Global Oxygen Levels Are Dropping In Major Cities And Oceans, From A High Of 35% In Geological History; How To Measure Oxygen Levels In Air Yourself

We all live in an ‘ocean’ of air, just like sea creatures live in an ocean of water. All living creatures, plants, animals and humans live in the troposphere, which is the lowest level of atmosphere that surrounds the Earth in a very thin and fragile layer. The web of life depends on a healthy and high level of oxygen in the atmosphere, which sustains almost all life on Earth.

HOW TO TEST OXYGEN LEVEL IN AIR 

SLOW TEST; The video above provides a very simple method of how to measure the percentage of oxygen in air. Even children or average adults can perform this simple method and find out what oxygen levels are indoors in a crowded room filled with people in the middle of a car filled city on a quiet/still day, and then compare that reading to outdoors in a park filled with trees, few people, no machines and away from any city for example.

QUICK TEST: Another way to measure oxygen content of a given sample of air is to put a lit thin candle in a pan, substituting a candle for the iron shavings in the tube. Now add about 1 inch of of water. Now put a dry, thin tall glass cylinder over the candle and let it rest on the pan bottom. As the candle burns the oxygen, it pulls up the water in the small crack between the upside down glass vial and the pan bottom. After the candle burns all of the oxygen, it goes out. Mark the water level. Pull the glass tube off of the candle.
Use the same container, same water level in pan, and the same candle to test different locations, different times, etc. Compare the results. Test oxygen level out in the woods, and then a crowded room, in middle of city on still quiet day, late afternoon. Test a room in a well sealed house, one with houseplants, and one without. Repeat test during day and at night, in areas were oxygen levels may be lower, such as enclosed spaces with composting material, or lots of iron shavings, etc.

HISTORICAL OXYGEN LEVELS

Oxygen has made up as much as 35% of global atmosphere in terms of geological history, but has been declining due to many causes. Recent declines are due to human intervention.

Via Marushka France oxygen levels gave rise to life forms that needed oxygen…declining oxygen levels will, therefore, see declines in populations that need oxygen…
The Great Oxygenation Event (GOE), also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Cr..

Via Sandy LeonVest; The oxygen crisis; Could the decline of oxygen in the atmosphere undermine our health and threaten human survival?

Around 10,000 years ago, the planet’s forest cover was at least twice what it is today, which means that forests are now emitting only half the amount of oxygen. Desertification and deforestation are rapidly accelerating this long-term loss of oxygen sources. The story at sea is much the same. Nasa reports that in the north Pacific ocean oxygen-producing phytoplankton concentrations are 30% lower today, compared to the 1980s. This is a huge drop in just three decades.

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/aug/13/carbonemissions.climatechange

The Scripps Institute reports on the decline in oxygen levels globally, both in the air and in the oceans. On the CO2 side, levels have crossed a negative tipping of 400 PPM. On the oxygen level side, more than likely the equal negative tipping point has also been reached, for the same reasons.

A Looming Oxygen Crisis and Its Impact on World’s Oceans by Carl Zimmer: Yale Environment 360

In fact, the area of the global ocean without enough oxygen for animals to survive (less than 70 micromoles per kilogram to be exact) expanded by 4.5 million square kilometers (1.7 million square miles). That’s an area about half the size of the United States.
Via Marushka France “Jean-Michel Cousteau says; “By protecting the ocean you are protecting yourself”…..the public really wants to know what the true state of the ocean is and what the implications are. I asked about temperature, acidity and pollution. He was quick to respond. “Ten years ago you would not have asked that question, because you did not know to ask. Now you know. So we can take action based upon the knowledge we now have. We know the temperature has risen and is rising still. We know the acidity has increased dangerously and we know it is causing a lot of harm.

And yes it is increasing because of the excessive amount of carbon dioxide it is absorbing. We humans are producing that carbon dioxide with our cars, trucks, planes and energy facilities. But knowing this we can immediately start looking for solutions. We know we must stop the flow of pollutants, heavy metals and thousands of chemicals from the land to the sea. We know we must reduce carbon dioxide emissions. But these changes mean jobs for people. Challenges for people. Yes time is short, but we can do it. Not every species is going to survive the changes.”

http://www.hollywoodtoday.net/…/jean-michel-cousteau…/

TEDxPotomac – Alexandra Cousteau – Connected by Water

The following article forecasts future oxygen depletion and severe repercussions in the world’s oceans, says that reductions in carbon fuel use are needed to prevent this. 

