “Malak YHWH
,” who is either a messenger from God,
an aspect of God (such as the Logos
or God himself as the messenger (the “theophanic
Scholar Michael D. Coogan
notes that it is only in the late books that the terms “come to mean the benevolent semi divine beings familiar from later mythology and art.” Daniel
is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name,
(God’s primary messenger) in Daniel 9:21 and Michael
(the holy fighter) in Daniel 10:13. These angels are part of Daniel’s apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature.
Coogan explains the development of this concept of angels: “In the postexilic period, with the development of explicit monotheism, these divine beings—the ‘sons of God’ who were members of the Divine Council
—were in effect demoted to what are now known as ‘angels’, understood as beings created by God, but immortal and thus superior to humans.”
This conception of angels is best understood in contrast to demons
and is often thought to be “influenced by the ancient Persian religious tradition of Zoroastrianism
, which viewed the world as a battleground between forces of good and forces of evil, between light and darkness.”
One of these is hāšāṭān
, a figure depicted in (among other places) the Book of Job
of Alexandria identifies the angel with the Logos inasmuch as the angel is the immaterial voice of God. The angel is something different from God Himself, but is conceived as God’s instrument.
In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though these archangels
were believed to rank among the heavenly host
, no systematic hierarchy ever developed. Metatron
is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkabah
mysticism and often serves as a scribe; he is briefly mentioned in the Talmud
and figures prominently in Merkabah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior
and advocate for Israel (Daniel 10:13
), is looked upon particularly fondly.
Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel
) and briefly in the Talmud,
as well as in many Merkabah mystical texts. There is no evidence in Judaism for theworship of angels
, but there is evidence for the invocation
and sometimes even conjuration
… This leads Aristotle
in turn to the demonstrated fact that God, glory and majesty to Him, does not do things by direct contact. God burns things by means of fire; fire is moved by the motion of the sphere; the sphere is moved by means of a disembodied intellect, these intellects being the ‘angels which are near to Him’, through whose mediation the spheres [planets] move … thus totally disembodied minds exist which emanate from God and are the intermediaries between God and all the bodies [objects] here in this world.
— Guide for the Perplexed II:4, Maimonides
According to Kabalah
, there are four worlds and our world is the last world: the world of action (Assiyah). Angels exist in the worlds above as a ‘task’ of God. They are an extension of God to produce effects in this world. After an angel has completed its task, it ceases to exist. The angel is in effect the task. This is derived from the book of Genesis
when Abraham meets with three angels and Lot meets with two. The task of one of the angels was to inform Abraham of his coming child. The other two were to save Lot and to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah
One of Melozzo
‘s musician (seraphim) angels from the Basilica dei Santi Apostoli, now in the sacristy of St. Peter’s Basilica
Jewish angelic hierarchy
, in his Yad ha-Chazakah
: Yesodei ha-Torah, counts ten ranks of angels in the Jewish angelic hierarchy, beginning from the highest:
Rank Angel Notes
(translation: who is like God?), kindness of God, and stands up for the children of mankind
(archangel) (translation: God is my strength), performs acts of justice and power
(Only these two angels are mentioned by name in the Hebrew Bible; the rest are from extra-biblical tradition.)
(archangel) (translation: God is my light), leads us to destiny
(archangel) (translation: bringing together), battles Samael and brings mankind together
Later Christians inherited Jewish understandings of angels, which in turn may have been partly inherited from the Egyptians.
In the early stage, the Christian concept of an angel characterized the angel as a messenger of God. Later came identification of individual angelic messengers:Gabriel
, and Lucifer
. Then, in the space of little more than two centuries (from the 3rd to the 5th) the image of angels took on definite characteristics both in theology and in art.
According to St Augustine
, ” ‘Angel’ is the name of their office, not of their nature. If you seek the name of their nature, it is ‘spirit’; if you seek the name of their office, it is ‘angel’: from what they are, ‘spirit’, from what they do, ‘angel’.” Basilian
Father Thomas Rosica
says, “Angels are very important, because they provide people with an articulation of the conviction that God is intimately involved in human life.”
By the late 4th century, the Church Fathers
agreed that there were different categories of angels, with appropriate missions and activities assigned to them. There was, however, some disagreement regarding the nature of angels. Some argued that angels had physical bodies,
while some maintained that they were entirely spiritual. Some theologians had proposed that angels were not divine but on the level of immaterial beings subordinate to the Trinity
. The resolution of this Trinitarian dispute included the development of doctrine about angels.