Nature Geoscience; Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels
http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v2/n2/abs/ngeo420.html

Via VanneV September 21, 2014 “The rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) due to unabated carbon emissions have been given much attention in recent years because of its major impact on global temperatures, climate, ocean chemistry, etc. Recently, it has also been reported to affect the level of oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere. Dr. Ralph Keeling estimated that about three O2 molecules are lost every time a single CO2 molecule is produced by fossil fuel combustion (Johnston, 2007). A 0.0317% decline in atmospheric oxygen has been recorded thus far (for the period 1990 to 2008) (Klusinske, 2010).
“Fortunately, the world’s oceans (which cover 70% of the Earth’s surface) function as an efficient carbon sink. They absorb about half of the anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere (Sabine et al., 2004), thereby buffering the effects of excess atmospheric CO2. Unfortunately however, this is not without consequence to ocean chemistry. Elevated atmospheric CO2 have been reported to cause ocean warming, acidification and recently, the decline in ocean oxygen levels.
“II. Declining Ocean Oxygen Levels
Scientists have recorded a steady decline in ocean oxygen in open waters of the North Pacific Ocean of about 0.3% per year since the 1950s. This “steady decline in ocean oxygen levels was discovered among a roughly 20-year cycle of fluctuating oxygen that is driven by the effects of lunar procession on the tides,” according to Conners (2011) (See Figure 1 below)….”

HOW IS OXYGEN MADE?

Liquid oxygen, oxygen bubbles 
Spectral lines of oxygen 

In nature, free oxygen is produced by the light-driven splitting of water during oxygenic photosynthesis. According to some estimates, green algae and cyanobacteria in marine environments provide about 70% of the free oxygen produced on Earth and the rest is produced by terrestrial plants.[43] Other estimates of the oceanic contribution to atmospheric oxygen are higher, while some estimates are lower, suggesting oceans produce ~45% of Earth’s atmospheric oxygen each year.[44]

A simplified overall formula for photosynthesis is:[45]

CO
2
 + 6 H
2
O
 + photons → C
6
H
12
O
6
 + 6 O
2
or simply
carbon dioxide + water + sunlight → glucose + dioxygen

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen

Global Oxygen Level Decrease Documented

Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), University of California at San Diego

mlo O2/N2 flask data

http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/obop/mlo/programs/coop/scripps/o2/o2.html

Oxygen Bars Are Popular In Polluted Big Cities Like Tokyo And Bejing

Although this medical report is NOT proof of low oxygen levels in Tokyo, this large city, like others that are polluted, offers a wide selection of oxygen bars. 

Interior of an oxygen bar

Tokyo And Bejing Offer ‘Air Stations’

Modeled after the “air stations” in polluted downtown Tokyo and Beijing, the first official oxygen bar (the O2 Spa Bar) opened in Toronto, Canada, in 1996.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen_bar

Why would Tokyo need ‘air stations’ and oxygen bars for people in the city, and have plenty of paying customers, if there was no problem at all with people feeling like they were getting enough oxygen? Is this what the future holds for humanity? Will we all eventually be paying for oxygen in order to feel ‘normal’?

OSHA Enclosed Space Oxygen Requirements

Oxygen concentration is considered adequate if it is between 19.5% and 23.5% of the total atmosphere. To protect against toxic gases, contaminants have permissible exposure limits (PELs), which are set by OSHA.
OSHA; “Require testing of atmospheric conditions inside the space before entry. Tests must be conducted for: O2 (Oxygen, 19.5%–23.5% acceptable)

http://www.grainger.com/content/qt-safety-confined-spaces-115

What Happens To A Person Exposed To Lower Oxygen Levels? 

According to EHS Today; “Human beings normally breathe air that is 20.9 percent oxygen by volume under normal atmospheric pressure conditions. When the concentration of oxygen decreases even slightly by a little more than 1 percent to 2 percent, people immediately begin to feel the effects. Healthy individuals are unable to work strenuously and their coordination may be affected in oxygen environments of 15 percent to 19 percent. With the depletion of oxygen to a mix of only 10 percent to 12 percent, respiration increases, lips turn blue and judgment is impaired. Fainting and unconsciousness begin to occur at 8 percent to 10 percent oxygen. Death occurs in 8 minutes at 6 percent to 8 percent oxygen; recovery is possible after 4 to 5 minutes if oxygen is restored. These values are approximate and may vary greatly depending on an individual’s health, physical activity and the specific working environment that they encounter.”
The article goes on to talk about the many reasons that oxygen levels may go lower than 20%, in areas where large amounts of oxygen are being consumed, such as “decomposing organic matter, such as animal, human or plant waste, produces methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide that displace or consume oxygen. Even corrosion, such as rust, or fermentation or other forms of oxidation will consume oxygen and pose a hazard.”

According to WEBMD: “Although they can vary from person to person, the most common hypoxia symptoms are:
Changes in the color of your skin, ranging from blue to cherry red
Confusion
Cough
Fast heart rate
Rapid breathing
Shortness of breath
Sweating
Wheezing
http://www.webmd.com/asthma/guide/hypoxia-hypoxemia
A much more in depth discussion and detailing of the effects of low oxygen levels is explored at Medical News; 
As CO2 Levels Rise, Human Intelligence Drops, Reaction Times Slow, Health Deteriorates; via @AGreenRoad
CHARACTERISTICS OF PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH 2009 PANDEMIC INFLUENZA A(H1N1) AND SEVERE, OXYGEN-REQUIRING PNEUMONIA IN THE TOKYO REGION, 1 SEPTEMBER–31 OCTOBER 2009
Eurosurveillance by M Nishiyama – ‎Related articlesSep 9, 2010  flu and pneumonia in the Tokyo region, patients required oxygen due to hypoxia.

MEASURING OXYGEN LEVEL INSIDE HUMAN BODY

One way to see what the oxygen level is that is actually reaching a person is with a fingertip oxygen
sensor..

“A blood-oxygen monitor displays the percentage of blood that is loaded with oxygen. More specifically, it measures what percentage of hemoglobin, the protein in blood that carries oxygen, is loaded. Acceptable normal ranges for patients without pulmonary pathology are from 95 to 99 percent. For a patient breathing room air at or near sea level, an estimate of arterial pO2 can be made from the blood-oxygen monitor “saturation of peripheral oxygen” (SpO2) reading.”

Pulse oximetry measures solely hemoglobin saturation, not ventilation and is not a complete measure of respiratory sufficiency. It is not a substitute for blood gases checked in a laboratory, because it gives no indication of base deficit, carbon dioxide levels, blood pH, or bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration. The metabolism of oxygen can be readily measured by monitoring expired CO2, but saturation figures give no information about blood oxygen content. Most of the oxygen in the blood is carried by hemoglobin; in severe anemia, the blood will carry less total oxygen, despite the hemoglobin being 100% saturated.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse_oximetry

Benefits Of Hyperbaric Oxygen Chamber; How To Build Your Own; via @AGreenRoad

AMOUNT OF OXYGEN AT INCREASING ALTITUDE

“At sea level there is a pressure equivalent to 10 metres of water pressing down on all of us all the time. This is because of the weight of the air above us in the atmosphere. When you travel up a mountain, there is less air above you in the atmosphere…The important effect of this decrease in pressure is this: in a given volume of air, there are fewer molecules present. This is really just another way of saying that the pressure is lower. (This is called Boyle’s law.) The percentage of those molecules that are oxygen is exactly the same: 21%. The problem is that there are fewer molecules of everything present, including oxygen.”
http://www.altitude.org/air_pressure.php

This source has the same explanation as above, but is a different source; “If you don’t acclimatise properly, you greatly increase your chance of developing altitude sickness, or even worse, HAPE (high altitude pulmonary oedema) or HACE (high altitude cerebral oedema).
http://www.altitude.org/why_less_oxygen.php

Altitude sickness

EXAMPLE OF LOCAL MICRO LOW LEVEL OXYGEN LEVEL EVENTS

Forest fires and CO2 levels are explored via this simple firefighter explanation of the relationship between low oxygen levels and the effect on both fire equipment and the flame machine he is using. As the number and frequency of forest, tundra and desert scrub fires increase, the studies are showing that both CO2 and carbon levels increase, while oxygen levels are decreasing steadily, thus creating a negative tipping point. The danger point for human oxygen levels  is around 19.5% at sea level, which is the OSHA requirement for safe entry into enclosed spaces.