The angels are represented throughout the Christian Bible as spiritual beings intermediate between God and men: “You have made him [man] a little less than the angels …” (Psalms 8:4-5
). The Bible describes the function of angels as “messengers” but does not indicate when the creation of angels occurred.
Christians believe that angels are created beings, based on (Psalms 148:2-5
; Colossians 1:16
): “praise ye Him, all His angels: praise ye Him, all His hosts … for He spoke and they were made. He commanded and they were created …”. TheFourth Lateran Council
(1215) declared that the angels were created beings. The Council’s decree Firmiter credimus (issued against the Albigenses
) declared both that angels were created and that men were created after them. The First Vatican Council
(1869) repeated this declaration in Dei Filius
, the “Dogmatic constitution on the Catholic faith”.
Interaction with angels
“ Forget not to show love unto strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares.—Hebrews 13:2
According to Matthew 4:11, after Jesus spent 40 days in the desert, “…the devil left him and, behold, angels came and ministered to him.” In Luke 22:43 an angel comforts Jesus Christ
during the Agony in the Garden
In Matthew 28:5 an angel speaks at the empty tomb, following the Resurrection of Jesus
and the rolling back of the stone by angels.
Pope John Paul II
emphasized the role of angels in Catholic teachings in his 1986 address titled “Angels Participate In History Of Salvation”, in which he suggested that modern mentality should come to see the importance of angels.
According to the Vatican’s Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, “The practice of assigning names to the Holy Angels should be discouraged, except in the cases of Gabriel, Raphael and Michael whose names are contained in Holy Scripture.”
In the New Church
, there is extensive information provided concerning angels and the spiritual world in which they dwell from many years of spiritual experiences recounted in the writings ofEmanuel Swedenborg
. All angels are in human form with a spiritual body, and are not just minds without form.
There are different orders of angels according to the three heavens,
and each angel dwells in one of innumerable societies of angels. Such a society of angels can appear as one angel as a whole.
All angels originate from the human race, and there is not one angel in heaven who first did not live in a material body.
Moreover, all children who die not only enter heaven but eventually become angels.
The life of angels is that of usefulness, and their functions are so many that they cannot be enumerated. However each angel will enter a service according to the use that they had performed in their earthly life.
Names of angels, such as Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, signify a particular angelic function rather than an individual being.
While living in one’s body an individual has conjunction with heaven through the angels,
and with each person, there are at least two evil spirits and two angels.
Temptation or pains of conscience originates from a conflict between evil spirits and angels.
Due to man’s sinful nature it is dangerous to have open direct communication with angels
and can only be seen when one’s spiritual sight has been opened.
Thus from moment to moment angels attempt to lead each person to what is good tacitly using the person’s own thoughts.
Latter Day Saints
Adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
(LDS Church) view angels as the messengers of God. They are sent to mankind to deliver messages, minister to humanity, teach doctrines of salvation, call mankind to repentance, give priesthood
keys, save individuals in perilous times, and guide humankind.
Paradiso Illustration by Gustave Doré.
The Divine Comedy Illustration by Gustave Doré.
“While I was thus in the act of calling upon God, I discovered a light appearing in my room, which continued to increase until the room was lighter than at noonday, when immediately a personage appeared at my bedside, standing in the air, for his feet did not touch the floor.
He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. It was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and brilliant …
Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his whole person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very bright as immediately around his person. When I first looked upon him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me.”
Most angelic visitations in the early Latter Day Saint movement
were witnessed by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery
, who both claimed (prior to the establishment of the church in 1830) to have been visited by the prophet Moroni
, John the Baptist
, and the apostlesPeter
, and John
. Later, after the dedication of the Kirtland Temple
, Smith and Cowdery claimed to have been visited by Jesus
, and subsequently byMoses
, Elias, and Elijah
People who claimed to have received a visit by an angel include the other two of the Three Witnesses
: David Whitmer
and Martin Harris
. Many other Latter Day Saints, both in the early and modern church, have claimed to have seen angels, though Smith posited that, except in extenuating circumstances such as therestoration
, mortals teach mortals, spirits teach spirits, and resurrected beings teach other resurrected beings.
Depiction of an angel in Shia
: ملائكة , Malāʾikah) are mentioned many times in the Qur’an
. Islam is clear on the nature of angels in that they are messengers of God. They have no free will
, and can do only what God
orders them to do.