This is also the reason why you don’t want to stay in a house that is on fire. Oxygen levels can drop rapidly. Get out as fast as you can. 

WHAT HAPPENS TO DEEP SEA CREATURES AS CO2 LEVELS KEEP INCREASING?

Ocean absorb ‘excess’ CO2. But as the ocean absorbs more and more acid CO2, what will be the effect on deep sea creatures who also need oxygen to survive? Deep sea levels of oxygen are already very low. As the deep ocean CO2 levels increase, more than likely, the first creatures to experience mass die offs will be the deep sea creatures. What this means is that beach or shallow water sightings of deep sea creatures both alive and dead, will more than likely increase in the future due to their inability to survive in the deep CO2 filled depths of the oceans. Of course, they may just sink into the depths if they don’t get enough oxygen, because this situation of deep ocean dead zones has probably never happened before. Dead zones in the surface areas of the ocean are increasing in both number and size, with over 400 counted in oceans around the world today.

LOW OXYGEN OCEAN WATER STUDIES

Researchers are discovering that ocean oxygen levels are decreasing. The scientist above discusses low oxygen levels and it’s effect on fish and other sea life.

ONE STUDY POINTS FINGER AT MAN MADE RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS THAT INCREASE ACID CONTENT OF SEA WATER

Via VanneV July 31, 2014 “There is a problem, all right…The main cause of increased acidity of sea water is radioactivity from all the nuclear waste dumped into the oceans, nuclear-powered ships passing through the water, and fallout falling into the water from all the things the nuclear industry and armed forces of the nuclear-armed nations are doing, including the use of radioactive ammunition in wars around the world and for target practice at home.
“It has been known since the early 1950s that radioactivity in high concentrations makes water acidic.
Posted by Joel Carlinsky on 22 Nov 2011
Low Dose Radiation, CO2 Causing Oxygen Depletion Globally, Killing Trees, Corals, Fish, Algae; Hyperbaric Oxygen As A Solution; via @AGreenRoad

WHAT IS CAUSING THE GLOBAL DROP IN OXYGEN LEVELS AND MORE ACIDIC OCEANS? 

There are many causes for the drop in oxygen and the rise in CO2 globally, which are explored via the links below.

2014 – List of 45+ Negative Global Tipping Points; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/04/2014-list-of-45-global-tipping-points.html

Acid Oceans; Why Should We Care? via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/06/acid-oceans-why-should-we-care.html

Acid Test; The Global Challenge Of Ocean Acidification; via A Green Road
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/06/acid-test-global-challenge-of-ocean.html

The Mystery Of Becoming Immortal – Sting Where Is Thy Death? via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/09/the-mystery-of-becoming-immortal-sting.html

SUMMARY

Oxygen is vital for life on Earth. Burning carbon fuels in ever increasing amounts, and emitting radioactive materials that kill oxygen producing plants is like committing slow motion suicide. As carbon dioxide levels rise, acid levels rise as well, both inside and outside living creatures. Oxygen creates alkaline conditions, both inside and outside. As CO2 levels rise inside of human beings, acid loving diseases, viruses and bacteria that need an acid environment tend to thrive.

Humanity needs to focus on reversing this unsustainable negative downward trend and find solutions that will work for 7 future generations, without causing harm. The answers are all here. Click on the link below to access articles that detail solutions to our planetary crisis.

Holistic Living, Health, Self-Healing, Environment And Renewable Energy

All that is needed is the will and setting a goal to turn this around. It would be a shame to let just a few people (1%) slam the whole planet into a brick wall.  

End

Global Oxygen Levels Are Dropping In Major Cities And Oceans, From A High Of 35% In Geological History; How To Measure Oxygen Levels In Air Yourself 
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/08/global-oxygen-levels-are-dropping-to-as.html


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