An example of a task they carry out is that of testing individuals by granting them abundant wealth and curing their illness.
Believing in angels is one of the six Articles of Faith
Some examples of angels in Islam:
: the archangel Gabriel (Jibra’il or Jibril) is an archangel who serves as a messenger from God.
: the angels who travel in the earth searching out assemblies where people remember God’s name.
is Azraa-eel عزرائيل or Izrail: the Angel of Death. No authentic reference of this in Quran or Hadeeth. Only referenced as angel of death or ملك الموت.
: a class of guardian angels who keep people from death until its decreed time.
Munkar and Nakir
: the angels who test the faith of the dead in their graves. They ask the soul of the dead person questions. If the person fails the questions, the angels make the man suffer until the Day of Judgement
. If the soul passes the questions, he will have a pleasant time in the grave until the Day of Judgement.
: the angel in charge of maintaining Jannat
Harut and Marut
: هاروت وماروت) are two angels
mentioned in the second Surah
of the Qur’an
, who were sent down to test the people at Babel
by performing deeds of magic. (Sura Al-Baqara
, verse 102.) The Qur’an indicates that although they warned the Babylonians not to imitate them or do as they were doing, some members of their audience failed to obey and became sorcerers, thus damning their own souls.
According to the Kabbalah
as described by the Golden Dawn
there are ten archangels
, each commanding one of the choir of angels and corresponding to one of the Sephirot
. It is similar to the Jewish angelic hierarchy.
RankChoir of AngelsTranslationArchangelSephirah
The poetry of the holy scripture of the Sikhs
– the Sri Guru Granth Sahib
– figuratively mentions a messenger or angel of death, sometimes as Yam
(ਜਮ – “Yam”) and sometimes as Azrael
(ਅਜਰਾਈਲੁ – “Ajraeel”):ਜਮ ਜੰਦਾਰੁ ਨ ਲਗਈ ਇਉ ਭਉਜਲੁ ਤਰੈ ਤਰਾਸਿThe Messenger of Death will not touch you; in this way, you shall cross over the terrifying world-ocean, carrying others across with you.— Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Siree Raag, First Mehl, p. 22.
ਅਜਰਾਈਲੁ ਯਾਰੁ ਬੰਦੇ ਜਿਸੁ ਤੇਰਾ ਆਧਾਰੁAzraa-eel, the Messenger of Death, is the friend of the human being who has Your support, Lord.— Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Tilang, Fifth Mehl, Third House, p. 724.
In a similar vein, the Sri Guru Granth Sahib
talks of a figurative Chitar (ਚਿਤ੍ਰ) and Gupat (ਗੁਪਤੁ):ਚਿਤ੍ਰ ਗੁਪਤੁ ਸਭ ਲਿਖਤੇ ਲੇਖਾ ॥ਭਗਤ ਜਨਾ ਕਉ ਦ੍ਰਿਸਟਿ ਨ ਪੇਖਾChitar and Gupat, the recording angels of the conscious and the unconscious, write the accounts of all mortal beings, / but they cannot even see the Lord’s humble devotees.— Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Aasaa, Fifth Mehl, Panch-Pada, p. 393.
has never had a literal system of angels, preferring guidance without explicit appeal to supernatural orders or beings.
In his Book of Certitude Bahá’u’lláh
, founder of the Bahá’í Faith
, describes angels as people who “have consumed, with the fire of the love of God, all human traits and limitations”, and have “clothed themselves” with angelic attributes and have become “endowed with the attributes of the spiritual”. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
describes angels as the “confirmations of God and His celestial powers” and as “blessed beings who have severed all ties with this nether world” and “been released from the chains of self”, and “revealers of God’s abounding grace”. The Bahá’í writings also refer to the Concourse on High
, an angelic host, and the Maid of Heaven
of Bahá’u’lláh’s vision.
there are different angel-like figures. For example, each person has one guardian angel
, called Fravashi
. They patronize human beings and other creatures, and also manifest God’s energy. The Amesha Spentas
have often been regarded as angels, although there is no direct reference to them conveying messages,
but are rather emanations of Ahura Mazda
(“Wise Lord”, God); they initially appeared in an abstract fashion and then later became personalized, associated with diverse aspects of the divine creation.
In the commentaries of Proclus
(4th century, under Christian rule) on the Timaeus
, Proclus uses the terminology of “angelic” (aggelikos) and “angel” (aggelos) in relation to metaphysical beings. According to Aristotle
, just as there is a First Mover
so, too, must there be spiritual secondary movers.
In the teachings of the Theosophical Society, Devas
are regarded as living either in the atmospheres
of the planets
of the solar system
(Planetary Angels) or inside the Sun
(Solar Angels) and they help to guide the operation of the processes of nature
such as the process of evolution
and the growth of plants
; their appearance is reputedly like colored flames about the size of a human. It is believed by Theosophists that devas can be observed when the third eye
is activated. Some (but not most) devas originally incarnated as human beings
It is believed by Theosophists that nature spirits
, and salamanders
), and fairies
can be also be observed when the third eye
It is maintained by Theosophists that these less evolutionarily developed beings have never been previously incarnated as humans; they are regarded as being on a separate line of spiritual evolution called the “deva evolution”; eventually, as their souls
advance as they reincarnate
, it is believed they will incarnate as devas.
The Brahma Kumaris
uses the term “angel” to refer to a perfect, or complete state of the human being, which they believe can be attained through a connection with God.
ANGELS IN ART
of the ArchangelsMichael
wearing the lorosof the Imperial guards.
In an address during a General Audience of 6 August 1986, entitled “Angels participate in the history of salvation”, Pope John Paul II explained that “[T]he angels have no ‘body’ (even if, in particular circumstances, they reveal themselves under visible forms because of their mission for the good of people).”
Angels are however often depicted in painting and sculpture as male humans. Christian art perhaps reflects the descriptions in Revelation
4:6–8 of the Four Living Creatures
: τὰ τέσσαρα ζῷα) and the descriptions in the Hebrew Bible of cherubim
vision and the Seraphim of Isaiah
However, while cherubim and seraphim have wings in the Bible, no angel is mentioned as having wings.
The earliest known Christian image of an angel—in the Cubicolo dell’Annunziazione in the Catacomb of Priscilla
(mid-3rd century)—is without wings. In that same period, representations of angels on sarcophagi
, lamps andreliquaries
also show them without wings,
as for example the angel in the Sacrifice of Isaac
scene in the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
(although the side view of the Sarcophagus shows winged angelic figures).
The earliest known representation of angels with wings is on the “Prince’s Sarcophagus”, discovered in the 1930s at Sarigüzel, near Istanbul
, and attributed to the time of Theodosius I
From that period on, Christian art has represented angels mostly with wings, as in the cycle of mosaics in the Basilica of Saint Mary Major
Four- and six-winged angels, drawn from the higher grades of angels (especially cherubim
) and often showing only their faces and wings, are derived from Persian art and are usually shown only inheavenly contexts
, as opposed to performing tasks on earth. They often appear in thependentives
of church domes
. Prior to the Judeo-Christian tradition, in the Greek world the goddess Nike
and the gods Eros
were also depicted in human-like form with wings.
They manifest a nature’s sublimity. That is why Gabriel is represented with wings. Not that angels have wings, but that you may know that they leave the heights and the most elevated dwelling to approach human nature. Accordingly, the wings attributed to these powers have no other meaning than to indicate the sublimity of their nature.
Angels are typically depicted in Mormon art as having no wings based on a quote from Joseph Smith (“An angel of God never has wings”).
In terms of their clothing, angels, especially the Archangel Michael, were depicted as military-style agents of God and came to be shown wearing Late Antique
military uniform. This uniform could be the normal military dress, with a tunic to about the knees, an armour breastplate andpteruges
, but was often the specific dress of the bodyguard of the Byzantine Emperor
, with a long tunic and the loros
, the long gold and jewelled pallium
restricted to the Imperial family and their closest guards. The basic military dress was shown in Western art into the Baroque
period and beyond (see Reni picture above), and up to the present day in Eastern Orthodox icons
. Other angels came to be conventionally depicted in long robes, and in the later Middle Ages they often wear the vestments of a deacon
, a cope
over a dalmatic
; this costume was used especially for Gabriel
scenes—for example the Annunciation in Washington
by Jan van Eyck
Angel (Michelangelo), a sculpture in Italy
Angels (statues), a group of busts in Slovenia
snow angel, angel-shaped snow figures
AN ANGEL STORY; BY HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSON
A translation of Hans Christian Andersen’s “Engelen” by Jean Hersholt.
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